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Publication numberUS2949014 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 16, 1960
Filing dateJun 2, 1958
Priority dateJun 2, 1958
Publication numberUS 2949014 A, US 2949014A, US-A-2949014, US2949014 A, US2949014A
InventorsJr Joseph F Belton, Swerbinsky Leo
Original AssigneeWhirlpool Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Thermoelectric air conditioning apparatus
US 2949014 A
Images(7)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Augl. 16, 1960 J.-r". BELToN, JR., ETAL 949914 THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Aug. 16, 1960 J. F. BELTON, JR., ETAL 2.949,014

v r THERMOELECTRIC lAIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed June 2. 195e 7 Sheets-Sheet 2- FILTER Aug. 16, 1960 .1. F. BELTON, JR., :TAL 2,949,014

THERNoELEcIRIc AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed June 2, 1958 7 sheets-sheet s l -JQ w IN@ N US- 16, 1960 J. F. BELToN, JR., ETAL 2,949,014

IHERMOELECIRIC AIR CONDITIONING' APPARATUS I Filed June 2, 1952i:v

162 155 1550, v155'- *-J fg' i 4 a ffl/lll INV ENTORS .Augrl 1960 J. F. BELTON, JR., ETAL 2,949,014

THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS med June 2. 195s 7 sneefs-sheet 6 166 5 jjj WW' @s Allg- 16, 1960 J. F. Bl-:LroNQJ-R., Erm. I 2,949,014

THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Y Filed June 2, 1958 7 vSheets-Sheet 7 Und States .g are t 2,949,014 y*rrmRMoELl-zCrRrCA111' CoNDITIoNING p APPARATUS Joseph F. Belton, Jr., and Leo Swerbinsky, St. Joseph,

Mich., assignors to Whirlpool Corporation, a corporation of Delaware.

' Filed June 2, 1958, Ser. No. 769,045

'29 Claims. (Cl. 62-3) This invention relates to refrigerating apparatus and particularly to thermoelectric refrigerating apparatus that can be used for cooling and for heating a desired space such as a room.

The invention here is primarily concerned with air conditioning a space. 1It employs a pair of thermocouple structures and associated parts with both structures having a pair of spaced sets of thermocouple junctions, one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when thermoelectric current (normally a direct current) is passed through these sets in one direction, but with these thermal conditions being reversed when the current is passed in the opposite direction. Means are provided for exposing one set, a cold set when cooling air conditioning is desired, of the junctions of the rst thermocouple structure in radiant heat transfer relationship with the space being conditioned. This radiant cooling serves to absorb sensible heat from the space. When the direction of the electric current llow is reversed, the hot set of junctions will, of course, cause radiant heating in the space. Means are also provided for thermally contacting air from the space in heat exchange relationship with one set, the cold set when cooling is desired, of junctions of the second thermocouple structure, in order to remove latent heat and humidity from the room. In addition, the room air during this circulation is preferably filtered.

One ofthe features of this invention, therefore, is to provide such an improved refrigerating apparatus employing banks of thermocouples with one bank of couples being in radiant heat transfer relationship to the `space and a second bank being arranged to permit the circulation of the air thereover in combination with auxiliary apparatus for ltering and removing moisture from the air in the space. Thus, when cooling is desired, the first bank will provide radiant cooling while the second bank and its associated structure will cool, remove latent heat and and remove moisture to dehumidify the air.

Another feature of the invention is to provide improved thermoelectric radiant panels for heating or coolmg.

A further feature of the invention is to provide an limproved yapparatus including a thermoelectric structure for removing latent heat and moisture from air circulated therethrough.

Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description of certain embodiments thereof.

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of an air conditioning system for a room.

Fig. 2 is a lview similar to Fig. 1 showing a second embodiment of an air conditioning system.

Fig. 3 is a semi-diagrammatic view of an apparatus for filtering, cooling and dehumidifying Fig. 4 is a semi-diagrammatic view of a second embodiment of a dehumidifying and cooling apparatus.

Fig. 5 is a similar view showinga third embodiment of such an apparatus.

Fig. 6 lis a similar view showing a fourth embodiment of such an apparatus.

Fig. 7 is a plan view partially broken away for clarity of illustration of a radiant panel usable for cooling or for heating, as desired.

Fig. 8 is a side elevational view of the panel.

Fig. 9 is a bottom view of the panel partially broken away for clarity of illustration.

Fig. 10 is a fragmentary sectional View taken substantially along line 10-10 of Fig. 7.

Fig. 1.1 is a fragmentary plan View taken substantially along line 11-11 of Fig. 10.

Fig. 12 is a fragmentary sectional view taken substantially along line 12-12 of Fig. 7 but omitting detailed views of the junctions.

Fig. 13 is a plan View partially broken away for clarity of illustration of a second embodiment of a panel.

Fig. 14 is a sectional view taken substantially along line 14-.14 of Fig. 13.

Fig. 15 is a sectional view taken substantially along line 15-15 of Fig. 14.

Fig. 16 is a plan view of a third embodiment of a panel showing only the water cooling lines or piping in detail.

Fig. 17 is a sectional View taken substantially along line 17-17 of Fig. 16 but omitting the water lines.

Fig. 18 is a view similar to Fig. 17 but showing a fourth embodiment of a panel.

Fig. 19 is a diagrammatic view of one embodiment of `a water cooling system for the hot junctions of the panels of Figs. 16 to 18, inclusive.

Fig. 2O is a view similar to Fig. 19'but showing a second embodiment of `such a water cooling system.

As pointed out above, the air conditioning apparatus here employs a plurality of sets of thermocouples to produce a cooling or a heating effect, dependent upon the direction of ow of the thermoelectric current. Typical thermoelectric structures operating on the well known Peltier effect are shown yand described in the form of panels in the co-pending application of M. K. Baer, Jr. and C. R. Lopp, entitled Refrigerating Apparatus, Serial No. 735,804, filed May 16, 1958. As is pointed out there,

each thermocouple structure employs a plurality of pairs of `dissimilar thermoelectric elements connected in electrical series by a connection including junctions Iwith all of the cold junctions being located in one set and all of the hot junctions located in another set with the two sets beingspaced apart. When the thermoelectric current flows in one direction one set of junctions Voperateas cold junctions. When the direction of this current is reversed, the former cold junctions operate as hot junctions while the for-mer hot junctions operate as cold junctions. These are Well known effects widely described in the published literature.

Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically a system for cooling4 or heating the air in a room 21. 'Ihe construction and operation of the air conditioning system will be described for cooling the room. Itis of course understood that it is only necessary to reverse the direction of thermoelectric current in order to produce aheating effect.

The ceiling of the room is provided with radiant panels 22 of which typical embodiments will be described in detail hereinafter. The interior 23 of the panels is hollow in order to provide air ow passages. Means are provided at the top 22a of the panel to permit the air from the interior passage 23 to pass into the attic 24 or other space adjacent to and preferably above the room 21. Also located above the room 21 is a unit 25 for dehumidi- -fying, cooling and filtering air drawn from the room and then passed back intovthe room in a continuous circulation. Typical embodiments of such a unit will be de` scribed hereinafter.

VAtthe same time the blower 65 is drawing air through the other air flow path 49. Here the air ows in the inlet 63, through the filter 62a and over and around the iins 60 for cooling the hot junctions 58. The thusly heated air then passes down through the portion of the desiccant bed 45 in the air path 49 where the heated air removes moisture from the desiccant in a reactivation step. As the motor 46 rotates in bed 45 the one side of the bed removes moisture from the circulated room air while the other side of the bed is being reactivated by the heated outside air that has been passed over the hot junction ns 60.

Although the air in the path 49 heated by the hot junctions 58 and tins 60 will ordinarily be suciently hot to reactivaterthe desiccant bed 45, additional heat may be supplied to this air if desired as by means of an auxiliary electric heating element (not shown).

In the embodiment shown in Fig. 4 a thermoelectric structure 66 is provided similar to the structure 51 of the embodiment of Fig. 3. The structure is provided with cold junctions 67having outwardly extending iins 68. The other side of the thermoelectn'c structure is similarly provided with hot junctions 69 and attached tins 70. The entire structure is surrounded by a housing 71 to provide a pair of air paths 72 and 73 separated from each other by the thermoelectric structure 66. The sides of the structure 66, including the junctions 67 and 69 and the ns 68 and 70, are provided with an adhered coating of desiccant 74. This desiccant, like that in the bed 45 of the Fig. 3 embodiment, may be silica gel, activated alumina -or any of a large number of well known desiccants. In'this embodiment the desiccant is adhered to the thermoelectric structure parts so as to be closely bound thereto in the well known manner.

In operation air is drawn from the room through a conduit 75 and filter 76 by means ofva blower 77. This air is then forced through one side of a rotatable fourway valve 78 into the bottom of the air path portion 72 of the housing 71. As this humid air from the room passes up the path 72 in contact with the adhered desiccant 74 the desiccant absorbs moisture from the air. The air is simultaneously cooled by the cold plates so that the latent heat is absorbed at no increase in temperature. The room air then passes out the top of the airl passage 72 through a conduit 79 by way of another four-way valve 80 and is conveyed back into the room.

v,During the above described operation outside air is drawn in through an upper conduit 81 and lter S2 and is directed by means of the upper four-way valve 80 into the top of the air path portion 73. Here it passes downwardly in contact with the desiccant coating on the hot junctions 69 and associated ns 70.

After the desiccant 74 in the air path 72 has become substantially `saturated with moisture, the direction of direct current flow through the thermocouple structure 66 is reversed so that the cold junctions 67 become hot junctions and the hot junctions 69 become cold junctions. The four-way valves 78 and 80 are then reversed so that room air in the inlet conduit 75 is directed upwardly through the path 73 and out the exit conduit 79. Similarly, outside cooling air is directed from the inlet conduit 81 through the air path 72 to remove moisture from the desiccant 74 in this path and is then directed back to the outside through the exit conduit 83.

In the embodiment of Fig. a pair of desiccant beds 85 and 86 are provided Iso that one bed is being employed 'for absorbing moisture vwhile the other bed is being reactivated. In this embodiment humid air from the room is led through a conduit 87 and a blower 88 by way of a lter 89 through one side of a four-way valve 90 into a conduit 91 leading to the bottom of the rst desiccant bed 85. From the bed S5 the ltered and dried air is passed through a conduit 92 and one side of a second four-way valve 93 into a conduit 94 leading to `one side of a casing 95. This casing'95 is divided centrally by means of'a thermoelectric structure 96similar to the previously described structure 51 in the embodiment in Fig. 3. The air passes downwardly in a path 97 on onek side of thestructure 96 and contacts cold junctions 98 and associated ns 99. From the bottom of the casing the filtered, dried and cooled air passes through a conduit 100 back into the room.

At the same time air is drawn through an inlet conduit 101 trom the outside and passed through a i1ter'102 into the Vbottom of the air path 103 yin thecasing 95 on the other side of the thermoelectric structure 96. As the air here passes upwardly it is heated by contact with the hot junctions 104 and yassociated fins 105. The heatedV air then passes upwardly through conduit 106 and four-way valve 93 to conduit 107 Where it is directed into the top of the second desiccant bed 86. The air which has thus been heated bythe hot junctions passes down through the bed S6 to remove moisture therefrom and reactivate this bed. From the bottom of the bed 86 the heated moisture-laden air passes through conduit 108, four-way valve 90 and blower 109 back into the atmosphere.

When the bed 85 )becomes substantially saturated with moisture and the bed 86' has been thusly reactivated, the positions of the valves 90 and 93 Aare reversed so that the room 'air from blower 88 is directed intoV conduit 108 and up through reactivated bed 86. From there the dried air passes through conduits 107 and 94 down into the cold air path 97 and out the conduit 100 into the room. At the same time air from the hot air path 103 is directed through conduits 106 and 92 downwardly through bed 85 and back to the outside by Away of conduit91 and blower 109.

In the embodiment shown `in Fig. 6, three thermoelectric structures 110 are provided, each similar to the ther'- rnoelectric structure 51 previously described in detail and -all connected in electrical series by connecting leads 110a. AV pair of hot air paths 111 and 112 and a pair of cold air paths 113 and 114 are provided. The arrangement of junctions and associated iins in these paths is essentially the same as that descn'bedin the embodiment shown inFig. 3 in connection with the thermoelectric structure 51.

Moist room airis drawn through the conduit 115 and filter 116, through conduit 117 Vand branches 118 into the top of cold air chambers 113 and 114. The room air passes downwardly through the cold air paths, being cooled by the cold junctions and associated fins and then passes through a bottom conduit 119 and a blower 120 back-into the room by wayof a conduit'121. A by-pass conduit 122 is provided extending between the upper conduit 117 and the lower conduit 119 to permit blending room air Iby means of a mixer 123 of conventional design Iwith chilled room air in the conduit 119 before blowing the mixture back into the room. This mixing is optional and may be done aswdesired in the proportions desired. Y

During-the operation of the apparatus outside room air is drawn-through a conduit 124, lter 125 and blo'wer 126-into lower conduit `127. From this conduit the air passes upwardly by way of branches 128 into the bottom of the hot air paths -111 and 112. This air serves to cool the hot junctions and ns in these paths and passes out- -wardly through conduit 129 back into the atmosphere. As can be seen from Fig. 6, the air in the hot air paths 1111 and 112 passes countercurrently with the air in the cold air paths 113 and 114. This serves to keep the temperature differences across the thermoelectric structure 110 approximately constant `at all points, thereby assuring substantially uniform performance of each thermoelement in each thermoelectric structure. Y

As the air from the room passes down through the cold air paths 113 `and 114, moisture condenses on the cold junctions and cold ns in these paths and drips down to collect in moisture traps 130. This moisture, is dra/Wn oit through lines 131 and 132 to a pump 133. 'The moisture from the pump then flows upwardly through line 134 shown in Figs. 16 and 17. Here,j however, aperforated panel 169 is provided on theA room side of the air chamber 179 so that air may -pass through the perforated panel into the room.

Figure 19 illustrates a source of water for cooling the hot` junctions of the panels, Figures 16, 17 and 18, when these panels are used for radiant cooling. Here, there is provided a cooling tower 171 provided with a sump 172 adapted to contain a body of water 173. Water is circulated by means of a pump 174 through the pipes 167 and through a length of pipe 175 immersed in the water 173 through a continuous path. In order to disspipate the heat absorbed by the` body of water 173 this water is circulated by means of a pipe 176 and a pump 1,77 into a series of spray nozzles 178 above the Water 1,7 3 in the cooling tower 171. In order to further aid the cooling effect, a motor driven fan 179 blows air through the sprays 180 of water with the air owing through a series of baflles 181 and then out an exhaust 182 from the tower 171. There will, of course, be a certain amount of evaporation of water in this system so that means including a pipe 183 are provided for supplying makeup water.

The second embodiment of such a cooling water system is shown in Figure 20. The system here is essentially the same as that shown in Figure 19 except that here the heat exchange pipe 175 is located in a heat exchanger 184 where the pipe is in heat transfer relationship with a piping system including pipes 1854 lthrough which water 186 is, circulated from a deep well 187 or the like by means ofa pump 188.

As has been pointed out herein, the air conditioning system of this invention employs radiant panels which may be used as cooling panels for absorbing sensible heat or may be used as radiant heating panels depending upon the direction of current flow through these panels. The system also uses thennoelectric structures for cooling and dehumidifying the air to remove latent heat and also 'includes means for ltering and removing moisture; In certain embodiments this moisture is the cold portion of the thermoelectric structure. Such a system has been found easier to control to give the desired temperature, humidity and other comfort factors and may also be easily converted for heating during the cool seasons of the year. The system includes thermoelectric radiant panels lof improved construction and also includes the improved units for liltering and removing latent heat and moisture.

Having described our invention as related to the embodiments set out herein, it is our intention that the invention be not limited by any of the details of description, unless otherwise specied, but rather be construed broadly Within its spirit and scope asset out in the accompanying claims.

We claim:

1. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a iirst thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is h'ot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; a second thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions ybeing reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; means exposing said one set of junctions of said irst structure in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and means' for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set tof junctions of said second structure.

2. The yapparatus of claim 1 wherein said one set of the iirst structure is located at the top of said space and facing the space.

3. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein means are provided for circulating air from outside said space in thermal conducting relationship with said other sets.

. 4. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a iirst thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; a second thermocouple structure having la pair of spaced sets of junctions one o-f Whichis cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal yconditions being reversed when said current is passed inl the opposite` direction; moisture absorbingV apparatus; means exposing said one set of junctions of said iirst structure in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and means for circulating air from -said space in moisture absorbing contact with said moisture absorbing apparatus and in thermal contact with the one set of junctions of said second structure.

5,. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a rst thermocouple structure having aV pair of spaced sets of' junctions one of Which is c old and the other yof which is hot when direct current is` passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed WhenV said current is passed in the opposite direction; a second thermocouple structure having Ia pair of spaced sets of junctions one ofpwhich is coldl and the other of which is hot when :direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; moisture absorbing apparatus; means exposing said one set of junctions ofsaid iirst structure in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; means for circulating air from said space in moisture absorbing contact with said moisture absorbing apparatus and in thermal contact with the one set of junctions of said second structure; and apparatus utilizing the heat from at least one of said sets of hot junctions for regenerating and driving moisture from said moisture absorbing apparatus.

6. The air conditioning apparatus of claim 5 wherein said moisture absorbing apparatus is in at least two portions, with means for alternately regenerating one portion while the other portion is, being utilized for said moisture absorbing.

7. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in `a space, comprising: a first thermocouple structure having a pair of `spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; a second thermocouple structure having' a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when `direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current` is passed in the opposite direction;v means exposing said one set of junctions of said first structure in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set of junctions of said second structure; means for collecting the condensate from the cold junctions of the second structure; and means for transferring the condensate to the set of hot junctions for cooling the same.

8. Air conditioning -apparatus for-'conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a rst thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being 'reversed' when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of'junctions including substantially at, substantially coplanar, heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of theA panel;

a second thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets in one direction, these thermal'conditions being're-A versed'when said current is passed in ,the opposite direc-` tion; means exposing said one setof junctions of said panel in radiant heat transfer rel-ationship with said space; and means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set of junctions of said structure.

9. The apparatus of claim 8 wherein means are provided forming a fluid passage in said panel for the cooling and Ventilating of said hot junctions.

10. Air conditioning apparatus for Yconditioning the air in a space, comprising: a first thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and theother of whichV is -hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions lbeing reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including substantially flat, ,substantially coplanar, heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel, the other set of junctions lbeing spaced from the one set to provide an internal passage for heat transfer fluid; a second thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being` reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; means exposing said one set of junctions of said rst panel in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with :said one set of junctions of said structure.

11. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein at least someV of said second set of junctions of the panel contain openings therethrough -for the passage of said uid.

12. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a first thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including substantially flat, substantially coplanar, heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel, the other set of junctions being spaced from the one set to provide a hollow space for heat transfer iiuid, the

other set of junctions containing 'a plurality of openings communicating with said hollow space -for the passage of said fluid; asecond thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, 'these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; means exposing said one set of junctions of said rst panel in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and rneans for thermally contacting air `from said space in heat transfer relationship Withsaid one set of junctions of said second structure.

13. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a first thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions includingsubstantially a-t, substantiallyrcoplanar, heat transfer members exposed on one surface of the panel; a housing surrounding said other set of junctions for heat transfer uid having a duid inlet and outlet; a second thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold yandthe other of which is hot when direct current ispassed through said sets in Vone direction, these thermal' conditions being'V reversed when said` crrentis passed in` the 'opposite direction; means exl2 posing said one set of junctions of said rst panel in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set of junctions of said second structure.

14. The apparatus of claim 13 wherein said second set of junctions of the panel are provided with heat conducting ns arranged and aligned to provide an elongated iiuid path over said second set of junctions of the panel.

15 Air conditioning apparatus for iconditioning the air in a space, comprising: a first thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the'one set of junctions including substantially flat, substantially coplanar, heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel; a panel support for said junctions spaced `from said one set of junctions of the panel to provide an air chamber ,'therearound communicating with said space; a second .thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; means exposing said one set of junctions of said first panel in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set of junctions of said second structure.

16. Heat transfer apparatus, comprising: a thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold andthe other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including substantially flat, substantially coplanar, heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel, the other set of junctions being spaced from the one set to provide a hollow space for heat transfer fluid, the other set of junctions having a plural-ity of openings associated therewith communicating with said hollow space for the passage of said fluid.

17. Heat transfer apparatus, comprising: a thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is'passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including substantially dat, substantially coplanar, heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel; and a support for said one set of junctions maintaining said one set spaced from said other set of junctions of the panel to provide an air chamber therearound.

18. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a rst thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; a second ihermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; means exposing said one set of junctions of said first structure in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set of junctions of said second structure; and means for thermally contacting heat exchange iiuid with said other set of junctions of at least one of said rst and second thermocouple structures.

19. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a rst thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of ywhich is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, 'the one set of junctions including heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel; a second thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; means exposing said one set of junctions of said first panel in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set of junctions of said second structure.

20. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a rst thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel; means providing a uid .passage in said panel for heat transfer uid; a second thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced Sets of junctions one of which is cold and `the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; means exposing said one set of junctions of said rst panel in radiant heat transfer relationship with said space; and means for thermally contacting air from said space in heat transfer relationship with said one set of junctions of said second structure.

21. The apparatus of claim 20 wherein at least some of said other set of junctions of the panel contain openings therethrough communicating with said lluid passage.

22. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a thermocouple structure having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction; moisture absorbing `apparatus having rst and second portions; means for circulating air from said space in moisture absorbing contact with said rst portion and in thermal contact with said one set of junctions; means for circulating drying fluid in moisture removing contact with said second portion and in thermal contact with said other set of junctions; and means for reversing said iirst and second portions when said iirst portion is relatively moist and said second portion is relatively dry.

23. The apparatus of claim 22 wherein said iirst portion is normally upstream from said one set and the second portion is normally downstream from said other set.

24. The apparatus of claim 22 wherein said iirst porrtion is in direct contact with said one set and the second portion is in direct contact with said other set.

25. Heat transfer apparatus, comprising: a thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direc- 14 tion, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel; and a housing surrounding said other set of junctions for heat transfer lluid having a uid inlet and outlet, said other set of junctions being provided with heat conducting members in thermal contact therewith at least some of which are aligned to provide an elongated fluid path for heat transfer fluid.

26. The apparatus of claim 25 wherein said heat conducting members are flat with a plurality thereof arranged in rows providing a .plurality of said paths.

27. Air conditioning apparatus for conditioning the air in a space, comprising: a iirst thermocouple panel having `a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel; `and an outer surface member including said heat transfer members spaced from said other set of junctions to provide a chamber, the surface member being provided with a plurality of openings communicating with said chamber and with the air in said space.

28. Heat transfer apparatus, comprising: a thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including substantially at, substantially coplanar, heat transfer members exposed on one surface of the panel; and a housing surrounding said other set of junctions for heat transfer fluid having a uid inlet and outlet, said other set of junctions of the panel being provided with heat conducting iins at least some of which are aligned to provide an elongated fluid path over said other set of junctions of the panel.

29. Heat transfer apparatus, comprising: a thermocouple panel having a pair of spaced sets of junctions one of which is cold and the other of which is hot when direct current is passed through said sets in one direction, these thermal conditions being reversed when said current is passed in the opposite direction, the one set of junctions including heat transfer members thermally exposed on one surface of the panel; and means providing a iluid passage in said panel for heat transfer fluid, at least some of said other set of junctions of the panel contain openings through said junctions communicating with said fluid passage.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Aug. 16, 1960 l. L. JOY 2,949,028

APPARATUS FOR ULTRASONIC MATERIALS TESTING Filed Nov. 3, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Q 747m, @ma ad

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Classifications
U.S. Classification62/3.2, 62/434, 62/333, 62/305, 62/3.3, 136/225, 136/209, 62/279, 136/204, 62/DIG.100
International ClassificationF24F5/00, F25B21/02
Cooperative ClassificationF25B2321/0251, F24F5/0042, F25B21/02, Y10S62/01
European ClassificationF24F5/00D, F25B21/02