US 2954727 A
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H. M. KATT ETAL 2,954,727 ROOF VENTILATOR v Filed Sept; 6,1195? INVENTOR Harold M Ka svJamesfljlmmons,
tilated, depending on the slope of going This invention relates generally to the ventilating 'art, and more particularly to a new and useful Construction for ventilating the roof area of building structures.
It has long been recognized that building roof structu'res should be ventilated, in order to cool the interior of the building and to prevent damage to the roof and adjacent building structure from. condensation. Indeed,- FHA requirements call for cross ventilation with vent openings equaling from /15 to A of the horizontal projection of the roof area ever-each space tube ven the roof and certain other factors. To this end, it is common practice to provide louvered and/ or screened vent openings at the gables, adjacent both the caves and the ridge, and/ or hooded vent openings through the roof adjacent the ridge.
Adequate ventilation is particularly important where the roof is insulated, because inadequate or no ventilation permits the formation of condensation which, in addition to damaging the roof and interior finishes, reduces the effectiveness of the insulation. Here again, the desirability of providing the necessary ventilation is well known, but the above-mentioned common methods of venting roof structures are of limited effect at best adjacent the caves, and where the roof is insulated they do not ventilate this areaat all. The various proposals heretofore made for providing ventilation at the eaves have not, for one reason or another, generally been accepted.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of our invention to provide a roof ventilating construction for use at the eaves which provides the necessary air inlet openings into the space between adjacent roof rafters and between the roof and insulation on the interior thereof to assure ventilation of the entire roof structure.
Another object of our invention is to provide the forein an assembly which is structurally very strong, while being relatively light in weight and small in size. I Still another object of our invention is to provide the foregoing in a roof ventilating construction which is relatively inexpensive to fabricate and easy to assemble in place on a building, while being extremely durable and dependable in operation. 7
It is also an object of our invention to provide the foregoing" in aconstruction adapted for use with existing building structures as well as with new structures incorporating the same as an original part thereof.
A roof ventilating construction in accord with our invention is characterized in one aspect thereof by the provision of a housing having a flashing portion for attachrnent to the roof adjacent an cave, a front wall portion and a bottom wall portion, brace members to be carried by the building structure at the ends of the roof rafters, the brace members sp nning the housing to reinforce the same, the back of the housing being open for communication with the space between adjacent rafters, and ventilator openings through the bottom wall of the housing into the space between adjacent brace members.
The foregoing and other objects, advantages and characcompanying drawings illustrating assign Patented Oct. 4, 196i) acterizing features of a roof ventilator construction in accord with our invention will become clearly apparent from the ensuing detailed description of a presently preferred embodiment thereof, taken in conjunction with the wherein. like reference numerals denote like parts throughout the various views, and'wherein:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary, transverse sectional'view of a building and its r f structure showing an cave ventilator of our invention installed thereon, with portions of the roof structure being broken away for ease of illustration;
Fig. 2 is a view, partly in plan and partly in section, taken about on line 2-2 of Fig. 1; a
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary, perspective view from behind and beneath the ventilator of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a brace member used in conjunction therewith; and
Fig. 5 is an end elevational view of an eave ventilator housing member of our invention, with the end cap removed.
In the accompanying drawings, device of our invention is shown in conjunction with a building of conventional construction, comprising for example a roof structure generally designated 1 having the usual rafters 2 joined adjacent their upper ends to comprise a ridge 3, with their lower ends bearing against a pole plate 4 surmounting a wall plate 5 superposed on theusual wall studding 6. The inner wall can comprise plaster 7 or other finishing material, with sheathingtl be ing applied to studding 6 to comprise an outer wall and across rafters 2 to comprise a roof deck. Shingles or other exterior finishing material 9 can be applied to the walls, and composition or other roofing material 10 is applied over deck 8.
Insulation 12 can be applied between adjacent roof rafters in spaced relation to the roof deck 8 and as customary in good construction, does not extend to the ridge but crosses between the rafters 2 on opposite sides of the roof at a point below the ridge, as illustrated at 13. A fascia board 14 is secured across the outer ends of rafters 2 to finish the same, and a finishing board 15 can be provided along the outer rafters 2 at opposite ends of the roof.
the roof ventilating A roof ventilation device comprising a hood 15' over an opening 16 through the roof deck 8 adjacent ridge 3 is provided for the exit of warm air, the hood having a downwardly directed opening spanned by louvers 17 and screening 18 to preclude the entry of small animals, insects and the like. Louvered and/or screened ventilator openings also can be provided through the end walls of the roof structure. However, while such ventilating c'evices are quite common, more is needed to adequately ventilate the entire roof because no circulation of air will occur adjacent the caves, and particularly between roof deck 8 and insulation 12, unless provision is made for the admission of ventilating air into that area.
In accord with our invention, such means are provided in the form of a housing, generally designated 20, which is positioned at the eaves, forming a very inconspicuous part thereof and becoming an integral part of the building structure. 1
In its presently preferred form, housing 20 is an integral, one-piece member having a sloping top wall portion forming a flashing flange 21 adapted to be secured to the roof deck 8 adjacent the eaves as by nails 22 or other suitable fastening means. The flashing flange 21 fits beneath the exterior roofing material 10, as clearly illustrated in Fig. 1, and comprises a continuation of the sloping roof line. At its outer edge portion flashing 21 is folded under upon itself to comprise a reinforced and reinforcing overhanging lip portion 23. In other words, the overhanging lip portion 23 is itself reinformed besuch embodiment upstanding flange 26.
cause the flashing material is folded under upon itself to provide a-lip of double thickness, and it reinforces the entire housing 20 as well as the superposed roofing material 10. The material of housing 20 'then is bent again to form a depending front wall portion 24 which is bent at its lower edge to provide a rearwardly or inwardly extending, generally horizontal bottom wall portion 25 which terminates along its rearward or inner edge in an The ventilator housing 20 is further reinforced, and divided into individual cells, by means of brace members generally designated 28 and each comprising a flashing flange portion 29 adapted to be secured to the roofing deck 8, beneath the housing flashing flange portion 21 of the housing, .as by nails 30 or other suitable fastening means. A depending back flange 31 extends from flashing flange 29 for beating against fascia board 14, in alignment with the ends of a rafter 2. A second, forwardly extending flange 32 extends like a wall at about a right angle to back flange 31 and is designed to span housing 20, having a sloping top edge 33 which, together with the sloping flashing flange 29, causes the same to fit fairly snugly against the flashing flange portion 21 of the housing. The brace members 28 are slotted, as at 26', adjacent the juncture between flanges 31 and 32, to receive the upstanding flange 26 of housing 20.
Thus, the spanning wall or cross flange 32 of brace 28 generally complements the interior contour of housing 20 serving to reinforce the same at spaced points therealong, while dividing the housing into a number of cells alined lengthwise thereof.
It will be noted that housing 20 has no rear wall, just flange 26, but instead uses fascia board 14 as a rear wall. To provide for communication between the interior ventilator housing 20 and the space between adjacent rafters 2, the fascia board is formed with one or more openings 35 therethrough between each pair of adjacent rafters. Thus, the interior of housing 20 is in communication with the space between each pair of adjacent rafters 2,
' at the'roof cave, and ventilating air enters into housing 7 20 through the bottom wall 25 thereof which is formed to provide a series of openings 37 therethrough. Preferably, openings 37 are formed by punching louvers 38 from bottom wall 25, the louvers being inclined so that they open downwardly and outwardly relative to the We have found, for example, that louvered vent openings inch open at their widest points, with openings in housing bottom wall 25 that are /1 inch long and inch wide, spaced apart approximately inch lengthwise of the housing, provide sufiicient total ventilating opening area while at the same time being of sufficiently small size td preclude the entry of undesired insects and the like into the housing. In other words, screening is believed not to be necessary, although of course the openings could be screened, particularly if it were desired to provide larger openings into the housing'Zti.
When installed, housing 20 is held by its flashing flange portion 21, which is fastened to the roof deck 8, and is divided by the braces 28 into a number of cells, with the preferred embodiment having a cell alined with the space between each pair of adjacent rafters. Ventilating air flows through the louvered openings 37 in housing bottom wall 25 into each cell, and therefrom through the openings 35 into and through the space between adjacent rafters 2 and then out as through the hooded roof vent 215', as indicated by the arrows 40 in Fig. 1. It is seen that openings are provided, at the eaves, into the space between each set of adjacent rafters, so that each pair of adjacent rafters is ventilated at the eaves. However, it is good practice not to extend the insulation to the ridge, but to leave open space thereat as illustrated in Fig. 1, whereby the air moving upwardly between adjacent rafters, when it approaches'the ridge area of the lator of our invention, is quite inconspicuous, fitting deeply under the eaves so as not to detract from the appearance of the building. It is very strong, particularly in view of the reverse bent lip portion 23 along its outer, upper,- edge and gthe upstanding flange 26 along its rear, lower edge, comprising a housing of box-like section which fits snugly against the building under the eaves, being further reinforced by the braces 28 which define with the housing a construction of great strength. If desired, fascia board 14 can be eliminated, being in effect replaced by the ventilating device of'this invention.
The rooting material 10 can extend down to lip 23, or
I can terminate slightly short thereof, and the lip 23 overhangs a gutter 42 of conventional construction which is secured to the front wall portion 24 of housing 20 by the usual hanger pins 43 extending through spacing collars 44 and housing 20, preferably through the brace flanges 31 and into the ends of the rafters 2. The brace member flanges 32, extending between the housing front wall 24 and the rafters 2, reinforce the housing 20 so that the hanger pins can be driven therethrough without buckling or otherwise adversely distorting the front wall 24. Thus, brace members 28 reinforce housing 20 and enable it to receive gutters such as that illustrated, and to withstand heavy loads thereagainst. The juncture between the gutter and housing 20 is adequately protected by the overhanding lip 23, whereby there is presented a structure of very neat, unobtrusive appearance against which a ladder can be rested without fear of damage. To complete the neat appearance of the installation, a trim strip or molding 45 can be applied to the building along the juncture between the housing bottom wall portion 25 and the building side wall.
Also, it is contemplated that from time to time it might be desired to clean out openings 37 in the housing bottom wall 25. To this end, the cross flange 32 of each brace 28 is recessed, as illustrated at 47, so that when a hose or the like is inserted into the housing at one end thereof, in alignment with the arcuate openings 47, a
stream of flushing water can be jetted along bottom wall 25 from one end of housing 20 to the other thereof. Such flushing water will drain through the openings 37 and clear the same of any clogging material, with louvers 38 tending to direct the water downwardly away from the building foundation. Where housing 20 is closed at its opposite ends, asby end caps 48, such end caps will have a similar opening 47 which can be closed by a pivoted cover 50, as illustrated in Fig. 3. As illustrated, end caps 48 can have side flanges which slip fit over the wall and flange portions of housing 20, or they can be secured thereto by other means suitable for the purpose.
Accordingly, it is seen that the roof ventilating arrangement of our invention fully accomplishes its intended objects, providing a means for thoroughly ventilating the space between each pair of rafters, at the eaves, and operating in conjunction with conventional roof ventilating means to provide, in an extremely practical, simple, durable and attractive installation, that degree of roof ventilation the desirability of which heretofore has been well recognized, but which heretofore has proven diflicult of solution.
While we have illustrated and described in detail only one, illustrative embodiment of our invention, we recognize that various modifications and variations can be made and will readily occur to those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of our invention and the scope of the appended claims.
Having fully disclosed and completely described our invention, together with its mode of operation, what we claim as new is:
slanting top wall which housing to form a mounting flange for attachment to a ,roof structure adjacent an eave,
, roof rafters adjacent an eave,
front wall in reinforcingrelation thereto,
said housing between said braces,
1. In a roof ventilating structure, a housing adapted to extend along an cave and having a substantially flat extends rearwardly beyond the a front wall depending from said top wall adjacent the forward edge thereof adapted to be spaced outwardly from the ends of the and a bottom wall projecting rearwardly from the lower edge of said front wall to the cave, a number of bracesextending transversely of said housing at spaced points thcrealong and abutting said and said bottom wall having a number of openings therethrough into said housing being open at the back thereof for passage of air through said bottom wall openings and out through the back of said hous- 2. A roof ventilating structure as set forth in claim 1, wherein said openings comprise forwardly opening louvers.
3. A roof ventilating structure comprising a housing member having a substantially flat slanting top wall which extends rearwardly beyond the housing member to form a mounting flange adapted to be secured to a roof deck adjacent an eave, said top wall being folded under upon itself along its forward longitudinal edge to provide a reinforced lip thereat, a front wall depending from said .top wall in inwardly spaced relation relative to the outer edge of said lip, a bottom wall projecting rearwardly from -the lower edge of said front wall to the eave, a number of braces within said housing member at spaced points therealong and defining therewith a housing adapted to be secured to a roof structure along an eave thereof and to open into the space between adjacent roof rafters thereat, said braces extending from the cave crosswise of said housing and abutting said front wall, and said bottom wall having ventilating openings therethrough and into said housing between said braces, said housing being open at the back thereof for passage of air through said bottom wall openings and out through the back of said hous- 4. In a roof ventilating structure, a housing member having a substantially flat slanting top wall which extends rearwardly beyond the housing member to form a mounting flange, a front wall depending from said top wall adjacent the forward edge thereof, a bottom wall extending rearwardly from the lower edge of said front wall, and a flange along the rearward edge of said bottom wall, a number of braces having a wall extending from said front wall to the rear of said housing member, the rear edge of each brace wall having a portion extending at generally a right angle thereto to form a mounting flange, and said bottom wall having openings therethrough into the space between adjacent braces, said housing member being open at the back thereof for passage of air through said bottom wall openings and out through the back of said housing member.
5. A roof ventilating structure as set forth in claim 4, wherein said housing member is of one piece construction folded under upon itself adjacent the juncture between said top wall and said front wall to provide an overhanging lip thereat.
6. A roof ventilating structure as set forth in claim 4, wherein said brace walls have a sloping top edge and substantially complement the internal contour of said housing member.
7. A roof ventilating structure as set forth in claim 4,
wherein said braces are recessed at the bottom edges thereof to enable endwise flushing of said structure along said bottom wall.
8. A roof ventilating structure as set forth in claim 7, together with end wall means at opposite ends of said housing member, said end wall means having flushing openings therethrough in alinement withsaid recessed bottom edges, and removable cover means for said end wall openings. v
9. In a roof ventilating structure, a housing adapted to extend along an cave and having a substantially fiat top wall which extends rearwardly beyond the housing to form a mounting flange for attachment to a roof structure adjacent an eave, a front wall depending from said top wall adjacent the forward edge thereof adapted to be spaced outwardly from the ends of the roof rafters adjacent an eave, and a bottom wall projecting rearwardly from the lower edge of said front wall to the eave, a number of braces extending transversely of said housing at spaced points therealong and abutting said front wall in reinforcing relation thereto, and said bottom wall having a number of openings therethrough into said housing between said braces, said-housing being open at the back thereof for passage of air through said bottom wall openings and out through the back of said housing.
10. A ventilated roof construction comprising, a building having a roof, ventilator opening means for said roof adjacent the ridge thereof, means defining openings into the space between adjacent rafters of said roof at an eave end thereof, a housing extending along said cave and having a flashing flange portion secured to said roof adjacent said eave, the outer longitudinal edge of said flashing flange portion being folded under upon itself to provide an overhanging lip portion, a front wall portion depending from said flashing flange portion in outwardly spaced relation to said openings at a point spaced inwardly from the outer edge of said lip portion, a bottom wall portion extending rearwardly from said front wall portion, an upstanding flange along the rear edge of said bottom wall portion, said housing communicating with said openings, braces carried by said building in alinement with said rafters, said braces spanning said housing crosswise thereof to reinforce said front wall portion, said bottom wall portion having ventilating openings therethrough into said housing between said braces, and gutter means extending forwardly from said front wall portion below said lip portion, said gutter means being fastened in place by hanger pins extending through said housing front wall portion into said building adjacent said braces.
References Cited in the file of this patent V UNITED STATES PATENTS Great Britain Jan. 7,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE r CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION "Patent No. 2 9547127 October 4, 1960- Harold M. Katt et, a1. 1 It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should readas corrected below. v
Column 6, lines 39 and 40, strike out "an upstanding" and insert instead a Signed and sealed this 11th day of April 1961.
ERNEST w sWiDER- I I ARTHUR w. CROCKER Attestmg ()fificer -Acting Commissioner of Patents