US 2953810 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 27, 1960 J. HALL 2,953,810
DOOR CLOSING DEVICE Filed Nov. so, 195e INVENTOR. JOJEPH LL BY /y MM-M Unite DGOR CLOSING DEVICE Joseph Hall, 458 Ballytore Rd., Wynnewood, Pa. Filed Nov. 30, 1956, Ser. No. 625,314
7 Claims. (Cl. 16--S2) The invention comprises a door closing device, and more particularly a `door check of the reciprocating iiuid or hydraulic type.
Heretofore, door closing devices of the reciprocating type have been complex and costly' to manufacture and have not provided efcient and trouble-free operation over an extended period of time. Such devices have been ditlicult to regulate and have not provided quick release action for closing a door at an increased speed.
it is therefore a principal object of the invention to provide a new and improved door closing device which is simple in construction and ecient in operation.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved door closing device which provides quick released action for closing the door at an increased speed.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved door closing device providing trouble free operation over an extended period of time.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved door closing device of the hydraulic type, which is light in weight and readily adapted for various installations.
Another object of the invention is to'provide a new and improved door closing deviceu which may easily be designed for the desired door closing and opening action.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved door closing device which can be efliciently manufactured and produced at a low cost.
The above objects as Well as other objects of the invention will become more apparent as the following detailed description of the invention is read in conjunction with the drawing, in which:
Figure l is'a plan view of a door closing device embodying the invention with an end portion broken away,
Figure 2 is an enlarged sectional view of a portion of the device taken substantially on the line 2-2 and showing the piston rod being withdrawn,
Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to that of Figure 2 illustrating the action of the spring drawing the piston rod into the chamber,
- Figure 4 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to that of Figure 3 illustrating the fast release action upon the application of an external force to the piston rod for speeding the door closing operation,
` Figure 5 is a plan view of the piston rod with a portion broken away,
Figure 6 is a side elevational view of the piston actuating portion of the rod shown in Figure 5,
Figure 7 is an end elevational view ofthe piston,
Figure 8 is a side elevational view of the piston shown in Figure 7,
Figure 9 is a right end elevational shown in Figure 8,
Figure l0 is ay sectional View taken on the line 10-10 of Fignre`8, and
' Figure v11 is a plan view of the piston sealing washer.
Like'reference numerals designate like parts throughout the several views.
view of the piston sealing means 36 in the Referring to the figures of the drawing which disclose a door closing device 10 of the hydraulic type embodying the invention.
The device 10 comprises an elongated substantially` cylindrical body 12 with end portions 14 and 16 forming a sealed chamber 18 within the body 12 which contains an hydraulic fluid.
A piston 20 is movably positioned within the chamber 18 variably partitioning the chamber 18 into a iirst section 22 and a second section 24.
A piston rod 26 has a cylindrical end portion 28 associated with the piston 20, an intermediate portion 30 movably receivable into the chamber 18 of the body 12 through an opening 32 in the end portion 14, and an external end portion 34 provide with attachment means. The end portion 14 of the body 12 is provided with a form of a rubber ring received about and slidably engaging the rod 26 for sealing the fluid within the chamber 18.
A coiled spring element 46 is received about the rod 26 intermediate the piston 20 and the end portion 14 of the body 12. Y
The; cylindrical end portion 28 of the piston .rod 26 is received through the central axial opening 42 of the piston 2li. The piston 20 is axially movable on the portion 2S of the rod 26 between a first terminal position shown in Figures 2 and 3, and a second terminal position away from the end 44 of the rod 26 as shown in Figure 4.
The piston 2t? is limited in its motion between its first and second terminal positions respectively by an end retaining washer 46 `secured upon end 44 of the rod 26, and a pair of stops 48 projecting radially from the rod 26.
The spring element 40 exerts a force on the piston 20 urging it, and normally maintaining it, in its rst terminal position shown in Figures 2 and 3.l The piston 20 is caused to assume its second terminal position with respect to the rod 26 when an external force is exerted upon the rod 26 in the direction of its end 44. This causes the end'of the rod 26 to be pushed through the opening 42 of the piston 26 until the piston 20 is in abutment with the stops 48.
The rod 26 at its engaging end 28 is provided with a pair'of attened areas 50 which extend from a point 52 along the rod 26 in the axial `direction to a point 53'. The point 52 is spaced from the end 44 of the rod 26 while the point 53 is beyond the piston contacting edges of the stops 48.
When the piston 20 is in its rst terminal position (see Figure 3), the cylindrical portion 54 proximate the end 44 of the rod 26 effectively plugs the opening 42 of the piston 20. However, when the piston 20 is in its second terminal position, shown in Figure 4, the flattened areas 5t) of the rod 26 provide a clearance with the opening 42 of the piston 20 forming a iluid passage between the sections 22 and 24 of the chamber 18.
The piston 20 has rst and second disc portions 56 and 58 centrally aligned and interconnected by an intermediate portion 60 to form an annular space 62. The piston 20 may be formed as illustrated in Figure 8 by having the disc portion 56 press tted over the end of th-e connecting portion 66 which may be formed integrally with the disc portion 58. The outer diameters of the disc portions 56 and 58 are smaller than the inside diameter of the chamber 18 of the body 2t) providing a clearance therebetween.
The first disc portion 56 of the piston 20 is provided with a plurality of openings 64 therethrough and communicating with annular space 62, and a plurality of radial grooves 66 formed on its inside surface as shown in detail in Figure 10.
The second disc portion 58 of the piston 20 has a single metering oriice 68 extending axially therethrough into space` 62 proximate the central connecting portion 60 of the piston 20. The outwardly directed face 70 of the disc portion 58 of the piston 20 may be hollowed to provide an extending rim 72 for seating the end 74 of the spring' 40 for the exertion of an' axial force on the piston 2'0 urging it towards its` first terminal position.`
The piston 20 is provided with a sealing rin'g or Washer 76 which is loosel)r received ab'out the central portion 60 within the space 62 allowingaxial'movement'and clearance between the disc portions 56' and 58 of the' piston 20. The outer diameter of the washer 76 is dimensioned to afford a sliding contact with the inner wall `of the chamber 180i the body 12 The inside Vdiar'n'eter' 78 of the' sealing washer 76 is larger than the outside diameter of the central portion 60' of the piston 20 to provide a'lo'se fit thereab'out.
In the operation ofthe door closing device 10, it is appropriately secured by attachment at the bracket 81 of the end portion 16 of the body 12 and the connecting portion 34 of the piston rod 26 with the supporting structure and door or other object to be controlled.
Assuming that the device is connected to control the opening and closing ofka door, the piston rod 26 is drawn into the chamber 18 of the body12 to the maximum extent when the door is closed. The spring 40 by exerting a force on the piston 20 tends to keep the rod 26 in this position for maintaining the door closed and opposing forces tending to open the door (see Figure 2). The spring 40 also maintains the piston 20 in its normal first terminal position with respect to the rod 26 at this time.
When the dor is being opened, a force is exerted upon the rod 26 causing it to be withdrawn from the body 12 (see Figure 2). As the piston rod 26 is withdrawn, the piston washer 76, due to its wiping action on the cylinder, is caused to assume a position within the space 62 contacting the first disc portion 56 of the piston 20. The withdrawal of the rod 26 causes the piston 20, which is in its first terminal position abutting the retaining washer 46,` to move to the right enlarging the volume of the section 22 of the chamber 18 and decreasing the volume of its section 24. As this takes place, fluid in the section 24 passes through the c1earance'79 (Figure` 2) around the portion 58 of the piston 20 into the space 62, through the opening 78 of the washer 76 which provides a clearancewith the central portion 60 of the piston 20, along thel radial slots 66 which cannot be closed by the washer 76, around the disc portion 56 through its clearance 80 with the wall, and-into the section 22 of the chamber 18. Since the effective cross-section of the leakage path from the section 24-to the section 22 of the chamber 18 at this time is comparatively large, the fluid in the chamber doesfnot provide a high `resistance to the movement of the piston 20 and rod` 26duringthe door openingl opera'- tion.
After the door has beenopened and the force applied to therod 26 during this operation is removed, the spring 40 which has been compressed exerts -a force upon the piston 20 which being'in itsfirst terminal position abutting the retaining washer 46 in turn transmits this-force to the rod 26 causing the rod 26 to be drawn into` the body 12. Thiseffects the= closing operation of the door or other object being controlled `which `is illustrated by the Figurey 3. t
Y As the piston 20 is caused to move to" the left, the volume'of the section'24 of the' chamberl is enlarged while'thevolume of the section 22is reduced. 'Ihe'wiping frictional action of the washer 76 of the pistn 20` now causes it to'ass'ume a position closing the annular space 62 adjacent the disc portion 58 of' the pistonl 20.
In this position' (seeFigure 3), the washer 76 efectively seals the section22 from the sectionv 24A of the chamber 18 except for the metering oriceor opening 68iot"f the'pistonf20' Since`the effectiveness-'section for the" passage'of fluidfrornse'ction 22 'to" section'24" of chamber 18 is substantially reduced and controlled by the opening 68, the resistance to movement of the piston 20 is greatly increased. By this means the door is returned to its closed position at a reduced rate which is the desired function of the device 10. The rate at which the door or the piston rod 26 is drawn into the body 12 by the spring 40 may be increased or decreased by enlarging or reducing the size of the opening 68.
A very important feature of the device is its fast release operationwhich takes place When'anexternal force is exerted upon the rod 26 or door to which it is attached tending to close it more rapidly than under its normal action effected by the spring 40 of the device 10.
Figure 4 illustrates a case in which the piston rod 26 is actuated by an external force causing it to be displaced into the body 12, as when the door to which it is attached is being forced closed. Since the movement of the piston 20 to the left during the door closing operation is restricted' by the limited flow of fluid between the sections 22 and 24 of the chamber 18, a force upon the piston rod 20 in the direction of its end 44, as when the door is being forced closed, causes the portion 28 of the rod 26 to be advanced through the opening 42 'of the' piston 20` as shown in Figure 4. The' piston 20 is thus' caused to assume its second terminal position. Further advance of the rod 26 through' the piston 20 is prevented by the stops 48 which are in abutment with the surface' 70 of vthe piston 20. The force exerted on the rod 26 is thus transmitted by the stops 48 toV the piston 20 in the' second terminal position causing it to move to the left enlarging the section 24 and decreasing the volume in the section 22 'of the chamber 18. The piston 20 in its secondterminal position is readily moved to the left, since an intercommunicating passage is formed through the opening 42 of the piston 20 by the flattened areas 50 of the piston rod 26. Thus, fluid in the section 22 readily passes through this clearance to the section 24 of the chamber 18 `offering a reduced resistance to the external closing force exerted upon the door and allowing the piston rod 26 to be received into the chamber 18i at a faster rate.
If the external closing force exerted upon the piston rod 26 is removed before the door closing operation is' completed, the spring 42 causes the piston 20 to continue its motion to the left enlarging the section 24 off the chamber 18. Since the piston rod 26' is no longer beingl advanced by an external force, the motion of the piston 20 with respect to the rod 26 causes it to assume its first or normal terminal position abutting theretaining washer 46. At this time, the passage through the opening 42 of the piston 20 of effectively sealed by the piston V20 in its first terminal position, and the piston 20 and rod 26 are caused to advance at a reduced rate in a manner described in connection with the normal closing operation under the force of the spring element 40 described in connection with Figure 3. p
The great utility and desirability of the feature of the doorclosing device 10 which allows the normal closing operation of the device '10 to be overcomeand speeded by'anl external force while continuing its normal operation when such force is removed as well-asthe other features ofthe device' will be-apparent -to those familiar with the art.
Whilethis invention has been described and illustrated with reference to a specific embodiment, it is to be-understood that the invention is capable of various modifications andfapplications, not' departing4 essentially from the spirit thereof, which will become apparent to thoseiskilled in the art.v
What :is claimed is:
l. A door closing device comprising a body hav-ing a sidewall defining a chamber containing a fluid,4 aipiston in frictional engagement with said sidewall and movable within the chamber off'saidv body forvariably partitioning Sad chamber into first and second sections, a piston rod movably received into said chamber and having a portion slidably received through said piston for limited reciprocating longitudinal movement reactive thereto and positionable relative to said piston for forming a passage interconnecting the first and second sections of said chamber, limit means acting between and l-imiting said relative movement between said piston and said piston rod in opposite directions, valve means acting between said piston and piston rod normally closing said passage, and spring means extering a force upon said piston for movement in the direction to enlarge the second section of said chamber, said rod when being withdrawn from said body momentarily moving through said piston relative to said piston and said limit means limiting said relative movement and subsequently actuating said piston to enlarge the iirst section of said chamber upon continued withdrawal of said rod, the coaction of said limit means with said piston in response to said rod being received into said body by action of an applied force greater than the force exerted on the piston by said spring means effecting relative movement between said rod and said piston to enlarge the second section of said chamber and opening said valve means to interconnect the first and second sections of said chamber.
2. The door closing device of claim 1, in which said spring means normally urges said valve means toward a normal passage closing position blocking communication between the first and second sections of said chamber, and said valve means being opened in response to an external force applied to said rod in the same direction as and greater than the force exerted on said piston by said spring means.
3. The door closing device of claim 2 in which said piston includes a washer and has an orifice which provides a second passages between the lirst and second sections of said chamber which second passage is restricted by said washer to a predetermined degree by the action of said piston enlarging the second section of.
said chamber, said Washer being slidably carried by said piston for limited relative longitudinal movement and for movement with said piston Within said body, the resistance oiered by liuid in the chamber to the movement of said piston under action of said spring means being greater than the resistance offered when said piston is actuated by said rod to enlarge the rst section of said chamber, the resistance oiered by said fluid to the motion of said piston enlarging the second section of said chamber being partly relieved in response to opening of said Valve means by said piston rod being received into -said chamber by action of an applied greater than the force of said spring means.
4. A door closing device comprising a body having a chamber, a piston movable within said body for variably partitioning said chamber into iirst and second sections and having an opening and a iiuid oriice therethrough, said orice providing continuous communication between said iirst and second sections, a piston rod movably received into said chamber for actuating said piston, said rod having one free end passing through the opening of said piston and being movable with respect to said piston and having stop means limiting motion of said piston upon 6 said rod between a iirst terminal position at the outermost free end of said rod and a second terminal position spaced inwardly from said free end of said rod, said rod having closing means sealing the opening of said piston in said iirst terminal position of said rod and forming a passage through said opening interconnecting the first and second sections of said chamber when it is in its second terminal position, and spring means yieldably resisting movement of said piston out of its irst terminal position with respect to said rod and urging said rod into the chamber of sm`d body, said rod assuming its second terminal position and said stop means actuating said piston in the direction enlarging said second section of said chamber in response to the application of a force upon said rod moving it into said chamber, said spring means return- -ing said piston to its iirst terminal position and urging said piston in the direction enlarging said second chamber when said force is removed from said rod.
5. The door closing device of claim 4 in which said means by exerting said force upon said piston tending t0 enlarge the second section of said chamber normally maintains said piston in its iirst terminal position, and said piston provides a second passage including said oriiice communicating between the iirst and second sections of said chamber, and includes a sealing washer loosely retained by said piston slidably engaging the inner chamber walls of said body, said washer restricting a predetermined portion of said second passage of said piston in response to the action of said piston enlarging the second section of said chamber.
6. In a door closing device, a piston having a circular opening therethrough, a piston rod for actuating said piston having a stop portion on one end thereof and an adjoining cylindrical end portion received through the opening of said piston and being axially movable with respect to said piston between a rst terminal position wherein said stop portion abuts one side of the piston f and a second terminal position, the piston rod being provided with a stop means adapted to abut the other side of the piston at the second terminal position, the cylindrical end portion of said rod having a flattened area spaced from and providing a clearance extending through said piston and forming a passage through the opening of said piston when said rod is in its second terminal position, the ends of said attened area being located between said stop portion and means so that said passage is restricted when said rod is in its irst terminal position and said passage is open when the rod is in its second terminal position.
7. In the door closing device of claim 6, a spring element acting upon said piston and releasably urging said piston toward said first terminal position at said end of said rod.
References Cited in the le of this patent Hartshorn Apr. 11, 1939