|Publication number||US2956900 A|
|Publication date||Oct 18, 1960|
|Filing date||Jul 25, 1958|
|Priority date||Jul 25, 1958|
|Publication number||US 2956900 A, US 2956900A, US-A-2956900, US2956900 A, US2956900A|
|Inventors||Carlson Arthur M, Prymula Carl E|
|Original Assignee||Alpha Metal Lab Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (17), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 18, 1960 A. M. CARLSON EI'AL ,9
NICKEL COATING COMPOSITION AND METHOD OF COATING spear N SPRHY GUN .JoLuT/aN A LEVELS THNK WITH METHL 50L UTIUN rmwr w/rn J REDUCER sauna/v CR) filfi PRESSURE nsaamrok TO HIR SUPPLY dart ffrym vla.
United States lice NICKEL COATING COMPOSITION AND METHOD or COATING e Arthur M. Carlson, Chicago, and Carl E. Prymula, Zion,
Ill., assignors to Alpha Metal Laboratories, Inc., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Filed July 25, 1958,'Ser. No. 750,870
4 Claims. (Cl. 117-47) I The invention relates to coating surfaces with nickel and more particularly relates to a process of spray metallizing conductors and non-conductors with chemically reduced nickel.
An object of this invention is to provide a simple and inexpensive process of providing a smooth, uniform coating of nickel.
These and other objects and advantages are accomplished by spraying an aqueous solution of nickel sulphate (preferably the hydrated nickel sulphate, NiSO -6H O) containing citric acid in a molar ratio of nickel sulphate to citric acid of between approximately 1.3 to 2.0 in conjunction with a reducer solution in such a manner that the solutions converge on the article to be coated.
in place of nickel sulphate, there can be used nickel chloride or nickel formate, in a molar ratio of such salts to citric acid of 1.3 to 2.85.
The reducer solution which we have found to give the most satisfactory results with the above mentioned nickel solutions is as follows:
Grams per liter of aqueous solution Sodium hydroxide 2 to 10 Sodium hydrosulphite 20 to 80 Sodium hypophosphite 5 to 30 Table I Ratio: Thickness, mils. 3.18 0.008 2.00 0.040 1.77 0.042 1.60 0.048 1.32 0.033 1.06 0.00 0.80 0.00
We obtained satisfactory results with concentrations of nickel sulphate (NiSo -6H O) of from 15 to 20 grams per liter and citric acid of between 8 to 12 grams per liter, the molar ratios of nickel sulphate (NiSO -6H O) to citric acid being as stated above, i.e., 1.3 to 2.0.
The above compositions can, of course, be sold in much more concentrated solutions, or even in a dry state and then diluted with water to make them suitable for the process of this invention.
The temperature of the solutions during processing can be varied widely. However, the temperature limit of the reducer solution is about 140 F., as above this temperature it starts to decompose. Suitable temperatures areap proximately 70 F. to
tions, and 70 F. to 180 F.-for the metal solutions.
For cold spraying of plastics, that is, tempcratures of 60 F.i to F.,'we obtain preferred results bysensitizing the plastic surface with 2 to 10 grams of SnCl: per
liter-of aqueous solution, preferably containing .5- to 2 grams per liter of sodium lauryl sulphate, or other fatty alcohol sulphate.
also preferably containing .5 to 2 grams per. liter of sodium lauryl sulphate or other fatty alcohol sulphate; then without rinsing, the plastic is sprayed with the n ckel Metal solution:
NiSO -6H O 3 lb., 5.5 oz. Citric acid -s 1 1b., 11 oz. Water to make 1 gallon.
NaOH 1 lb., 5.5 oz. Na,S O 11 lb., 11.5 oz. NaHz oz 1 1b., OZ-
The one gallon of metal solution is diluted to 20 gallons for spraying. The dry reducer mixture is also dissolved in water to give 20 gallons of solution.
As a specific example of nickel metal coating for electrolizing, we spray the above solutions separately at F. at 12 p.s.i. for approximately 5 minutes on a Vinylite mold, backed by a cool metal plate to conduct away the heat.
We have obtained satisfactory results on copper, aluminum, stainless steel, steel, brass, and plastics. So far as we know, all types of articles can be nickel coated with our solutions.
Instead of using a spray process, the article can be coated by dipping into a solution formed by mixing the nickel solution and reducer solutions, agitating the solutions, and then removing the coated article. This procedure is not as fast and does not give a coating which is quite as uniform as the spray process.
In order to facilitate ready comprehension of this invention and certain aspects of the method and means included within the purview of the same, a non-limiting example of apparatus or applying device useful for practising some of the principles of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing.
While we have disclosed certain preferred embodiments of our invention, many modifications thereto may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention; and we do not wish to be limited to the detailed examples, formulas, and proportions of ingredients set forth, but desire to avail ourselves of all changes within the scope of the appended claims.
1. A process of coating a surface with nickel which comprises spraying separately and directing toward the surface so that the solutions converge on the surface a nickel solution and reducer solution, said nickel solution consisting essentially of a nickel salt, selected from the group consisting of nickel sulphate, nickel chloride, and
, Patented o r. 18,1960,
140 F. for reducer sblui The plastic is then rinsed with to 10 grams of. silver nitrate per liter of aqueous SOlllilOIh.
hot spraying of plastics, the results are nickel formate; water, and" citric acid in a molar ratio of nickel sulphate to citric acid of between approximately 1.3 and 2.0, and a molar ratio of such other nickel salts to citric acid. of between. approximately 1.3
and 2.85' and said reducer solution consisting essentially of an alkaline solution of sodium hydrosulphite and sodium hypophosphite, the molar ratio of sodium hydrosulphite to sodium hypophosphite being between approxi- V mately 1.40 and 3.53.
'2. The process of claim 1, wherein the metal solution 10 coating and the temperature of the solutions is from 60 F. to 100 F.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,689,191 PC5881 Sept. 14, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 493,379 Great Britain Oct. 25, 1938 OTHER REFERENCES Brenner et al.: Partof the Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, Research Paper RP. 1835, vol. 39, November 1947, pp. 385-395.
15 Chakraborty et al.: J. Sci. Ind. Research (India) 138,
433-40 (1954), CA 49: 2808b.
Myers: Z. Anorg Chem. 80, pp. 93-103, CA 7: 21689.
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|U.S. Classification||427/306, 106/1.27, 427/438, 427/426, 427/427, 123/73.0AA|
|International Classification||C23C18/36, C23C18/31|