US 2959127 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov, 8, 1960 Y C. R. WEINERT 2,959,127
GAS GRENADE Fig..9
59 68 VE R.
LMYWM www HIS A T TORNE YS United States GAS GRENADE Carl R. Weinert, West View, Pa., assignor to Iederal Laboratories, Inc., Saltsburg, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Feb. 16, 1956, Ser. No. 566,038
20 Claims. (Cl. 1702-65) This invention relates to grenades having a gas generating charge. When ignited, the` chargev produces burning or incandescent solid particles in addition to the desired gas and if the grenade emits such particles, they are like- 1y to cause injuries or to set fire to the surroundings.
An object of the invention is to prevent the hot Aburning particles from emitting from the grenade. In generala grenade construction accomplishes this object which has one or more of the following attributes as embodied in the several illustrative examples of the invention hereinafter more fully set forth.. l
(a) A long multiple-reversing path of internal travel through the grenade to reduce'the particles `to ,complete combustion before they can escape.
(b) An arresting screen to intercept the solid particles.
(c) Reversing bales which, by impact of 'the solid particles against the ballles, cause-them to break up and taneous, is self-sustaining in its action on the charge and consumes itl progressively from one end to the otherf,
In the drawings, Figure 1 is` a longitudinal sectional viewot a single charge type grenade embodying the'invention;
Figures 2 and 3 are longitudinal section views of modiications of the single charge grenade of FigureV l;
Figures 4, 5, 6, 8, are longitudinal section views of multi-charge modifications having their charges spaced apart;
. Figure' 7 is a transverse sectional viewof the modilication of Figure 6 and taken along the lines VII--VII thereof; and
Figure 9 is a perspective showing of a modification for the lower chargein the vmulti-charged grenades of Figures 4, 5, 6 and 8.
In more specific reference to Figure l, a grenade 10 has a generally cylindrical non-rupturable case arranged with a longitudinal central axis 11 and composed of an upper container section 12 and a lower section 13 riveted or otherwise permanently secured thereto through a telescoping llange 13a. The grenade 10 carries a cover 12a secured to the top'of the'container section 12 and having a lgas-tight center opening receiving a fuse, igniter, or otherfiring device 14 which is threaded therein to ignite the grenade. The container section 12 has a centrally open transverse tlangeVlS at the lower end forming a supporting partition for a long solid body 16 of the gas generating charge having an exposed upper surface which' Patent O Patented Nov. 8, 1960 confronts the tiring device 14 across the resulting pressuretight combustion chamber 17a. The body 16 of the charge is a compacted mixture which is hollow and the core has solid walled metal tube 18 imbedded in the hollow interior thereof and protruding at both ends. The charge is preshaped under pressure and several tons, e.g., 5 tons, compacting pressure is used. At the upstanding end the tube 18 carries a closure head 18a welded thereto and adjacent the head a set of side openings 18h is formed in the tube in spaced relation between the closure head 18a and the exposed surface of the body 16 of the charge. Intermediate its ends the tube 18 carries a welded-on anchoring ring 18C which is clamped between the supporting partition 15 and the charge body 16. At the open lower end thereof the tube 18 telescopically extends halfway to the bottom of a larger diametered baille cup 19 located in a discharge chamber 17b and riveted at 19a to the lower section 13. A plurality of small restricted openings formed in the side walls of the lower section 13 may be covered by means of detachably secured rubber covers 13b which, when removed or ruptured due to internal gas pressure, permit the discharge of gas radially from the discharge chamber 17b. In one embodiment of the invention these gas exit openings beneath the covers 13b were Mz" in diameter, l" center to center, and eight in number on a 21/2 diameter grenade.
In operation of the grenade of Figure 1, the body 16 of the charge is ignited with the tiring device 14 and the combustion products are liberated and completely reverse their direction once in turning through the openings 18b and passing parallel to the axis 11 through the full length of the body of the charge. These products reverse their direction once more in passing through the annular space between the open end of the tube 18 and the batlle cup 19, and again completely reverse their direction inspilling over the edge of the baille cup 19. Finally, with'a half turn laterally with respect to the axis 11, the gaseous products rupture or dislodge the covers 13b and are emitted from the sides of the grenade. uring the described reversals of motion, incondescent particles iirst tend to impact against the underside of the top cover 12a, later against the base of the baille cup 19, then later against' the bottom of the transverse flange 15, and finally against the base of the lower section 13 outside the area of the baille cup 19. Hence, the solid particles tend to break up and burn out before they can be emitted Vfrom the grenade 10.
In the embodiment of Figure 2, the grenade 20 has a charge containing section 22, a firing device 24, and a center tube 28 all of which are concentric to the longitudinal axis 21. The center tube 28 has an end closure member 28a and gas conducting openings 28b at the upper protruding end and in the respects thus far noted is identical with the embodiment of Figure l. At the lower protruding end, however, the center tube 28 of Figure 2 has another end closure member 28d and a plurality of side openings 28e which together define a confined discharge chamber 2'7b. The side openings 28e may be covered by means of rubber plugs suchy as the plugs 23b. Gas is emitted directly from the discharge charnber 27b through the outlet openings 28e radially of the axis 21. The end cover 28d for the protruding lower end of the tube 28 is spaced slightly from the openings 28e to form a oor for a shallow well to trap andvcontainY incandescent solid particles while they burn out.
Ithereof and is counterbored at 38 at the upper end. When* assale? discharge chamber 37b from which they are expelled` after they dislodge or rupture a set of rubber sealing covers 33b.
In the twin-charged embodiment of Figure 4, al
grenade 40 has a case with a midsection 43 and with opposite container sections 42, 44 at upper and lower ends thereof. These sections are permanently secured together as by means of the telescoping flanges 43a and 44a and rivets and the sections are concentric with a firing device 45 along their common axis 41. A pair of upper and lower charges 46a and 4Gb have a xed spaced relationship and for this purpose they utilize a set of transverse supporting partitions 49a and 49'b which are centrally open and which constitute end anges on the respective sections 42 and 43. A pair of spaced solid walled center tubes 48a and 48b are centrally aixed to the flanges 49a and 49b and extend in the same direction therefrom, notably upwardly as viewed in Figure 4. Accordingly, the upper tube 48a passes' through and is imbedded in the bore of the upper charge 46a and being coextensive in length therewith, it is effective as a gas channel to conduct combustion products from the pressure-tight combustion chamber adjacent the tiring device 45 down the full length of the charge. Inasmuch as the upper end of the companion tube 48b confronts the discharge end of the tube 48a across a discharge chamber 47, a jet of hot combustion products is directed downwardly through the tube 4811 to impinge against and ignite the lower charge 46b. Accordingly, the interior of the center tube 48h is forthwith transformed into a combustion chamber and the two opposing jets of combustion products discharging from the charges 46a and 46b coincide with one another in counterflowing streams which intermingle and then emit through evolution openings from a discharge chamber 47 between the charges. These evolution openings are identical in size. number, and arrangement and are sealed the same as the openings sealed at 13b in the embodiment of Figure 1. The oppositely traveling hot solid particles from the charges tend to impact against one another in the space between the confronting tubes 48a and 4817 so as to disintegrate before they can leave the discharge chamber 47 in the usual radial direction.
In the embodiment of Figure 5, a grenade 50 is shown similar to the Figure 4 grenade except that it has a discharge chamber 57 and an upper charge 56a which are devoid of any center tube structure carried by their centrally open support partitions 59a and 59b respectively. Accordingly, the upper charge 56a has merely a bare bore which is exposed throughout its hollow interior and is counterbored at 58 opposite an igniter 55. A
lower charge 56h is exposed through the central lopening in the support partition 59b.
In the embodiment of Figures 6 and 7, a grenade 60 is shown similar to the Figure embodiment except for the fact that the discharge chamber 67 has a pair of baffle tub'es68, 69 one within another which are coaxial with the longitudinal central axis 61 thereof. A singlei opening 68a is formed in the wall of the inner tube 68 at a point on one side of the grenade and at the opposite side, the wall of the outer tube 69 has a single side opening 69a. Thus, the interior of the inner tube 68 forms a rst annular compartment within the discharge chamber 67 which communicates solely through the opening 68a with a second surrounding compartment formed between the two tubes. reversal of direction, can the gas travel successively through these two annular compartments. Gas from the opening 68a splits into two paths in the second cornpartment which reunite at the opening 69a before they issue therefrom to pass through Lthe conventional 'side Only by a complete A openings in the grenade 60 in a direction radially to the axis 61 thereof.
Figure 8 has similar numerals and shows the same embodiment as Figure 6, but with two exceptions. First, the Figure 8 embodiment has a series of substantially identical centrally cored charges 66a, 66b, etc., provided in a row of container sections alternating with a like number of the discharge chambers 67a, 67b, 67e, etc., and extending coaxially between the igniter 65 and the lower container section 64. Second, even though the discharge chambers have tubular baffles 68, 69 and are interposed with one chamber in common to each two adjacent charges, all as in Figure 6, the Figure 8 embodiment omits counterbores from the hollow cores of the charges 66a, 66b, etc., for the reason that a bore of uniform diameter as shown in the latter embodiment is considerably more desirable from the viewpoint of ease of manufacture in many instances and does not materially reduce the performance of a multiple charge' type grenade, if at all.
The fragmentary modification illustrated by Figure 9 embodies a preshaped lower charge 76b of modified form for use in the multicharge grenades. The grenade case includes a midsection 73 defining a discharge chamber for the case and carrying a transverse ange 73a which is centrallyopen and which contines the lower charge 76b within a lower container section 74.
Concentric with the longitudinal axis 71, a part depth recess 77 formed in the core of the charge 76b extends about halfway through the charge so as to expose the core thereof and present a greater initial surface area to the impingement of hot combustion products from the upper charge, not shown. Another purpose of the recess 77 is to increase the burning rate of the mass of' the charge after it is ignited.
The foregoing embodiments of Figures 5-9 follow the general operation of the Figure 4 embodiment beginning with the instant at which they are ignited. The selfpropagating fire immediately cascades axially from the pressure-tight combustion chamber through the center of the cores of the initially ignited charge and any intervening charges to strike the charge at the opposite end and in a two-stage operation thereof it is able to tire the first charge and all the rest substantially simultaneously. Once afire, a charge burns for a period of a few seconds, lasting in some instances to approximately one minutes time before it is entirely consumed. The incandescent particles emerging from the two charges from concentric opposite directions tend to impact against one another and disintegrate. The ultimate gas escape path between each two adjacent charges is directed from their common intervening discharge chamber at right angles to the axial path of travel of the particles and hence tends to be free of glowing or still-burning particles asthe gas emits fromthe grenade.
In case it is desired that the charges of the foregoing grenades produce lachrymatory gas, then chloracetophenone or a selected one of other lachrymatory gas producing substances is employed as the gas generating material in the charge mixture.v To produce sternutatory gas,- diphenylamine chlorarsine or other sternutatory gas producing substances is employed as the gas generating material. To produce colored smoke, a dye impregnated filler or other dye substance is employed as the gas generating material. The properties of these materials and effective -substitutes therefor to produce the desired gases `are well-known and different combinations of the gases may be produced form a single grenade merely by employing one or more charges having different kinds of gas generating material compatible in the same mixture or two or more gas generating charges of different compositions therein.
Some unobvious examples of the latter which apply interposed mixing chamber are as follows:
Example 1 One charge of a white smoke producer and a spaced separate charge of a deeper colored smoke producer will mix their discharge products in the common chamber to generate a lighter shade or pastel blend of smoke. Also numerous other combinations of colored smoked charges may be used such as a red smoke producer and a separate charge of a blue smoke producer which will independently generate and then mutually mix their products in the common chamber to emit an ultimate smoke of entirely different color, that is purple. For this purpose, many smokev coloring dyes such as analine are incompatible with each other and with other dyes in one sense. Thus, it is known that the llame zone for producing white smoke must be hotter than necessary for producing smoke of many or most other colors and Vthat each dye colored smoke, in fact, has a different optimum tire temperature for its production.. Unfortunately, a lower temperature smoke dye will darken or completely burn up if captive in the immediate flame zone of some higher temperature smoke dyes and will thus discolor any mixture of them to give an unwanted greyish cast to it. However, one of my multiple charge grenades with its spaced ame zones will liberate a mixure of smoke without such discoloration and having desired shades and fine colors hitherto unproduced and being practically without limitation in the color ranges available.
Example 2 arated. lSuch a mutually produced smoke cl-oud has the immediately effective irritant qualities of the tear gas from the CN and the delayed toxic effect of the DM whichV lingers with the individual for a periodof minutes or hours. It is to be appreciated that one of my multiple charge grenades will hold in readiness, separated quantities of otherwise unstable ingredients without loss of their strength over a long period of time. Then when ignited it will mix their respective combustion products at a point external to, but between their first zones to yield a cloud having the two or more wanted qualities in its smoke.
Example 3 One charge of a material which is chemically incompatible lwith a charge of a conventional gas smoke producer is provided at a point'spaced apart therefrom within the grenade. The material that I prefer in this example is an inert gas blanket producer containing fuel and a carbonate, ammonium carbonate for instance, or
ing or the propagation of tires from any source in the immediate vicinity of operation of the grenade.
Variations within the spirit and scope of the invention described are equally comprehended by the foregoing description.
1. A generally cylindrical device for generating gas, smoke, or the like and having axially spaced combustible charges adapted to produce counterfiowing jets of combustion products, a transverse support partition provided for each of said charges and each together with the other one of the partitions defining a discharge chamber common to the charges, each of said support partitions having an opening and a tube aflixed thereto surrounding the opening and extending in the same direction as the corresponding tube on the other one of the partitions, the adjacent ends .of said tubes confronting one -another in the discharge chamber to direct said counterflowing jets of combustion products from the charges to impinge directly against and commingle with one another, and lateral opening forming means in the sidesof the discharge chamber from which the commingling combustion products are adapted to issue.
2. A cylindrical device with a generally rigid outer casing body and adapted for generating gas, smoke, or the like, the combination with said casing body, of axially spaced combustible charges positively positioned within said casing body, a transverse support partition provided for each charge in said casing body and opposed from the other partition to include a discharge chamber in the space therebetween and common to the charges, one of said charges having an igniter opposite its outer end and incorporating an axially extending tubular conduit leading through the core thereof for directing a jet in a path across the common discharge chamber to impinge against and ignite an exposed portion of another charge, the transverse support partition provided for said other charge being arranged with an opening at a point thereinwhereby to expose the just-said exposed portion of the other charge for ignition and with the surface of said other charge being relieved at that point by an inwardly penetrating recess at its exposed portion to provide for initial exposure of a por-tion of the Surface area of the core of the charge.
3. In a generally cylindrical grenade for generating gas, smoke, or the like, the combination of axially spaced successively igniting charges having a common discharge chamber included in the space therebetween, a transverse support partition at the inner end of each of the charges and each having a centrally disposed port juxtaposed to the inner end of the corresponding supported charge, a fuse igniter for the grenade arranged adjacent the outer end of one of the charges, an axial passage behind said igniter passing through the core of said one charge and its corresponding port, the other said port juxtaposed to another charge being axially aligned with said passage for initially introducing a stream of hot products in j one direction to ignite said other charge and for ultimately other fire extinguishing chemicals which liberate ca-rbon dioxide. When heated by the fuel the carbonate rapidly decomposes to liberate carbon dioxide and in the instance of ammonium carbonate decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide, both having excellent ame smothering qualities. However, at a much slower rate the arnmonium carbonate inevitably decomposes in the presence of acid and hence, it is incompatible in mixture with conventional smoke gas producers which are chemically acidic and many such producers are in fact acidic. But one fof my multiple charge grenades circumvents this `difliculty and is especially suited to liberate a smothering blanket simultaneously and in mixture with a cloud of gas smoke such as tear gas or others of the foregoing, andy this lblanket will inherently insure against the startintroducing hot products from the latter in anopposite direction to impinge upon and be mutually disruptive against said stream, and means forming readily penetrated discharge vents in the sides of the discharge chamber for the escape of the combustion products.
4. In a generally cylindrical grenade for generating gas, smoke, or the like, the combina-tion set forth in claim 3 and further having baffle means provided in the discharge chamber at points offset with respect to said ports from said charges and presenting transverse surfaces to said hot products of combustion, effective for' deflectin-g same and causing them to make at least two reversals in the escape path therethrough before issuing forth from the aforesaid side discharge vents therein.
5. A grenade for generating gas, smoke or the like in.- cluding a combustion chamber and an actively combusti.-
greater ble two-faced charge disposed with an exposed face confronting said combustion chamber and having separating partition lmeans supporting the charge against its other face, said combustible charge having a hollow core incorporating a solid walled tube embedded therein and defining a lined conduit through 'the core thereof for leading combustion products and their entrained particles from the upper end of the tube at least the length of the charge after leaving the combustion chamber, means at the bottom of the tube forming a side outlet type discharge chamber for the expulsion of the combustion products, and pressure rupturable means sealing the discharge chamber.
6. A grenade according to claim 5, further including baiiie means in said side outlet-type discharge chamber and eifective 'to deflect the ow of vcombustion products and entrained particles in their immediate progress toward the side outlet discharge aforesaid.
7. Amethod of operating a gas generating grenade having spaced, contemporaneously burning charges comprising directing the gas from the respective charges in counter-flowing streams which coincide with one another to cause impact between and disintegration of the entrained burning particles, and conducting the particle-free gas through restrictive openings leading laterally with respect to the coinciding streams.
8. A method of operating a spaced charge gas grenade having an ingredient in each charge desirably kept apart from direct contact with an ingredient in a companion charge and further having an internal chamber therein which is common to the charges, said method comprising introducing the combustion products from each charge simultaneously but from different axial directions into the common chamber and mixing the same internally therein, and lconducting the resulting intern-al mixture through smoke evolution openings leading in another direction from said chamber.
9. The method according to claim y8 wherein said ingredient in atleast one charge is an irritant producer.
l0. The method of claim 8 wherein an irritant producer constitutes the said ingredient in one charge and another charge has a toxic producer which constitutes the ingredient incompatible with the rst said ingredient.
11. The method of claim 8 wherein the smoke mixture has a final coloration blended from the merger of differing smokes.
12. The method of claim 8 wherein at least one charge is -th'e producer of a flame smothering blanket entrained in the desired smoke cloud.
1'3. 4The method of burning incandescent particle emitting charges in a gas grenade or the like so as to disintegrate the particles before they are emitted from the grenade, comprising the improved steps of providing charges which are in a xed spaced relationship of confrontation, igniting the charges at least substantially simultaneously, directing the respective streams of products o'fc'ombustion of lthe charges to spew directly against one another in 'saidspac'e so 'as to keep impelling any entrain'ed incandescent particles lin the streams from opposite directions toward one another, and conducting the merged ystreams laterally with respect to said directions.
14. The complete method according to claim 13 and further including the intervening step of directing the streams following their merger so as thereafter to make at least two reversals in their escape path prior to being conducted laterally as aforesaid and emitted from the grenade. l
15. A method of 'producing particle-free gas from spaced gas lgenerating charges, 'comprising the steps of providing a multiple charge grenade with at least partdepth recesses in the cores of the charges, igniting one of the charges to Igenerate a stream of gas emitting from the core thereof, directing the stream of emitted gas and its entrained incandescent particles into the core of another charge to ignite same in cascade, directing the stream of emitted gas from the burning core of said other charge in a counterflow path coincident with the first stream to -cause impact between the particles so as to disintegrate one another, and conducting the particle-free gas through perforations in the grenade leading laterally with respect to said coinciding paths.
16. In a cylindrical grenade with a generally rigid outer casing body and adapted for generating gas, smoke, or the like, the combination with `said casing body, and disposed therewithin, of axially spaced successively ig' niting charges positively positioned therein to denne la common discharge chamber included in the space therebetween, a transverse support partition at the inner end of each of the charges and each having a centrally disposed port juxtaposed to the inner end of the corresponding supported charge, a fuse igniter for the grenade arranged adjacent the outer end of one of the charges, an axial passage behind said igniter passing through the core of said one charge and its 'corresponding port, the other said port juxtaposed to another charge being axially aligned with said passage so as to expose a portion of said other charge to a stream issuing through said passage, the surface of said other charge being relieved by an inwardly penetrating recess at its exposed portion aforesaid to provide for initial exposure of a portion of the surface area of the core of that charge, said other port in alignment with said passage being operative for initially introducing .a stream of hot products in one direction to ignite said other charge and for ultimately introducing hot products from the latter in an opposite direction to impinge upon and be mutually disruptive against said stream, and means in the sides of the discharge chamber for the escape of the combustion products.
17. yIn an elongated grenade with a generally tubularshaped casing body having closed ends and adapted to generate gas, smoke, or the like, the combination with said casing body, and aii'ixed therein, of successively igni-ting charges positively disposed in axially spaced apart relationship therewithin and having discharge chamber means included in the space therebetween, a plurality of transverse partitions axed to the casing body at points between charges, each of which partitions individually defines one side of the discharge chamber means and at least some of which partitions form an individual supporting partition for an inner end of some of the charges, each transverse partition of said plurality having a port formed therein generally concentric to an inner end of the nearest charge, a fuse igniter fixed in a closed end of the casing body adjacent the outer end of one of the charges, a through opening formed in said one charge in line with the opening through its individual supporting partition for leading a stream of hot combustion products from the vicinity of said igniter in a direction toward the discharge chamber means, the port in the supporting partition for another charge being aligned with the just-named through opening and port for initially introducing a stream of said hot products in one direction to ignite said other charge and for ultimately introducng hot products from the latter in an opposite direction with respect to said stream, and lateral outlet means formed in the walls of the casing through which hot combustion products from the discharge chamber means are adapted to issue.
18. The combination of claim 17, further including baffle wall means in the discharge chamber means within said casing body at points offset with Vrespect to .said ports from said charges and presenting surfaces transverse to the flow of said hot products of combustion, effective for deecting same and causing them to make at least two reversals in their stream of ow before ultimately issuing forth from the lateral outlet means through the walls of said casing body.
19. A generally cylindrical grenade comprising the combination of axially spaced successively igniting charges having a common discharge chamber included in the space therebetween, a transverse support partition at the inner end of each of the charges and each having a centrally disposed port juxtaposed to the inner end of the corresponding supported charge, an igniter for the grenade arranged adjacent the outer end of one of the charges, the axial passage behind said igniter passing through the core of said one charge and i-ts correspondin-g port, the other said port juxtaposed to another charge being axially aligned with said passage for initially introducing a stream of hot products in one direction to ignite said other charge and for ultimately introducing hot products from the latter in an opposite direction against said stream, an axially extending tubing member disposed between the transverse support partitions aforesaid in a concentric relation to said ports and providing at least one interruption in the tubing wall at a point between said partitions to provide a path of gas escape, a substantially rigid casing body which is closed at the ends and which encloses said charges, their common discharge chamber, the partitions, and said tubing member,
and lateral opening forming means in said casing body operable to vent the common discharge chamber therein to atmosphere and being in communication with said gas escape path as the sole means of emitting the hot products of the successively igniting charges to atmosphere.
20. A grenade according to claim A19 and further including in said combination, means surrounding said tubing member and cooperating therewith to form bafile wall means for causing the hot products in said common discharge chamber to make a plurality of reversals in path therethrough before emitting through the aforesaid lateral opening forming means to atmosphere.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNlTED STATES PATENTS 1,541,103 Bradner June 9, 1925 1,659,158 Oglesby Feb. 14, 1928 1,878,489 Goss Sept. 20, 1932 2,094,562 Lowy Sept. 28, 1937 2,362,553 Hitt Nov. 14, 1944 2,565,352 Champney Aug. 21, 1951