US 294832 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
2 SheetsSheet 2.
F. F. WICHARD.
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N PETERS Plwwunm n hur, Washington, D. C.
Unirnn STATES PATENT Grinch.
FRANK F. XVICHARD, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No.'294,ee2, dated March 11, 18 84.
Application filed August 10, 1833. (No model.)
To all whom, it may concern/.-
Be it known that I, FRANK F. WIoHARD, a citizen of the United States, residing at St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Citherns, of which the following is a specification.
In the customary way of fastening the strin gs of instruments of this kind one end is tied or otherwise secured to wire pins situatedin the tail-block at the rear end of the body or shell, then passed over a solid bridge at the top and rear edge of said shell, and stretched longitudinally over the instrument and fastened to the tuning-pins in the head-block of the in strument. In this mode the entire strain of the strings must be withstood by the shell or body, which, in its construction, is therefore made very strong and heavy, which added strength and weight at this part of the instrument destroys the perfect resonant action of the same, and gives the instrument a weak, indistinct, and imperfect sound or tone.
The chief object of my invention is to over come this defect by relieving the shell or body from all strain of the strings, and so that it will be free to act, and be sensitive to all vibrations of sound, and have the proper resonance and a clear, loud, and full tone. 4
Myimprovements consist, first, in strengthening the neck of the instrument at the sides, and lightening the shell or body, and in the new and novel manner of transferring the strain of the strings to the neck by means of a pair of braces secured to said neck and to a stringplate, which they hold above the top shell and free from contact with the same; second, in the manner of adjusting the stringplate to the shell or body and bracing same third, in the manner of adjusting the five fret strings to the finger-board by means of an improved adjustable bridge for each string; lastly, in the construction of detail parts, all of which will be fully described.
In the drawings, Sheet 1, Figure 1 is a top plan of the instrument. Fig. 2 is a top plan of the frame or skeleton of the instrument. Fig. 3 is a section 011 line a" 00 of Fig. 1, and on an enlarged scale. Sheet 2, Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the body of the instrument, showing the braces and string plate alone. Figs. 5 is a cross-section on line Y Y of Fig.
1. Fig. 6 is a detail perspective and sectional view of the string-plate cover. Fig. 7 is a detail perspective view of the wire-bridge.- Fig. 8 is alike view of the adjustable bridge.
A A is the shell or body of the instrument, which may have the represented or other ens-- tomary form. B is the neck. 0 is the headblock for the tuning-pins c. D is the fret or finger board. D is the sound-hole. All of these parts may beef and in the customary shape and positions. The frame of the neck B is strengthened by being made heavy on both sides at b b, for the purpose of receiving the strain of all the strings. (See Fig. 2.) To these sides of the neck are secured steel braces G and O by means of bolts or screws b (See Fig. 1.) These braces extend back and over the top shell or body, A, to a point in line transversely with about the middle of same, and are riveted, soldered, or otherwise fast: ened to the ends of a string-plate, E, which they hold between them. These braces G (3 are bent up at 0, so that they are free of the shell or body, and the string-plate is thus held suspended over said shell, as shown in Figs. 3, 4, and 5. To prevent the braces from being drawn up, and the string-plate from tipping or being pulled off when the strings are stretched, and the entirestrain brought to bear on these parts, and to insure safety as well as surety in maintenance of tune, the string-plate is held in position by means of the screws 6, which pass through the same and enter the wood cross-brace E, which is situated inside the instrument, extending across from side to side directly underneath and parallel with the string-plate, and is held down and in position by blocks e, glued to the insides of the frame of the shell.
6 is awasher or collar, held by pins or otherwise to or forming part of the neck of the screw, to hold the plate rigid and firm.
e are holes in the top shell or soundingboard,to allow the screws to pass throngh,and are made large enough to prevent the screws from coming in contact with said top shell.
F is a cover or guard for the strings, andis fastened by means of screwsf or the like to the top of the'string-plate, (see Figs. 1 and 2,) and may be provided with grooves or spaces f, for the passage of one or more strings, and the solid portions or feet f, for .resting on the string-plate, as well as to add strength and body for the screws. (See Figs. 3 and 6.)
G is a solid bridge glued to the top shell or body directly in front of the stringplate.
g is a metal plate, fastened to the bridge G by screws g is a cross-brace underneath the top shell and under the bridge, for relieving the shell from all pressure of the strings. The plate 9 is L-shaped, and the upright portion is provided with small holes accurately spaced for the strings,' and acts as a guide for the same, and is made very light, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8. On the horizontal portion is laid a wire, 9", flattened on its under side, and over this wire the strings a pass after leaving the guide. The guide-holes are lower than the top of the wire, thereby causing the strings to be firmly held and bent down over said wire, and preventing said strings from slipping or rattling when used.
H are adjustable screws, one of which is directly under each fret-string, which latter it supports and regulates or adjusts to the height required to suit the fret or finger board D. These screws are held by the L-shaped plate 1, (see Fig. 8,) and in line with the half-wire g". (See Fig. 1.) The upper end of the screw H is flattened, and forms astraight edge, h, on
its top, for the strings to rest 011, and is raised or lowered by a key, which fits the flattened end, thus forming an adjustable bridge for said strings.
Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim is 1. In a cithern, the braces G O and string plate E, in combination with the neck 13 and shell A, as herein shown and described, and for the purpose set forth.
2. In a cithern, the braces C C and stringplatc E, in combination with the brace E, screws 0, and shell A, as and for the purpose set forth.
8. The combination of the braces C U, string-plate E, brace E, cover F, strings c, and body or shell A, all constructed and arranged as shown and described, and for the purpose set forth.
l. The screw l-I, having flattened end and straight edge h, in combination with the guideplate 9, to form an adj usta-ble bridge, as herein shown and described, and for the purpose set forth.
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