US 2950643 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 30, 1960 K. SCHERER ACCORDION Filed July 25, 1956 2 FIG.
2 Sheets-Sheet l 1 (3 5 ll 9 l INVENTOR KARL SCHERER.
AT ToRNE Ys.
Aug. 30, 1960 K. scHERl-:R 2,950,643
AccoRmoN Filed July 25, 195e 2 sheets-sheet 2 INVENTOR KARL SCHERER.
United States Patent Of ACCORDION Karl Scherer, Sonnenweg 8, Troingen, Germany Filed July 25, 1956, Ser. No. 600,113
Claims priority, application Germany Aug. 3, 1955 9 IClaims. (Cl. 84-376) This invention relates to 4an accordion having a subdivided chamber between its reed plate carrying the valves, land its cover or top, enclosing the valves and wires for operation of the valves, in order to modify the tone or tone color of the instrument.
It has been suggested previously to subdivide the chamber between the reed plate and cover of accordions. In instruments of this type the design of the cover which normally encloses the accordion toward the outside by a practically smooth surface, has been modified in such a manner that the shape of the cover becomes similar to a flaring mouth or bell, through which the sound escapes from the instrument. This necessitates visible structural modifications of the instrument by correspondingly changing -the design of the cover. Walls disposed between the reed plate and covers of such type are rigidly connected to the cover.
Such changes in the outer shape of the cover are objected to by players, because the pleasing appearance of the accordion is adversely affected by them and they may also affect the operation of the instrument. Furthermore, they increase the dimensions of the instrument.
Covers provided with sound outlets of the above mentioned type have very definite inherent resonances which accentuate certain frequencies and suppress others. This may -adversely affect the uniform sound volume and the tone of the accordion, which is one of the reasons why instruments of such construction are no longer popular.
Furthermore, the above mentioned wall or walls subdividing the chamber cannot be dsmounted so that the player cannot change the tone of the instrument in the use of the cover applied to the accordion.
It has also been suggested lto provide walls between the reed plate and cover to subdivide the chamber and change the direction of the air streams expelled or drawn in by the bellows so that the streams of air will iiow to the tongues always in one direction. Such walls which must form boxes mounted on the reed plate in an air tight manner, are provided with reversing valves which influence any resonance-ehamber-effect of the boxes in a non-uniform and thus adverse manner. This is due to the fact that some of these valves are open and some closed. Moreover, boxes of this type must have a direct opening to the bellows chamber of the instrument, which opening, in turn, influences the resonance properties of the box, due to changes caused in the size of the opening by the movement of the bellows.
Boxes of the above described type, which are disposed between the reed plate and cover for controlling the air ow, have a further disadvantage in that they cannot be dsmounted if the player Wants to produce a conventional accordion tone as obtained in the absence of a subdivision of the chamber between reed plate and cover. Dismounting of the box which is mounted on the reed plate and serves for changing the direction of the air flow, as described above, wouldrhave the result that the instrument could be operated only in the direction of a bellows move- Patented Aug. 30, 1360 ment, and this means that the accordion could no longer be used.
Finally, it has also been suggested to arrange on the reed plate boxes which were similar to the type described above, but did not serve for reversal of the air flow, and were provided with a plurality of similar apertures which were opened and closed by means to slides. In these arrangements, perforated wall portions above the valves alternate with solid wall portions. This proved to be a disadvantage, because tones which are controlled by valves disposed below solid wall portions have a color or quality which is different from that of tones controlled by valves disposed below perforated wall portions.
It is a main object of this invention to avoid the above described disadvantages and provide an improved accordion in which the tone quality is satisfactorily inuenced while maintaining the conventional shape of the cover.
It is a further object ofthe invention to provide an accordion, the tone quality of which can readily be adjusted by the player.
It is also an object of the invention to provide an accordion which is of pleasing outer shape and at the same time meets the highest requirements as to sound quality.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the appended drawings.
According to one aspect of the invention, in order to avoid said disadvantages, and to influence the tone quality in the desired manner, the chamber between reed plate yand cover is subdivided by at least one wall which defines an opening extending in the longitudinal direction of the accordion, in such a manner that influencing of the tone quality is accomplished without the necessity of special steps in connection with the outer shape of the cover and the wall or walls are connected to the accordion by releasable fastening means.
Below the accordion cover shaped in conventional manner, one or more walls are mounted which are spaced from the reed plate and the cover and are completely covered by the cover and not visible from the outside. There is no change in the structural design of the accordion, which could affect use of the instrument by the player.
Relative to the reed plate and the cover, resonance chambers are `formed by one or more walls, and said chambers substantially determine the tone quality of the accordion.
The `wall or walls -subdividing the chamber between cover and reed plate are releasably connected either with the reed plate or with the cover, for example, by conventional fastening means such as screws, latches or the like. Thus, the player can remove the inserted elements in a relatively simple way also after removal of the cover in order to obtain a conventional tone quality of the accordion.
The resonance chambers formed according to the invention are not limited to narrow frequency ranges, but include a broad frequency band which includes in the first place fundamental tones or notes and adjacent upper harmonic notes as conventionally used in the treble part of an accordion. It has been found that this advantage is obtained mainly by providing in a wall only one opening which extends like a slot in the longitudinal direction of the instrument over the wall, so that all valves arranged in one row, upon the lifting of which the air stream reaches the reeds and produces sounds, are substantially uniformly disposed relative to this opening in the wall.
It is of advantage to arrange this opening in such a manner that it is disposed over the ends of the valves, for example, of two rows of Valves. Sounds produced when the valves are lifted have the same resonance characteristics in adjacent Yvalve rows and are projected to` ward the cover in the same manner, and this results in a uniform tone quality over the entire accordion. It has been found to be likewise of advantage to make the width of the opening smaller than the length of the valves, i.e. the size of the valves transversely to the longitudinal direction of the opening, because Vthe use of such dimension of said width results in a round and full tone, whereas an increase of said width results in increased sharpness of the tone. By limiting the width of the openings it is assured that part of the sound waves produced is entrapped by the wall defining the opening. To render the tone quality of the instrument more brilliant also in the range of high tones, the width of the opening should be somewhatrlarger for high tones than for low tones.
The borders of the openings may correspond to the thickness of the wall, but it has been found to be of advantage to provide ythe openings with projections which may be integral with the wall and Amay have a certain guiding elfect on the escaping sound. Moreover, such reinforcement of the border of the openings results in a beneficial stilfening of the walls, because it is no-t desirable that the wall or walls participate V'in the oscillation's, for the following reasons: on the one hand, the natural resonance of the walls would result in an undesirable emphasis of this resonance range and, on the other hand, sound energy would be unnecessarily consumed. The reinforcement or stilfening of these walls may also be accomplished by other means such as ribs or a corrugated profile.
The wall or walls may consist of various materials. For example, they may be composed of sheet metal and wood veneer or synthetic plastic foils. If desired, such walls, which are mounted on the reed plate at the narrower sides of the instrument, or enclose the reed plate and may form a box with the apertured wall, may be molded, drawn or extruded from synthetic plastic material as one integral piece. In the manufacture from metal, it is a particular advantage that projecting edges of the openings are subsequently deformable so that the width of the opening may be modified, so that it is possible to adjust the width of the opening to the desired tone quality in various tone ranges of the accordion.
Finally, the tone quality may be also inlluencedV by coating the wall portions facing the reed plate and/or the projections bordering the openings with a material which modifies sound, in a manner known by itself.
It is also possible to cover the openings in one Wall or in several walls with a material modifying sound transmission in a manner known by itself, or to expose or cover the openings by means of a movable cover member, whereby in the latter case, a well known, pronounced, mutiling of the sound is obtained.
According to another embodiment of the invention, in the chamber bctweencover and reed plate, Vseveral walls may be arranged, one above the other, and spaced from each other, each of the walls being provided with an opening. In this case, a wall facing the reed plate may be connected thereto and a wall facing the cover may be connected to the latter. Of course, in this case` toO, fastening means should be used which permit -easy dismounting of the walls.
In the case of a reed plate of stepped proiile, it is possible to coveronly individual, i.e., not all, rows of valves with a wall having the above mentioned opening therein or deiining such opening. This wall may be removably connected to a reed plate portion, the chamber of which, which extends toward the cover, Ais then not subdivided. However, Vsuch wall may be also connected to the cover, whereby not all o'f the valvewrows are covered by such wall.
A wall of the above type may advantageously define the opening of the resonance chamber enclosed by said wall and the reed plate, in such a manner that the end Yof the wall, on the vone hand, and the adjacent 'reed plate portion, on the other hand, determine the opening.
Furthermore, in the case of a reed plate of stepped profile, it is possible to provide a Wall which is releasably connected to the cover and extends over the entire reed plate and to arrange an intermediate wall which projects approximately frorn the center of the rst mentioned wall. The intermediate wall contacts the reed plate between the reed plate portion which is closer to the bellows frame and the reed plate portion which is more distant from the bellows frame'. vvIn this manner separate resonance chambers are formed, associated openings being provided in ythe walls for the reed plate portion which is closer to the bellows frame and the reed plate portion which is more distant from the bellows frame. v f
An accordion which is provided with a reed plate inclined toward the part of the bellows frame at the front side Vof the instrument, may be provided with a wall which extends substantially in the saine direction as the reed plate, is arranged between reed plate and cover, and covers the valves, whereby the end of 4this wall Vdefines the opening of a resonance chamber, together with the adjacent portion of the reed plate.
Furthermore, in the 'case of Aa -reedplate of stepped profile, a combination of resonance chambers maybe provided in such a manner that a Vresonance chamber de-V signed in a manner known by itself, formed solely by the reed plate and extending toward the bellows frame, is'providedgpthe reed plate portion associated with this resonance chamber and extending toward the bellows frame, carries reed blocks, Whereas the reed plate por-- tion extending approximately in the direction of the plane of the Ybellows frame and carrying reed blocks, is cov-v ered by a bafe wall disposed over the valvespthereof. The opening of the resonance chamber formed'by the reed plate and theA opening ofthe resonance chamber formed by the bathe wall together with theassociated' reed plate portion, are adjacent to each other in this einbodiment.. Y Y p y y The wall which shields the reed plate portion extending'in the direction of the plane of the bellows frame,` carrying reed blocks and forming a resonance chamber together therewith, may be extended in such a `manner, that it covers the opening of the resonanceycham'ber which is formed solely by the Vreed .plate and extends towardthe bellows frame. 4 It will be understood from the above description that the present invention can be carried out in various ways in order to modify the tone characteristics of accordions. The modifications described aboveV represent embodiments of the invention by way of example. It will be understood that further embodiments can be made with- -outvdeparlting from the scope of the invention, as defined in the appended claims. c p
Resonance chambers which are formed kby vthe reed plate only, i.'e., Without an additional wall or walls, and which` house the valves and receive the incoming -air when the valves -are lifted, Yhave in general the disadvantage that the walls carrying the reed blocks must be clined toward the plane of the bellows frame to such an extent that the reed blocks usually either extend toward the casing walls, or, if they extend toward the bellows chamber, they are disposed in such a manner that it is diicult vfor the tuner to reach'the vreed sheets arranged on the `reed blocks and Ito carry out tuning without -removing'the reed blocks from vthe instrument each `time the reeds are tuned. According to the prescrit invention, the "wall or walls which forth resonance vchambers 4with reed plate portions between the 'reed plate 'end "cover, permit the conventional arrangement 'of the reed blocks' in the direction toward the bellows chamber, sothat the reeds are readily accessible 'to the tuner. Frequent mounting ,land `dismounting of lreed blocks in the c'orse of tuning fres'ults not only in a floss o"f time, but i,is falso qualitatively harmful, because during lfrepeated mouiibf ings the reed blocks are likely to be pressed more or less strongly against the reed plate, and this causes undue variations in tuning.
The foregoing and other objects and features of the invention will be more apparent upon reference to the accompanying drawings which illustrate the invention by way of example.
Figs. l to 9 show fragmentary cross-sections through various embodiments of the invention along a line-perpendicular to the longitudinal direction ofthe accordion, while Fig. l is a fragmentary perspective view. The slot-like opening extending in the longitudinal direction of the instrument and defined by a wall is shown in crosssection in Figs. l to 9, while -a view on a portion of this opening is shown in Fig. 10. Openings in a resonance chamber, which are defined by the end of a baille wall subdividing the space between cover and reed plate and by the adjacent reed plate pont-ion, may have a width varying in the longitudinal directionof the instrument in the same manner as described hereinbefore in connection with other openings, for example, they may be wider in the range of high tones and narrower in the range of low tones. Although this modification is not illustrated in the cross-sections Figs. l to 9, it will be easily understood from the foregoing description and is shown in Fig. l0.
In the appended drawings,
Fig. l is a fragmentary cross-section through an instrument according to the invention, and shows an ernbodiment in which a wall having an opening subdivides the chamber between reed plate and cover` and is removably attached to the reed plate;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary cross-section showing an embodiment in which an apertured wall subdividing the chamber between reed plate and cover is reinforced corrugated and removably attached to the cover;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary cross-section illustrating an embodiment in which two apertured walls subdivide the space between reed plate and cover, .the wall adjacent the reed plate being removably attached thereto, and the lwall facing the cover being -removably attached to the Eatter;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary cross-section showing an embodiment in which the reed plate has a stepped prole and the wall subdividing the chamber between reed plate and cover an intermediate wall thereon extending toward the reed plate;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary cross-section through an embodiment in which the wall subdividing the chamber between a stepped reed plate and the cover shields a portion of the reed plate only, and is removably attached to the reed plate;
. Fig. 6 is a fragmentary cross-section showing an em bodiment in which the wall subdividing the chamber ,be-
mately inthe direction of the reed plate, the wall being removably attached to the reed plate;
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary perspective view of an accordion substantially as shown in Fig. 1, a part of the cover being omitted for better illustration.
In the following description, the description of reference numerals applied to the parts of the accordion and explained in connection with Fig. l, is not repeated in connection with the other figures.
Referring now to Figs. l and l0, the treble portion of the accordion comprises an outer casing i1, a keyboard 2 for controlling the wires 3 which are attached to valves 4, a reed plate 5, an apertured top wall or cover 6, and
a wall 7, subdividing the chamber between reed plate and cover, this wallv having a slot-like opening 8 and projections 13 at the edges of the opening. Opening 8 extends in the longitudinal direction of the accordion substantially along the entire length of the chamber between reed plate 5 and cover 6 and forms a permanent passage between the subdivisions of the chamber. The projections 13 which are preferably deformable serve as guides for sound waves and at the same time reinforce wall 7. Reed blocks 9 and a bellows frame 10 are positioned on the side opposite the valves, of the reed plate. Releasable fastening means 11, which are shown diagrammatically, serve to mount the wall 7 on the reed plate 5, and, as shown, a bracket 12 may be arranged therebetween, the Wall 7 encasing the reed plate substantially on one side thereof.
The valves 4 are normally in the form of generally rectangular elements or plates as indicated in Fig. 10, the longer dimension or length of the valves extending in the general direction of wires 3, that is, transversely to the longitudinal direction of opening 8. The width of opening 8 is smaller than the length of valves 4 transversely to the longitudinal direction of the opening to make certain that a partof the sound waves produced is trapped underneath wall 7 and prevented from escaping directly tothe space between wall 7 and cover 6. As shown in Fig. 10, the width of opening 8 varies. I-t is selected in accordance with the pitch of the tone controlled by the respective valves located below the opening. Preferably, the width of opening 8 is greater in the range of higher tones than in the range of lower tones. It should be noted that wall 7 is generally flat and resonance spaces in the chamber between reed plate 5 and cover 6 are defined substantially, and preferably solely, by the at wall 7, cover 6 and plate 5.
As indicated hereinbefore, the projections 13, or` other selected portions of wall 7, or both may be coated to modify the sound produced and, if desired, the opening Fig. 8 is a fragmentary cross-section through an embodiment in which the wall subdividing the chamber between a stepped reed plate and the cover shields a portion of the reed plate, and in which the other portion of the reed plate is provided with a resonance chamber formed by the reed plate only;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary cross-section showing an embodiment in which the wall subdividing the chamber between a stepped reed plate and the cover shields the reed plate to such an extent that the wall shields also the opening of the resonance chamber formed by the reed plate only; and
8 may be covered with a material modifying sound transmission.` Such coatings, coverings, and other modifications described may be used not only in connection with the instrument according to Figs. l and l0, but also in connection with further embodiments shown.
In Fig. 2 the wall 7 has a reinforced profile. The releasable fastening means 11 connect wall 7 to the cover 6. Fig. 3 illustrates Walls 7 and 7', the wall 7 being connected to the reed plate 5 by means of releasable fastening means 11, a bracket 12 being interposed therebetween. Opening 8 is provided in wall 7. The wall 7 is removably attached to the cover 6 by fastening means =11', and an opening in wall 7 is shown at 8'.
In Fig. 4, a wall 17 subdivides a chamber located between a stepped reed plate 15 and the cover 6. vReed plate portion 15" connects reed plate portion 15 which is closer to the bellows frame 10, and reed plate portion 15" which is closer to the cover. An intermediate wall 17 projecting from wall 17 abuts against the reed plate portion.15' so that there will be a resonance chamber above each of the reed plate portions 15 and 15". Accordingly, the wall 17 has openings 8 and 8". Wall 17 is removably mounted on the cover by fastening means 11.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 5, the reed plate 35 has a stepped profile, its portion 2 5 being closer tothe cover 6 and Vits portion 25" being closer .to the bellows frame 1t). Reed plate portion 25"'is,disposedY in con,` ventional manner relative to the cover, while portion 25 is shielded by a baffle wall 27 having an opening 8, the baille wall being removably attached to the reed plate 25 by fastening means 11.
According to Fig, 6, the -reed plate 15 likewise has a stepped proille, the reed plate portion 15 being closer to the bellows frame 10 and the reed plate portiony 15" being closer to the cover.
Reed plate portion is shielded Vby a baille wall 27', removably mounted on the cover 6 by fastening means 11. An opening 18 is defined by the end 27" of the baille wall and the adjacent reed plate portion 15". The reed plate portion 15" is disposed opposite the cover 6 in conventional manner.
Fig. 7 illustrates an embodiment in which the reed plate 35 is inclined or slanted toward the portion disposed at the front side of the accordion of the belows frame l0, and a baille wall 37 extending substantially in the direction of, or approximately parallel to, the reed plate 35, subdivides the space between reed plate 35 and cover 6. The baille wall 37 is removably connected to the reed plate 35 by fastening means 11. An opening 38 provided in the resonance chamber 39 formed `by reed plate 35 and baille wall 37 extends from the end 37 of the baille wall to the adjacent portion of the reed plate 35.
In Fig. 8 a reed plate 45 of stepped prole forms a resonance chamber 46, which is formed only by the reed plate 45, the reed plate portion 45 being disposed ad-` jacent to the resonance chamber. This reed plate portion 45 is shielded by a baille Wall 47 which subdivides the chamber between reed plate portion 45' and cover 6. A resonance chamber opening 48 is formed by the end 47 of the baille wall and the adjacent part of the reed plate portion 45. An opening in the resonance chamber 46 is indicated at 49. Batlle wall 47 is removably connected to the reed plate 45 by fastening means 11.
Fig. 9 illustrates a reed plate 45 of stepped profile which, in analogy to Fig. 8, forms a resonance chamber 46', having a resonance chamber opening 49. A baflle wall 47, which shields reed plate portion 45" and sub divides the space between reed plate portion 45 and cover 6,7extends to its end 47"', which formsan opening 50 with the adjacent portion of the reed plate 45. This baille wall shields the opening 49' of resonance chamber 46. The baille wall 47 is removably mounted on the reed plate 45 by fastening means 11.
It will be understood that, while the .above disclosure shows some specific embodiments of and best modes for carrying out this invention, the latter is not limited to the specific arrangements and details specically described above and illustrated in the drawings, and can be carried out with various modications without :departing from the scope of 4the invention as dened in the appended claims. For example, details of the embodiments shown may be combined in order to modify the tone of an accordion or other reed instruments. i
It will be understood from the above that the term reed plate has been used herein to denote the member identified by reference numeral 5 in Figs. 1-3, Vby reference numeral l5 in Figs. 4 and 6, by reference numeral 25 in Fig. 5, by reference numeral 35 in Fig. 7, and by reference numeral 45 in Figs. 8 and 9, said member being sometimes denoted in the art also valve board.
What is claimed is:
1. An accordion comprising in combination expandable and contractable bellows, a keyboard, side walls, a valve board having a row of apertures therein, Va plurality of valves, there being one valve for each of said apertures, control members extending from said keyboard to all of said valves for operating said valves, an apertured. cover positioned above said valves and having a predetermined outer shape, generally flat wall means arranged between said cover and said valve board and extending at least partially over said valves so as to form a rst chamber withl said valve board and a second chamber with said cover, lsaid wall means defining at least one tapered slotlike aperture which permits passage of air between said chambers both during expansion and contraction of said bellows, said slot-like aperture extending in a longitudinal direction of the accordionsubstantially along the entire length thereof and being of greater width at the high frequency end of the instrument so as to modify the tone quality while retaining said outer shape of the cover, said flat wall means defining a rst resonant space in conjunction with said cover and a second resonant space in conjunction with said valve board.
2. An accordion as claimed gin claim l, in which a plurality of valves are provided to control the production of tones and said opening is disposed above the ends of at least some of said valves, and in which the width of said opening is smaller than the length of said valves measured transversely to the longitudinal direction of said opening.
3. An accordion as claimed in claim 1, in which the edge of the opening is provided with projections disposed substantially at right angles to said wall means.
4. An accordion as claimed in claim 1, in which said projections are deformable for varying the width of the opening.
5. An accordion as claimed in claim 1, in which the wall means are reinforced by corrugations therein.
6. An accordion as claimed in claim l, in which said opening is in the form of an aperture interrupting said wall means and is covered with a material for modifying transmission of sound.
7. An accordion as claimed in claim 1, in which the wall means is connected to the valve board by said releasable fastening means so as to substantially encase said valve board on one side thereof.
8. An accordion as claimed in claim 1, in which the wall means is spaced from the cover and attached thereto by said releasable fastening means.
9. The combination according to claim 1V wherein said valve `board includes at least two rows of valves disposed at different levels from a plane perpendicular -to the axis of the bellows, said wall means being disposed above at least one of said rows of valves.
References Cited in the ille of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,602,355 Frank Oct. 5, 1926 1,899,357 Rieschick Feb. 28, 1933 1,961,152 Larson June 5, 1934 2,189,531 DelPrincipe iFeb. 6, 1940 2,230,162 Lidblom Ian. 28, 1941 2,581,553 Pakman et al. Jan. 8, 1952 2,730,919 Iorio. Jan. 17, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 452,062 Great Britain Aug. 17, 1936 'der