US 2949807 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1960 A. G. HERZOG ETAL 2,949,807
FISHING NET OR THE LIKE MADE OF BRAIDED PLASTIC FILAMENTS I Filed Aug. 27. 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR5 August Guniher Her-20 Hun: Fr,ied.cr,izh Halthewwr Carl He'nz Reusswer /on/no a/nd. K
1960 A. e. HERZOG ETAL 2,949,807
FISHING NET OR THE LIKE MADE OF BRAIDED PLASTIC FILAMENTS Filed Aug. 27, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORB August (nmther Herzog Hans Friedench Kaltheungr Curl He inz. Reussner u /0mm) ATTORNEYS 2,949,807 FISHING NET OR THE LIKE MADE OF BRAIDED PLASTIC FILAMENTS August Giinther Herzog, Ofenerdiek, Oldenburg, Hans- Friedrich Kaltheuner, Hamburg, and Carl-Heinz Reussner, Koln-Mulheim, Germany, assignors of onehalf to said Herzog and one-half to Farbenfabriken Bayer Aktiengesellschaft, Leverkusen, Germany, a corporation of Germany Filed Aug. 27, 1958, Serial No. 757,626 Claims priority, application Germany Sept. 2, 1957 2 Claims. (Cl. 87-8) This invention is directed to an improved net construction. In a preferred embodiment it is directed to an improved fishing net prepared from synthetic resin filaments, for example polyamide filaments which have been plaited into a soutache braid, which may be further strengthened by the inclusion of reinforcing yarns which extend longitudinally through the soutache braid.
Hitherto, fishing nets have generally been made of twisted hemp and cotton yarns. These nets are subjected to very strong mechanical stresses, weather influences and the like, so that they have to be repaired or even re States Patent M placed within a short time. Instead of these yarns which have a short effective life, synthetic resin filaments and particularly polyamide filaments have been used for making net yarns and nets; these synthetic filaments were originally twisted, but recent developments have resulted in the filaments being braided on round braiding machines to form so-called net yarns. The braided net yarns commercially used are composed of 6, 8, 12, or 16 braided filaments; correspondingly round braiding machines having 6, 8, 12, or 16 lacers or bobbins are used for this purpose.
The production capacity of such round braiding machines is very low and uneconomic, especially as compared with the machines which produce twisted yarns. The braided net yarns also have a tensile strength which is but slightly greater than that of twisted yarns. On the other hand, as compared with the twisted yarns, the braided yarns have the special advantage that they can be knotted better to form nets, so that the braided yarns would certainly be preferred if they could be manufactured more quickly and more economically than hitherto and if tensile strength could be increased without increasing the number of filaments in the yarn (same yarn numbers).
In order to obtain these advantages, it is the object of this invention to process the synthetic resin filaments on soutache braiders which form soutache braids having two or three zones of longitudinal ridges where the filaments cross over one another. For this purpose, it is possible to use soutache braiding machines with 3, 5, or 7 spool-carriers, in which case the same yarn numbers as were formerly distributed over 6, 8, 12, or 16 lacers of a round braiding machine are now used on 3, 5, or 7 lacers of a soutache braider. Instead of soutache braiders, it is also possible to use braiding machines which produce braids having three longitudinal ridges, i.e. the so called President braids. Such president braiding machines are, for example, provided with 4 or 5 lacers.
As compared with the round braids formerly employed, such president braids have the advantage that the machines used are considerably cheaper than the round braiding machines because of their design, construction and space requirements as well as operation. Above all, the production capacity of such soutache braiders or the like is substantially higher than that of round braiding machines. The braid produced thereon is better suited for knotting the nets or the like than the round 2,949,807 Patented Aug. 23, I960 braids, and simultaneously the tensile strength of such yarns is higher than that of round braids with the same yarn numbers.
This increased tensile strength is particularly important for the braids of this invention. It is known that fibers made of polyamide and the like have their highest tensile strength in the condition in which they are produced, i.e. with their longitudinal axes disposed in the position as manufactured. In this condition, a particularly favorable union or orientation of the molecules of the material is obtained. This orientation of the molecules is, however, changed if the fibers are displaced from the original direction of their longitudinal axis, the change being greater as the fibers are displaced further from such axis. When material is twisted, it is constantly wound helically around its neutral axis, so that there is a considerable displacement of molecules. This is also the case with round braids. However, with a soutache braid the individual fibers of the braid are displaced from their mean axis to a considerably smaller extent than with round braids.
It is clear from this that the essential purpose of a soutache braid plaited from three filaments is only to combine a certain quantity of fibers, the number and strength of which are to be chosen according to requirements, in such a way that such a braid can be used, for example, for knotting a net or the like. The result of using this method of yarn-making is that there is a minimum degree of deviation from the longitudinal axis of the fibers. This explains why a particular favorable tensile strength is obtained when braids of synthetic resin filaments which are processed on a soutache braider or the like are used. Such soutache braids are particularly suitable for use in cases in which high mechanical stressing occurs.
Nets made of synthetic resin filaments have the disadvantage that they cannot be treated satisfactorily with impregnating agents, for example tar, bitumen or the like. In addition to protecting the filaments, this impregnation provides the nets with a better feel in the hands of the fisherman. Moreover, for technical reasons which arise in connection with fishing, it is also necessary for the net to have a certain degree of stiffness or rigidity, so that it unfolds correctly when cast and does not easily become tangled by the effects of the wind and waves because of lack of resistance. The danger of insufficient unfolding or of entanglement is particularly high with polyamide nets, because these nets are lighter in weight than nets made of hemp and cotton.
In order to obviate these disadvantages, it is further proposed in connection with the braids manufactured on soutache braiders to employ one or more filler filaments in one or more longitudinal ridges, these filaments consisting of any desired natural or synthetic fiber material, preferably of spun glass fibers. Due to the use of these longitudinal inserts, the soutache braided and president net yarns are given a particularly good feel and rigidity and a somewhat higher weight, whereby the casting of the nets is facilitated.
Various braids in accordance with the invention are shown in Figures 1 to 3. Figure 4 shows a section of a net constructed of a soutache braided yarn.
Figure 1 shows a soutache braid plaited from three polyamide filaments Al, A2 and A3. This braid contains two filler filaments B1 and B2, which are made of spun glass fibers. Filaments B1 and B2 are arranged in longitudinal ridges C1 and C2 respectively which are indicated by interrupted lines; the tops or highest points of these ridges are spaced at regular intervals and a portion of these are designated by ellipsc T1 and T2.
Figure 2 shows a soutache braid plaited from four polyamide filaments A4, A5, A6, and A7. It is indicated in this embodiment example that, for example, two filaments made of spun glass fibers B3 are arranged in one longitudinal ridge C3 of the braid, while a reinforcing filament B4 is arranged in the .other longitudinal ridge C4. A portion of the tops or highest points of ridges C3 and C4 are indicated by ellipses T3 and T4 respectively.
Figure 3 illustrates a president braid plaited from five filaments, i.e. the synthetic resin filaments A8 to All. In this case, three reinforcing filaments B6 are arranged in one longitudinal ridge C6, while one reinforcing filament B5 or B7 is arranged in each of the other two longitudinal ridges C5 and C7. A portion of the tops of ridges B5, B6 and B7 are indicated by ellipses T5, T6 and T7 respectively.
Figure 4 illustrates a net prepared from one of the soutache braids of this invention, e.g. that of Figure 1,
and shows the position of floats 10 between knots 11, '12.
- The invention is, of course, not limited to the embodiments illustrated and to use in connection with fishing nets. In particular, the lines and ropes used in nets or the like can be made of such braids having two or three longitudinal ridges. Furthermore, other nets such as, for example, camouflage nets and covering nets or lines for other purposes can be made of braids in accordance with the invention.
The preferred synthetic resin for the soutache braids is, as previously stated, of the polyamide type. Examples of this are nylon 66, a polyamide made by condensing hexamethylenediamine with adipic acid; nylon 6, prepared by condensing adipic acid with caprolactam; nylon 610, prepared from hexamethylenediamine and sebasic acid; nylon 7, based on caprolactam and heptoic or oenanthic acid; nylon 9, a polyamide prepared from caprolactam and pelargonic acid; other polyamides of this type are also known such as those derived from ethylenediamine and dimerized fatty acids, alkoXy-substituted nylon 66, etc.
What is claimed is: 1. As a new article of manufacture a net constructed of a multi-filament yarn in which the yarn is in the form of a soutache braid having a plurality of longitudinal ridges, the latter containing a reinforcing filament extending longitudinally through the ridges so as to increase the rigidity of the braided yarn, whereby the casting of the net is facilitated.
2. The net of claim 1 wherein the braided yarn is a polyamide and the reinforcing filament is spun glass.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,775,668 Buhler Sept. 16, 1930 2,001,676 Gastrich May 14, 1935 2,467,821 Gregg Apr. 19, 1949 2,653,375 Johnson et a1 Sept. 29, 1953 2,876,671 Hale Mar. 10, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 685,623 Great Britain Jan. 7, 1953