US 2957450 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 25, 1960 M. E. PHILLIPS, JR 2,957,450
FILTER TIP MACHINE Filed Dec. 4, 1956 INVENTOR. Mflzcom E. PHILLIPS, 1/6.
United States Patent G FILTER TIP MACHINE Malcolm E. Phillips, 3n, Raleigh, N.'C., assignor to American Machine and Foundry, Company, a corporation of New Jersey Filed Dec. 4, 1956, Ser. No. 626,125
9 Claims. (Cl. 1'18-40) The invention relates to a machine and method for making mouthpiece cigarettes and to a related apparatus for applying a cork band or other wrapper about an assembly of cigarette lengths and filter mouthpieces or tips. The invention is more particularly concerned with a method and apparatus for feeding and cutting the tipping material into convenient lengths.
One such machine to which the present invention may be applied with great advantage is described in detail in US. application Serial No. 509,293 by George Dearsley filed on May 18, 1955. The inventive improvement herein disclosed will be described in connection with this machine.
One of the criticisms sometimes made regarding the operation of filter tip machines is that the tipping material web is subject to breakage as it is fed from the feeding rollers to the cutting drum. The surface of the cutting drum advances at a greater peripheral speed than the linear speed of the metered uniting band material. At the moment of cutting the hand must travel at the higher drum speed which imposes an additional tension on the cork web causing occasional breakage thereof. Such breakages lower the availability of frequent occurrence, represent operating costs.
Another criticism often made regarding the operation of filter tip machines is the frequency with which the machine mustbe shut down for the purpose of replacing the cork tip knife. Because of the limitations imposed with regard to allowable tension in the cork web, multiple knives which would reduce outage time have not'bee'n feasible heretofor.
Accordingly, it isa primary object of the invention to provide'a-method and apparatuszwhich permits a low.- eringof the tension in the web of the tip wrapping material at the time the cutting action of the knife is applied, thereby. reducing or eliminating outage time due to breakage of the tipping material web.
It is' another object of the invention to makeuse of multiple, knives in filter tip attaching apparatus, o'rapparatusof similar nature, for cutting the filter tip ma-. terialdnto convenient lengths.
A further object of the invention is to provide for better controlled severing. of the tipping material web.
An additional object of the present invention; is ..to.ex' tend by an appreciable amount the, running time of the machine between knife replacements.
Other objects and features of the invention will appear as the description of the particular physical embodiment selected to illustrate the invention progresses. In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification, like characters of reference have been applied to corresponding parts throughout the several; viewswhich make up the drawings.
Fig.- l isasideelevation in diagrammatic form, illustrating the web cutting mechanism in conjunction with the hereindisclosed improved mechanism for feeding the web onto-the, suction drum surface.
a substantial item in the of the machine and, if
. arrangement-for holding Patented Oct. 25, 1960 Fig. 2 is a side elevation illustrating in diagrammatic form the tip material carrying drum and cutting mechanism in conjunction with one embodiment of the invention comprising an idler roller mounted on a driven eccentric shaft.
Fig. 3' is a side elevation, illustrating in diagrammatic form the tip material, carrying drum and cutting mechanism in conjunction w'th another embodiment of the invention in the form of an idler roller mounted on an oscillating pivoted arm.
Fig. 4 schematically illustrates the reduction in approach angle and resulting increase in cork web snatch when using a multiple knife head.
As earlier mentioned herein, my invention will be described as applied to a filter tip attaching apparatus such as is described in the copending patent application referredto above. It will be appreciated, however, that'my invention disclosed herein can, with equal beneficial results, be applied to machines and apparatus of other designs which may be faced with essentially the same problem.
Fig. 1 shows in diagrammatic form the portion of the above mentioned filter tip attachment which portion is instrumental in feeding the web into the cutting'mechanism to be cut into sections, which later are applied as wrapping material to unite the filter tip and the cigarette rod.
The uniting band material TM is fed from a reel 10 over pullies 12 and 14 and between feed rollers 16 and 18 and over paste applying roller 20 and around another guide roller 22 in the direction indicated by the arrows onto, the band conveying drum surface 24. Adhesive material is stored in the glue pot 26 and is removed therefrom by a roller 28 which has excess paste trimmed therefrom by means of an adjustable scraper blade 30. The roller; 28 engages with the paste applying roller 20 which transfers the glue onto the underside of the uniting band material TM.
The drum surface 24 has metallic insert blocks (not shown) mounted thereon at spaced intervals transversely across'the periphery of the drum, as described in greater detail in the earlier application referred to hereinabove. These inserts are so spaced as to serve as meeting blocks and; to be; opposite to one of the rotating cutting knives 32 and 34 each time each block passes this point. i
The, cutting drum surface 24 has aunique suction hole the band or tip material TM in contact with the surface 24 of the cutting drum. However,.there is a slippage that takes place between the surface, 24 of the cutting. drum and the uniting band TMi due tothe fact that feed roller 16 is driven at a slower peripheralspeedthan the cutting drum and accordingly the uniting band or tip material lags behind the drum surface. 2.4;.
As the material passes beneath the knife, the'leading end, of the tip material TM is severed to form. tip T; The. latter, due to the higher speed of the cutting drum surface 24. advances ahead of the tip material TM, thereby. providing spacing between the tip T' and. the leading end of the tip material TM. This spacing is required in order, to permit completion of one wrapping operation before a new assembly of cigarette rod and filter. plug comes'in contact with the corresponding web section T to be applied thereto.
Roller 16 meter the tipping material TM at a linear rate which iszproportional to the cigarette circumference. The knife32 (or 32 and 34 if two are used) rotates at the peripheral speed of the cutting drum which speed is somewhat higher than the metering linear speedgas herein above described. At the instant the knife" edge, bitesintothe material as shown at 36 in Fig. 4, the uniting-band material is gripped between the knifehndthe a 3 surface 24 of the cutting drum, causing the material near the knife to travel faster, i.e., at the drum speed, than the material near the metering roller. This causes the uniting band to stretch, imposing additional tension thereon which may lead to breakage. The tensionrnounts until the web is completely severed, which occurs at point 38. The pull exerted by the knife while the material web TM is under the grip of the knife and cutting surface is sometimes referred to as the knifesnatch. This pull is maintained throughout the distance of travel indicated -by S, when a Single knife is used such as 32 mounted in a single knife head 40. a
The use of multiple knives requires a knife head 42 of a larger diameter than that required when using a single knife for the same cutting drum size. Thus, when employing two knives, the knife head 42 would be twice the diameter of the single knife head 40, but run at one half the rotational speed, i.e., equal surface speed. With three knives, knife head 42 would be three times the diameter of the single knife head and rotate at one third the speed thereof, etc.
The knives 44 of the multiple knife head 42 contact the tipping material at point 46. Due to a lower approach angle the knife snatch is increased as represented by distance D, and with it the tension on the material web.
Present day filter tip attaching devices, with currently employed tipping material such as cork, white paper etc., are barely within the limits of workability when using a single knife. Additional web tension caused by the use of multiple knives results in excessive web breakage.
One method of eliminating the pull of the knife and excessive breakage of the web would be to run the metering roller 16 at variable speed. However, this would ave the disadvantage of causing the web to pass over the glue roller 20 at variable speed, which is not desirable since it may cause the glue to be applied unevenly.
The above problem has been successfully solved by the improved feeding device herein disclosed, which will now be described in detail.
Referring now to Fig. 2, illustrating one embodiment of the invention which is shown equipped with a multiple knife head carrying two knives 32 and 34, at the instant the band is gripped and a section is severed from the leading end thereof between the knife 32 or 34 and the drum surface 24, it is forced to advance at a greater speed than the linear speed at which the material leaves the feeder roller 16. This causes a pulling and stretching of that portion of the material which extends between the roller 16 and the knife edge.
Generally, the path followed by the uniting band between the feed roller 16 and the point of contact on the cutting drum surface 24 is not the shortest path possible, such as imaginary straight line L in Figure 2. To eliminate the excess pull on the uniting band, the present invention provides means whereby this path is periodically shortened in coincidence with the cutting action, to such an extent that the slack provided thereby will permit the leading end of the uniting band, while being gripped by the knife, to accelerate to drum surface speed without additional tension being imposed on the uniting band TM during the cutting operation.
In accordance with the invention the periodic shortening of the path of travel of the uniting band is basically accomplished by moving the band supporting and guiding roller 22 nearer to imaginary line L at the instant or shortly before the knife 32 or 34 bites into uniting band web TM, and returning the roller 22 to the original position thereof after the cutting operation is completed.
There are several ways in which this can be accomplished, two of which will now be described:
In Figure 2 the idler roller 22 is mounted on a driven eccentric shaft 48. This shaft is timeable with knives if the frequency of a two edge or 32 and 34 by being driven directly from the knife shaft 50 by means of sprocket 52 mounted on shaft 50, sprocket 54 mounted on eccentric roller shaft 48, idler sprocket 56 and chain 58. Obviously eccentric shaft 48 can be driven by other convenient means, provided said other means rotate at a speed proportional to the rotational speed of the knife shaft 50.
While the eccentric roller shaft 48 is driven at twice the rotational. speed as the knife shaft 50, when two knives are employed, this design will function in the same manner for multiple knives if the rotational speed of the eccentric shaft 48 is any whole number multiple of the rate of cutting the uniting band TM.
In Figure 3 there is shown another embodiment of the invention. The idler roller 22 is here mounted on the end of an oscillating arm 60 pivoted at 62. The oscillations must be timeable with the rotation of the knife head. Accordingly the oscillating arm 60 must be driven from the knife shaft 50 or from some other convenient shaft which rotates at a speed proportional to the rotational speed of the knife shaft 50.
In the embodiment illustrated in Figure 3 the oscillating arm 60 is shown 'as being driven by the knife shaft '50. For this purpose pulleys 61 and 63 are provided to drive a crank 64 mounted on crank shaft 51 which oscillates arm 60 by means of connecting rod 66. The ratio of the diameters of pulleys 61 and 63 is 1 to 2 if two knives are used, and 3 to 1, if three knives are employed, etc.
While the oscillating arm is directly driven from the knife shaft in case a single knife is used, the oscillating arm will function in the same manner for multiple knives the oscillations are any whole number multiple of the rate of cutting the uniting band.
Other well known methods can be employed to provide oscillation for idler roller 22, such as an eccentric cam Operating against a spring loaded oscillating arm or positive motion cam with followers attached to the oscillating arm, to mention only two.
Furthermore, well known conventional types of cycling take-ups other than those illustratively disclosed herein may be employed in practicing my invention.
The invention herein above described may be varied in' construction within the scope of the claims, for the particular device selected to illustrate the invention is but one of many possible embodiments of the same. The invention, therefore, is not to be restricted to the precise details of the structure shown and described.
What is claimed is:
1. A machine for severing predetermined lengths from band material comprising a metering device for feeding said material at a constant surface speed; a cutting surface onto which said material is fed; means for advancing said cutting surface at a surface speed in excess of said constant speed; a rotating knife shaft; a first sprocket mounted on said knife shaft a knife head mounted on said knife shaft for severing said band material at predetermined cutting intervals while said material is being supported against said cutting surface, causing elongation of said material due to the higher cutting surface speed at which the material is forced to travel during the cutting action; means for decreasing periodically and in coincidence with said cutting action the path of travel of said band material between said metering device and the cutting edge of said knife means, said means consisting of a rotary shaft, a second sprocket mounted on said rotary shaft, an idler roller for supporting the band material, a pivot for said idler roller mounted on said second sprocket at a point spaced from the rotating axis of said second sprocket, and chain means operatively connecting said first and second sprockets.
2. A machine for severing sections from hand material comprising a cutting drum rotating at a given surface speed, a feed roller feeding said band material onto the surface of said cutting drum at a constant speed that is lower than said given surface speed thereby causing said band to slidingly lag behind in relation to said drum surface, knife means periodically to sever said band material at a given cutting rate while said material is supported against said drum surface and travelling at the speed thereof while being cut, an idler roller located at a point intermediate said feed roller and said cutting drum and supporting said band material at a point spaced from an imaginary straight line tangent to said feed roller and to said cutting drum on the sides thereof, facing said idler roller, and mounting means periodically to move said idler roller and band toward and away from said imaginary straight line, the position closest to said line coinciding with the cutting action of said knife means, said mounting means including a rotary shaft upon which said idler roller is mounted and a pivot means for rotatably supporting the idler roller, said pivot means being supported for planetary movement about the rotary shaft at a point spaced from the rotating axis of such shaft, and means to drive said rotary shaft at a rotational speed which is a whole number multiple of said cutting rate.
3. In a cigarette mouthpiece attaching apparatus, a cutting drum rotating at a given surface speed; feeder means delivering a mouthpiece uniting band material at a constant surface speed, lower than said given drum speed, onto the peripheral surface of said cutting drum, causing said drum surface slidingly to advance relative to said uniting band; a knife head having at least one cutting edge periodically to sever said uniting band at a given cutting rate while being supported against the surface of said cutting drum and while travelling at the speed thereof during the cutting action; a driving shaft on which said knife head is mounted an idler roller disposed at a point intermediate said cutting drum and said feeder means, said idler roller supporting said uniting band at a point removed from an imaginary straight line extending between the last point of contact of said uniting band with said feeder means and the first point of contact of said uniting band with said cutting drum surface an oscillating mounting means for said idler roller causing said roller and uniting band alternately to approach and recede from said imaginary straight line, the nearest position of said idler roller to said imaginary line timed to coincide with the cutting action of said knife edge, said oscillating mounting means comprising a driven crank shaft, means drivingly connecting said driving shaft and said driven crank shaft, an oscillating arm on which said idler roller is rotatably mounted, and a connecting rod pivotally connected to said crank shaft and said oscillating arm.
4. Apparatus having the features provided for in claim 3, wherein said knife means are rotated at a given rotational speed and wherein the driven crankshaft of said oscillating device is driven at a rotational speed which is proportional to the rotational speed of said knife means.
5. Apparatus having the features provided for in claim 3, wherein said knife means include a multiple knife head and wherein the driven crankshaft of said oscillating means include means operatively connected to an oscillating arm the frequency thereof being a whole number multiple of said cutting rate.
6. A machine for severing sections of predetermined length from the leading end of band material and for spacing the severed sections of the band material comprising a cutting drum rotating at a given surface speed, a feed roller means feeding said band material to the surface of said cutting drum at a constant speed that is slower than the surface speed of said cutting drum, means for holding the band material on the drum but permitting it to slip whereby the leading end of said band material is held on said drum surface but slips over said surface, a knife-cutting means mounted in a rotating head for cutting the band material against the cutting drum as the cutting drum and rotating head rotate into contact, periodically severing a predetermined length of band material from the leading end of said band material while the material is being held against slipping over said drum surface between the knife-cutting means and the cutting drum so that said band material is traveling at substantially the same speed as said drum while being cut, an idler roller positioned between said feed rolling means and said cutting drum for engaging said band material and maintaining contact while the length of band material between the feed rolling means and said cutting drum changes, and means supporting said idler roller constantly moving said idler roller causing a substantially constant tension on the web between the cutting drum and the feed roller means, as the length of band material between the feed rolling means and the cutting drum changes.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein the idler roller contacts the band material on the same face of said material as the cutting drum.
8. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein the idler roller contacts the same face of the band material as the cutting drum and paste is applied to the other face of said band material between the feed roller means and the cutting drum.
9. A machine for severing sections from band material comprising a cutting drum rotating at a given surface speed, a feed roller feeding said band material onto the surface of said cutting drum at a constant speed that is lower than said given surface speed thereby causing said band to slidingly lag behind in relation to said drum surface, knife means periodically to sever said band material at a given cutting rate while said material is supported against said drum surface and travelling at the speed thereof while being cut, an idler roller located at a point intermediate said feed roller and said cutting drum and supporting said band material at a point spaced from an imaginary straight line tangent to said feed roller and to said cutting drum on the sides thereof, facing said idler roller, means periodically to move said idler roller and band toward and away from said imaginary straight line, the position closest to said line coinciding with the cutting action of said knife means, said knife means including a knife head mounted on a rotating knife shaft and said means for moving said idler roller including a rotary shaft and a pivot for said idler, which pivot is eccentric to said shaft; and means to drive said rotary shaft from said knife shaft.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS