US 2950255 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
DETERGENT COMPOSITION Stillman R. Golf, Park Ridge, 11]., assignor to The Gillette Company, Chicago, 11]., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed July 3, 1956, Ser. No. 595,576
8 Claims. (Cl. 252-152) This invention relates to a detergent composition and pertains more specifically to a hair shampoo containing a cationic and a non-soap anionic surface active agent together with either an ampholytic surface active agent or a mixture of ampholytic and non-ionic surface active agents, the cationic and anionic agents being present in equimolar proportions.
Although a variety of hair shampoo compositions embodying synthetic surface active agents or detergents have been developed and have been found to be highly effective in cleansing hair, it has been found that the very effectiveness of these compositions in cleaning the hair has tended to leave the hair in an unsatisfactory condition. Not only has all of the dirt or soil been removed from the hair by such compositions, but in addition the sebum which is naturally present on the surface of the hair fibers has been substantially completely removed, and the hair is left with a harsh, rough, dry feel or handle. Furthermore, such thoroughly cleansed hair is extremely difficult to comb in either the wet or dry state, the individual fibers tending to snarl, kink, and interlock with each other. In addition, such hair has a marked tendency to acquire static electrical charges, causing the hair fibers to float or stand away from each other, a condition known as fly away. This unsatisfactory condition of the hair has frequently necessitated a subsequent treatment with a special composition to reduce these undesirable characteristics.
One object of the present invention is to provide a hair shampoo composition which is capable not only of providing highly etlective cleansing of the hair, but which leaves the hair in good condition. By good condition is meant that the hair has a soft smooth handle in both the wet and dry condition and is not harsh or rough to the touch. In addition, it is easy to comb both wet and dry with little tendency to snarl. Furthermore, the dry hair has little or no tendency to acquire a static electrical charge and to fly apart; that is, it shows little fly away.
Another object is to provide a shampoo wh ch not only is an effective cleansing agent and capable of pro viding hair with good condition, but also has good foaming properties.
Other and further objects will be apparent from the description which follows.
It has now been found that the foregoing objects are attained by employing as a shampoo composition a mixture of a major proportion of an ampholytic surface active agent together with a minor proportion of an equimolar mixture of a cationic surface active agent and a synthetic or non-soap anionic surface active agent. If desired, a portion of the ampholytic surface active agent may be substituted by a non-ionic surface active agent in amounts up to by weight of the ampholytic surface active agent.
Any of the usual ampholytic surface active agents or detergents may be employed in the composition of the present invention. Among those which provide best results are the fatty imidazolines, such as l-coco fi-hydroxyethyl-S-carboxymethyl imidazoline known as Miranol Patented Aug. 23, 1960 CM, and other similar products made by reacting mono carboxylic fatty acids having chain lengths of 10 to 24 carbon atoms with diethylene triamine and with monohalo monocarboxylic fatty acids having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, the fatty beta-alanines such as dodecyl beta-alanine sold under the name dodecyl Den'phat, the inner salt of Z-trimethylamino lauric acid sold under the name Product BDO, betaines such as N-dodecyl-N,N- dimethylaminoacetic acid sold under the name Quatronyx, etc. Mixtures of any two or more of the foregoing may be employed.
Any conventional non-ionic surface active agent or detergent or a mixture of two or more such agents may be employed if desired to replace up to 50% by weight of the ampholytic agent, as pointed out above. Among such non-ionic surface active agents are the ethylene oxide ethers of alkyl phenols such as nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether, the ethylene oxide ethers of fatty alcohols such as tridecyl alcohol polyoxyethylene ether, the ethylene oxide ethers of alkyl mercaptans such as dodecyl mercaptan polyoxyethylene thioether, the ethyl-v ene oxide esters of the fatty acids such as lauric ester of polyethylene glycol and lauric ester of methoxy polyethylene glycol, the ethylene oxide ethers of fatty acid amides, the condensation products of ethylene oxide with partial fatty acid esters of sorbitol such as the lauric ester of sorbitan polyethylene glycol ether, and other similar materials.
A wide variety of cationic surface active agents may be employed in the composition of the present invention, including distearyl climethyl arrmonium chloride, stearyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, coco dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, dicoco dimethyl ammonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, the stearyl amine salts that are soluble in water such as stearyl amine acetate and stearyl amine hydrochloride, stearyl-dimethylamine hydrochloride, distearyl amine hydrochloride, octyl phenoxyethoxyethyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, decyl pyridinium bromide, the pyridinium chloride derivative of the acetylaminoethyl esters of lauric acid, lauryl trimethyl ammonium chloride, decylamine acetate, lauryl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, and the like. Mixtures of two or more cationic surface agents may be employed if desired.
The anionic surface active agent which is employed may be any anionic detergent except soap. Among the materials which may be used are the alkyl sulfates such as sodium lauryl sulfate, the fatty taun'des such as cocomethyl tauride and tallow methyl tauride, the sulfated monoglycerides, the sulfonated monoglycerides, the alkyl aryl sulfonates, lauryl hydroxy ether lauryl propionate, coconut acid ester of sodium isethionate, dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid, N-octa decyl tetrasodiun (1,2-dicarboxyl ethyl sulfosuccinate), ammonium salt of sulfate ester of an alkyl phenoxy polyoxyethylene ethanol, sodium salt of lauryl polyoxyethylene sulfate, sodium salt of tridecyl ether polyoxyethylene sulfate, fatty acid amido polyoxyethylene sulfate, and the like, as well as mixtures thereof.
It is believed that the cationic and anionic surface active agents react with each other to form a complex. The most desirable type of complex is that formed from equimolar proportions of the cationic and anionic surface active agent. However, a slight excess up to 10% by Weight of either ingredient may be tolerated.
The ampholytic surface active agent or the mixture of ampholytic and non-ionic surface active agent together are present in major proportion. In general, the proportion of ampholytic detergent (or mixed ampholytic-non-ionic detergent) to the total cationic-anionic surface active agent may vary from 2:1 to 20:1 by weight, preferably from 3:1 to 7:1.
The pH of the composition when dissolved in water is generally not critical and may vary over a wide range from 4 to 9, preferably from 5 to 7. In the case of those ampholytic surface active agents which tend to be un stable, it is'best, as is well known in the art, to maintain the pH close to the isoelectric range of the ampholytic ingredient. When it is desired, the pH which is attairied simply by dissolving the specified surface active agents in water may be adjusted with any suitable acidic materialsuch as phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, or the like.
The shampoo compositions of the present invention may be provided in the form of dry solid compositions I free from any solvent or diluent or, if desired, they may be provided in the form of a solution in a suitable solvent such as water, alcohol, isopropanol, glycerin, or the like in any desired concentration. Any of the conventional additives such as preservatives, dyes, pearling agents, perfumes, thickeners, opacifi ers, etc., may be included in accordance with conventional compounding practice. It will be found that in use the total concentration of surface active materials in an aqueous medium will be from to 40% by weight of the total solution for best results, but may be varied even more widely.
The following specific examples are intended to illustrate more fully the nature of the invention but are not intended as a limitation on the scope thereof.
Example 1 Twelve parts by weight of the condensation product of coconut fatty acid imidazoline with 2 moles of chloroacetic acid sold under the trade name miranol CZM were dissolved in 85 parts by weight of water. tion there were added 4.9 parts by weight of distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with 3 parts of coconut methyl tauride, and suflicient phosphoric acid To this soluwas added to adjust the pH to approximately 5, resulting in a clear solution.
In evaluating the shampoo mixture -a weighed tress of water-saturated hair was shampooed in the hands for a definite period of time in a measured amount of the shampoo composition, the hands having been previously cleansed with a similar shampoo solution. The tress after being shampooed was rinsed with a measured quantity of tap water. The tress was shampooed a second time and again rinsed and then allowed to drain. Then it was combed while wet for the wet combing evaluation. The tress of hair was dried and tested for fly away (static retention) and dry handle. The tress was thoroughly clean, had excellent wet and dry combing characteristics, had a soft hand feel, appeared lustrous and retained very little static.
Substantially the same results were obtained when the shampoo was employed on the head of a living model. Y
When the distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and coconut methyl trauride were omitted from the foregoing composition, the hair was thoroughly cleaned by the composition, but it was harsh, dry, very difi'icult to comb when both wet and dry, and easily electrified in the dry state.
Example 2 densation product with one mole of chloroacetic acid) 12.0 Water 7 85.0 Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 4.9 Cocomethyl tauride 3.0
Concentrated H PO to pH 5.
When this composition was testedas described in Example 1 above, similar results were obtained.
Example 3 The following composition was prepared, in which the parts are by weight:
Parts Miranol CM 6.0 Tetrom'cs 908 (product of addition of propylene oxide to ethylene diamine following by addition of ethylene oxide) 6.0 Water 85.0 Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 4.9 Cocomethyl tauride 3.0
Concentrated H PO to pH 5.
Example 4 4 Parts Miranol CM 6.0 Triton Xl00 (alkyl aryl polyether alcohol) 6.0 Water 85.0 Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 3.0 Cocomethyl tauride 3.0 Concentrated H PO to pH 5.
Example Miranol CM 12.0 Water 86.5 Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 2.8 Sodium lauryl sulfate 1.5 Concentrated H PO to pH 5.
7 Example 6 Miranol CM 12.0 Water 86.5 Distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 1.9 Tallow methyl tauride 1.5 Concentrated H PO to pH 5.
Example 7 V Dodecyl Deriphat (dodecyl beta-alanine) 12.0 Water 85.0 Stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 2.9 Dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid 3.0 Concentrated H PO to pH 5.
Example 8 Product BDO (inner salt of Z-trimethyl amino lauric acid) 6.0 Laurie ester of polyethylene glycol 6.0 Water 85.0 Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 2.9 Coconut acid ester of sodium isethionate 3.0
Concentrated H PO to pH 5.
Although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein, it is not intended to limit the invention solely thereto, but to include all of the obvious variations and modifications within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
1. A shampoo composition'capable of eifective cleans ing of hair while simultaneously imparting good condition thereto comprising a mixture of surface active agents con sisting of (A) a major proportion of a member of the class consisting of ampholytic surface active agents, and
.5 mixtures thereof with up to an equal Weight of non-ionic surface active agents and (B) a minor proportion of a mixture of a cationic surface active agent with a substantially equimolar proportion of an anionic non-soap surface active agent, the ratio of (A) to (B) being from 2:1 to 20:1 by weight.
2. A shampoo composition as defined in claim 1 in which said cationic surface active agent comprises distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride.
3. A shampoo composition as defined in claim 1 in which said ampholytic surface active agent comprises a condensation product of a monocarboxylic fatty acid having from to 24 carbon atoms with diethylene triamine and with a monohalo monocarboxylic fatty acid having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms.
4. A shampoo composition as defined in claim 2 in which said anionic surface active agent comprises a fatty tauride.
5. A shampoo composition as defined in claim 2 in which said anionic surface active agent comprises sodium lauryl sulfate.
6. A shampoo composition as defined in claim 3 in which said anionic surface active agent is a member of the class consisting of cocomethyl tauride and tallow methyl tauride.
7. A shampoo composition capable of effective cleansing of hair while simultaneously imparting good condition thereto comprising a mixture of surface active agents consisting of (A) a condensation product of a monocarboxylic fatty acid having from 10 to 24 carbon atoms with diethylene triamine and With a monohalo monocarboxylic acid having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms and (B) a mixture of distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride with a substantially equimolar proportion of a fatty tauride, the proportion of (A) to (B) being from 3:1 to 7:1 by Weight.
8. A shampoo composition capable of effective cleansing of hair while simultaneously imparting good condition thereto comprising a mixture of surface active agents consisting of (A) a condensation product of a monocarboxylic fatty acid having from 10 to 24 carbon atoms with ethylene diamine and with a monohalo monocarboxylic acid having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms and (B) a mixture of distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride with a substantially equimolar proportion of cocomethyl tauride, the proportion of (A) to (B) being from 3:1 to 7:1 by weight.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Soap and Sanitary Chemicals, vol. 24, No. 6, June 1948, pp. 46-48, 65.
Soap and Sanitary Chemicals, vol. 30, No. 4, April 1954, pp. 93 and 95.