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Publication numberUS2952330 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 13, 1960
Filing dateMar 12, 1958
Priority dateMar 12, 1958
Publication numberUS 2952330 A, US 2952330A, US-A-2952330, US2952330 A, US2952330A
InventorsWinslow Charles A
Original AssigneeWinslow Charles A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Centrifugal-type fluid purifier
US 2952330 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 13, 1960 c. A. WINSLOW CENTRIFUGALQTYFE FLUID PURIFIER Filed March 12, 1958 INVENTOR.

CHARLES A WIN 5L0 WM rrow/v.5).

CENTRlFUGAL-TYPE FLUID PURIFIER Charles A. Winslow, 5640 Castle Drive, Oakland, Calif.

Filed Mar. 12, 1958, Ser. No. 721,023

Claims. (Cl. 183-25) The present invention relates to improvements in centrifugal-type fluid purifiers.-

I am well aware that the art of cleaning fluids by centrifugal means is well explored and highly developed. The present invention, however, provides several novel features in the art of centrifuges. For one thing, the only motion within the device is that of the fluid itself passing through the purifier in two or more stages of rotary motion.

An important feature of the invention is that fluid is normally forced into the top of the device with a tangential motion resulting in a primary centrifugal cleaning of the fluid, and then a second high-speed stage of centrifugal motion is provided speeding the fluid up to a max mum predetermined velocity, as it passes from an upper section of the purifier to a lower section. Another important feature of the device is that this maximum predetermined velocity is governed by' a safety bypass valve with a predetermined opening pressure. Foreign material removed from the fluid is deposited into the bottom of the container where it can be drawn olf continuously or cleaned out as required. The illustrated preferred form of the invention is a two-stage centrifugal purifier, wherein the fluid is rotated in the upper section at a velocity directly determined by the volume of fluid being forced through the device. Then the fluid passes through turbine blades in the central portion of the device, where it is sped up to a maximum velocity, governed by the bypass valve, which determines the pres sure between the inlet and the outlet of the device, thus insuring a definite maximum velocity in the second stage of centrifuging, In this second stage, foreign material is deposited into a sump or chiptrap in the lower section of the purifier housing.

The purifier of this invention is primarily designed for use in the lubricating systems of aircraft engines of the dry sump type, wherein oil, air, and gases are pumped by a scavenger pump from the crankcase of an engine and forced through coolers and filters and then back to an oil supply tank. Dirty oil, air and blow-by gases are forced into the inlet of the device, centrifuged on the first stage, and then forced down through the turbine blades in the central section where the compressed air and gases reach a velocity much higher than could be achieved when oil alone is pumped through such a device. To illustrate the point, when compressed air and liquid, combined as a fluid, are forced through a nozzle, the compressed air on being expanded through the nozzle accelerates the liquid far beyond .what, would be possible by use of the pressures available on the liquid alone in lubricating systemsef conventional hydrocarbon engines.

Another important feature of the invention is that air and/or-blow-by gas can be separated from the vortex after centrifuging has taken place. A central air outlet is provided at the exact center of the rotating mass. There, air from the vortex is forced out under pressure through a central tube and returned to the engine crankcase, where it may be vented to the atmosphere.

Another important feature of the invention is that when it is used for cleaning a mixture comprising fluids of different gravities (such as oil and air, oil and water, air and water, or all three), the heavier of the fluids is removed by centrifugal force and can be drawn off continuously from the bottom of the device, while the device is maintained in constant operation. The lighter fluids can be drawn from the vortex, as indicated on the drawing or as design modifications for special purposes may require.

Another important feature of the invention is that it can provide a chip trap on aircraft engines, and samples of the oil and/ or sediment can be tested and checked by simply removing a plug from the bottom of the device. The plug carries an attached sample, by magnetic or other means, of the heaviest dirt in the bottom of the container, which is a fair sample of the worst oil in circulation and a check on whether or not metal is present in the lubricating system.

Another important feature of the device is that three different weights of fluid can be separated in one operation. For example, a primary, greatest-volume fluid may pass through the device and out an upper outlet; the lightest fluid may be drawn down a central outletfrom the vortex; and the heaviest of the three fluids can be drawn from the bottom of the container, thus separating into three grades the fluids passing through under pressure.

With the foregoing and other objects in mind, I draw attention to the drawings illustrating the above-mentioned and other novel features ofthe device, wherein:

Fig. 1 is a view in horizontal section taken along the line 1-1 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 2 is a view in vertical elevation and in section taken along the line 2-2 in Fig. 1.

In a preferred installation of the device 10, an inlet 11 is connected to the discharge of a scavenger pump of an aircraft engine, and a main, upper outlet 12 is connected to an oil cooler and filter, and eventually back to the oil supply tank of the aircraft engine. In other words, it is preferred to install this device 10 where it receives the hot oil, gas, and air immediately after they are pumped from the crankcase of an engine, the oil, air, and gas then being at their maximum temperature. Thus,

as the oil, air, and gas are foamed and blown through the inlet 11 into a chamber 13 in the upper section of the device 10, centrifugal force throws all heavy particles against the cylindrical periphery of a casing :14, as indicated by arrows 15. The combined rotating fluids are forced down to a narrower lower sect-ion 16, where the rotating fluids are forced through passages 17, as indicated by arrows 18, through restricted vanes or turbine blades 20, generating the maximum velocity possible for centrifugal cleaning and separating of fluids before they are permitted to escape upwardly through the central outlet 12.

As a typical example, assume that 60 gallons of oil a minute are passing from the inlet 11 to the outlet 12, and a varying amount of gas and air is passing along with the oil, sometimes in equal volume or greater. It can be appreciated that as the oil, gas, and air are blown through the vanes 20 and passages 17, a tremendous rotary motion is generated, far beyond the velocity of the oil alone. Thus, a new and novel means is provided for separating out from the lubricating oil such material as lead salts and other deleterious substances which are very hazardous to the operation of aircraft engines.

The maximum velocity is always maintained, due to lthe fact that the passages 17 between the turbine blades outlet 12 of the device 10. The valve 21, an annular conical member, is held normally closed by a spring 22 against a series of ports 23 in a conical stationary closure member 24.

The blades and passages 17 are in and are part of a bottom plate 25, which is held in contact with the ported cone 24 against a collar 26 on a central outlet tube 27. The total assembly of the parts 21, 22, 24, and 25 is held up and in contact with the collar 26 on the outlet tube 27 by a snap ring 28, which fits into a suitable bead 29 rolled into the shell or casing 14. Suitable notches or holes 30 are preferably provided in the snap ring 28 as indicated in Fig. 1, for easy removal of the total assembly. Therefore, when the snap ring 28 is removed, the entire assembly -2.1, 22, 24, and 25 can be dropped and removed.

A Marmon clamp 31 releasably holds a bottom casing 32 to the upper casing 14. The casing 32 carries an optional, removable, perforated plate or very large mesh screen 33 and an air outlet standpipe 34. During operation, the standpipe 34 is normally connected back to the engine crankcase, so that blow-by gas, air, and oil escaping from its outlet 35 will be returned to the engine oiling system, thus insuring against loss of oil and assuring proper venting of air and gas from the oiling system. A magnetic plug 36 and/ or a tap 37 may be provided for draining water or sampling the bottom of the container. The plug 36 acts as a chip trap. When the plug 36 is unthreaded, from a housing 38, the oil may be sampled, a magnet 39 retaining metal portions. Or the oil may be sampled through the tap 37. The tap connection 37 can be connected to a suitable outlet in certain types of service and water continuously removed, as when the device 10 is used on fuel lines or for removing any lighter fluid from a heavier fluid.

In operation therefore, it is to be understood that when the device 10 is used in its preferred installation on an aircraft engine, oil, air, and gas are forced through the inlet 11 and rotated at high speed in the casing 14, as indicated by the arrows 15. As the fluids are forced down and through the passages 17 and past the blades 20, a high rotary motion is provided which is further accelerated by air and gas blowing through with the oil, causing any material which can be centrifuged, such as carbon particles, metal, lead salts, etc., to be forced down through passages 40 into a sump 41. Thus, the pressure on the inlet 11 causes the whirling mass to be forced down past the plate 25 which contains the ports 17 and blades 20. As the highly rotating mass is forced out and down, a vortex containing air and gas is developed in the center of the rotating mass, and this vortex is under a pressure differential between the inlet 11 and outlet 12. Thus the air in the vortex can escape through ports 42 into the tube 34, which is in the center of the vortex, and the air may then be vented as previously described.

It is to be understood that the tube 34 can point up or down, as conditions may require. To insure a constant maximum safe pressure differential and maximum centrifuging action, the spring 22 and valve 21 insure that the maximum differential between the inlet and the outlet can never exceed a predetermined pressure. For instance, if the velocity and volume of the oil increase, the valve 21 is forced down by the pressure differential to a level indicated at 43. Then by-pass ports 23 are open, permitting fluid to pass through ports 23 and 44 into the central outlet tube 27 It is also to be understood that air and/ or gases may be forced through the device and it can be employed for other purposes such as gas treatment, aeration, or de-aerating of fluids, food or water purification, etc.

The foregoing description and drawings clearly describe my invention, but I do not wish to limit myself to the form and details illustrated and described for the obvious reason that various changes in dimensions and 4. construction details can be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention. Furthermore, I have described the invention in its preferred form as a twostage centrifugal purifier and for removing deleterious material from lubricating oil in an aircraft engine.

I anticipate that with slight modification the device can be used on pipelines or other places where it is desirous to separate water from fuel oil or air from other fluids by such means as has been described in the operation of the invention. Therefore, having described and illustrated my invention, what I claim is:

1. A centrifugal purifier for separating a mixture of fluids of different specific gravities, comprising a generally cylindrical vertically disposed casing having a tangential inlet, an upper outlet opening, and a lower outlet opening; a first outlet tube inside said casing leading to said upper outlet opening and cooperating with said cylindrical casing to provide an annular upper chamber, said tube having an open lower end; a generally conical baflle with its upper end closed against said first outlet tube and a lower end spaced from said cylindrical casing; an annular member filling the space between said cylindrical casing and the lower end of said baffle and providing a series of stationary turbine blades and passages for accelerating the centrifugal motion of the fluid; and a second outlet tube smaller in diameter than said first outlet tube and extending from said lower outlet opening into said first outlet tube and having inlet means only above said turbine blades.

2. The purifier of claim 1 having normally closed fluid-pressure-sensitive bypass means connecting said upper chamber directly to said first tube through said bafile for bypassing fluid directly from said upper chamber into said first tube at a predetermined fluid pressure.

3. A centrifugal purifier for separating a mixture of fluids of different specific gravities, comprising a generally cylindrical vertically disposed casing having a tangential inlet, an axially central upper outlet opening, and a lower outlet opening; a central outlet tube connected to said upper outlet opening and having an open lower end spaced well above the lower end of said casing;

a series of turbine blades and passages between said cylindrical casing and the lower end of said outlet tube for accelerating the centrifugal motion of the fluid; and a second outlet tube smaller in diameter than said central outlet tube and extending from said lower outlet into said central outlet tube with inlet means for said second tube lying above said turbine blades.

4. The purifier of claim 3 having a bypass valve leading from said upper chamber to said central outlet bypassing said turbine blades and passages, and spring means normally urging said bypass valve closed.

5. A centrifugal purifier for separating a mixture of fluids of different specific gravities, comprising a generally cylindrical vertically disposed casing having a tangential inlet, an upper outlet opening, and a lower outlet opening; a first outlet tube connected to said upper outlet opening and spaced from said cylindrical casing to provide an annular upper chamber, said tube having an open lower end; a generally conical baflie with its upper end closed against said first outlet tube and a lower end spaced from and between said cylindrical casing and said tube lower end; a series of stationary turbine 'blades and passages in the space between said cylindrical casing and the lower end of said baffle for accelerating the centrifugal motion of the fluid moving from said inlet to said first outlet tube; and a second outlet tube smaller in diameter than said first outlet tube and extending from said lower outlet opening into said first outlet tube above the lower end of said first outlet tube, said second tube having inlet means only above said turbine blades.

6. A centrifugal purifier for separating a fluid mixture of fluids of different specific gravities, comprising a generally cylindrical vertically disposed casing having a tangential inlet adjacent the upper end thereof, an upper outlet opening, and a lower outlet opening; a main outlet tube depending from said upper outlet opening and spaced from said cylindrical casing to provide an annular upper chamber; generally conical baflle means secured to said main outlet tube and flaring outwardly to a lower end spaced from said cylindrical casing, said baifle means having openings therethrough and said main outlet tube having openings opposite those of said baffle means; a ring between said cylindrical casing and the lower end of said bafile providing a series of stationary turbine blades and passages for accelerating the centrifugal motion of the fluid; a spring-urged bypass closure valve normally closing said openings through said b'aifle means and adapted under predetermined pressures to open said openings and pass fluid directly from said annular upper chamber through said baffle openings into the opening in said main outlet tube; and a secondary outlet tube extending from said lower outlet opening into said main outlet tube and having perforations therethrough above said ring.

7. The purifier of claim 6 having a perforated plate extending across said casing between the lower end of said casing and said turbine blades, defining a sump therebelow; and means for removing oil from said sump.

8. A centrifugal purifier for separating a fluid mixture of fluids of different specific gravities, comprising a generally cylindrical vertically disposed casing having a tangential inlet adjacent the upper end, a main outlet opening, and a secondary outlet opening; a main outlet tube leading down from said upper end and from said main outlet opening and cooperating with said cylindrical casing to provide an annular upper chamber, said tube having an open lower end; a generally conical baffle secured to said main outlet tube and depending therefrom, flaring outwardly to a lower end spaced from said cylindrical casing; an annular member filling the space between said cylindrical casing and the lower end of said baflie and providing a series of stationary turbine blades and passages for accelerating the centrifugal motion of the fluid, said annular member also having an imperforate portion joining the lower end of said main outlet tube to the lower end of said batfle; and a secondary outlet tube extending from said secondary outlet into said main outlet tube and having perforations therethrough above said annular member.

9. A centrifugal purifier for separating a fluid mixture of fluids of different specific gravities, comprising a generally cylindrical vertically disposed casing having upper and lower end walls, a tangential inlet adjacent said upper end wall, a main outlet opening extending through said upper end wall and a secondary outlet opening through said lower end wall; a main outlet tube depending from said upper end wall around said main outlet opening and cooperating with said cylindrical casing to provide an annular upper chamber, said tube having an open lower end and a. perforated portion; a conical 6 baflie secured to said main outlet tube above said perforated portion, and depending therefrom, flaring outwardly to a lower end spaced from said cylindrical casing, said baflie having perforations therethrough; an annular ring filling the space between said cylindrical casing and the lower end of said baflle and providing a series of stationary turbine blades and passages for accelerating the centrifugal motion of the fluid, said ring also having an imperforate baflle portion joining the lower end of said tube below said perforated portion to the lower end of said conical baflle; a spring-urged bypass closure valve normally closing the perforations through said conical bafile but adapted under predetermined pressures to open said bafile perforations and pass fluid directly from said annular upper chamber through said conical baifles perforations and the perforations of said main outlet tube into said outlet tube; a perforated plate extending across said casing between the lower end of said casing and said turbine blades, defining a sump therebelow; a secondary outlet tube extending from said secondary outlet into said main outlet tube and having perforations therethrough only above said ring; and means for removing oil from said sump.

10. A centrifugal purifier for separating a mixture of fluids of different specific gravities, comprising a generally cylindrical vertically disposed casing having a tangential inlet, an axially central upper outlet opening, a lower outlet opening, and a removable bottom with a detachable clamping means; a central outlet tube connected to said upper outlet opening and having an open lower end spaced well above the lower end of said casing; a plate member cut to provide a series of stationary turbine blades and passages between said cylindrical casing and the lower end of said outlet tube for accelerating the centrifugal motion of the fluid; a removable snap ring below said blades and engaging said plate means and said housing to hold said plate with its blades in place in said casing; and a second outlet tube smaller in diameter than said central outlet tube and extending from said lower outlet into said central outlet tube with inlet means for said second tube lying above said turbine blades.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,818,905 McGee Aug. 11, 1931 1,864,201 Kegerreis June 21, 1932 1,871,546 McClafierty Aug. 16, 1932 1,960,887 Alexander May 29, 1934 2,015,464 Saint-Jacques Sept. 24, 1935 2,106,589 Bigger et a1 Jan. 25, 1938 2,187,646 Darrieus Jan. 16, 1940 2,432,130 Serrell et a1. Dec. 9, 1947 2,590,754 Cline Mar. 25, 1952 2,757,582 Freeman et al. Aug. 7, 1956 2,811,218 Winslow Oct. 29, 1957 2,816,490 Boadway et al. Dec. 17, 1957

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Classifications
U.S. Classification96/212, 55/417, 55/459.1
International ClassificationB01D45/12, B01D19/00, F16N39/00
Cooperative ClassificationF16N39/002, B01D19/0052, B01D45/12
European ClassificationB01D45/12, F16N39/00B, B01D19/00P4