US 2959256 A
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Nov. 8, 1960 A F. DEAM 2,959,256
HEXAGONAL STRUCTURE Filed Feb. 9. 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet x 'ze 'Y 'II/Ill f Nov. 8, 1960 A. F. DEAM 2,959,256
HEXAGONAL STRUCTURE Filed Feb. 9, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Nov. 8, 1960 A. F. DEAM 2,959,256
HExAGoNAL STRUCTURE Filed Feb. 9. 195e s sheets-sneak (line 5.
"of Figures 8 and 9.
2,959,256 HEXAGONAL STRUCTURE Arthur F. Deam, Philadelphia, Pa. (209 W. Minnesota Ave., De Land, Fla.)
Filed Feb. 9, 1956, Ser. No. 564,463
2 Claims. (Cl. 189'1) The present invention relates to `polygonal structures particularly suited to schools, but useful also for vother buildings such as libraries, industrial plants, public buildings, and the like.
This application has been divided and the subject matter relating to the column and beam connection is' embodied in copending application Serial No. 671,172, led July 11, 1957, for Column and Beam Connection.
A purpose of the invention is to standardize onfa column unit which is adapted to produce a wide variety of columns required `in different parts of the polygonal structure.
-A further purpose is to employ as a column unit a channel having angles between the anges and the web of approximately 120.
A further purpose is to utilize the column unit alone as a column in a polygonal structure.
A further purpose is to place two of the column units face to face and weld them together to form a column.
A further purpose is to place one of the column units face to face with an angle and weld them together to yform a column.
A further purpose is to secure beams `to a polygonal column or partial polygonal column by 'a polygonal rconnector or partial polygonal connector, permitting prefabrication of the assembly'of the connector and beams.
A further purpose is to support the connector on a saddle secured to the column.
Further purposes appear in the specification and inthe claims.
In the drawings I have chosen to Villustrate va few only of the numerous embodiments in which my invention vmay appear, selecting the forms shown from the standpoints of convenience in illustration, satisfactory loperation and clear demonstration of the principles involved. Figure 1 is a partially-diagrammatictop plan view o'f 'ra portion of a structure according to the invention, constructed in a generally hexagonal form. y
Figure 2 is a fragmentary perspective o-f one of the column units of the invention.
Figure 3 is a transverse section of the column unit of Figure 2, the section being taken on lthe `line 3-3.
Figure 4 is a fragmentary perspective of a variant .form of column according to the invention, made up from one of the channel column units and an angle. v
Figure 5 is a transverse section of Figure 4 on the Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective showing a column according to the invention made up kof two 'of the column units face to face. Y
Figure 7 is a transverse section on the line 7-7 of Figure 6.
Figure 8 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical section of a girder joint according to the invention,` the section being taken on the line 8 8 of Figure 1. l
Figure 9 is a plan section on the line'9f-9 of FigureS.
Figure 10 is an exploded perspective of thef-girderv joint j nited States Patente() Figure 11 is a diagrammatic plan view showing a variation.
Figure 11a is a view corresponding to Figure 11 showing a further variation.
Figure 12 is an enlarged fragmentary horizontal section limmediately above a oor level showing the Ameans of connecting prefabricated girder assemblies to the columns.
Figure 13 is a view similar to Figure l2 illustrating a variation in the prefabricated girder combination.
Figure 14 is a section on the line 14-14 of Figure 13.
In my copending U.S. patent application Serial No. 384,916, tiled October 8, 1953, now Patent No. 2,922,299, for'Building, I illustrate a building construction using hexagonal building units which is particularly suited for a'school. It has been found to be ditlicult to attach `girders to conventional columns in this structure, and I lhaveproduced improved columns and an improved girder joint which further reduce the cost of the construction, and simplify the design and the actual building 'of the structure.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, I utilize a diverging anged channel as a column unit,
'employing this channel alone as a column in some cases and making yup columns from two of such channels or yfrom such a channel and an angle in other cases.
In the' improved girder joint of the invention I avoid the necessity of cutting all of the girders and in many cases eliminate the need for a column at the girder joint, allowing one of the girders to extend clear across, and `cutting the ends of the other girders so as to support them firmly on and interrelate them to the iirst girder. All of the other girders are suitably cut in the'same way.
It is desirable in many instances to make up prefabricated combinations ofrgiriders and assemble them to the columns using connectors which have -desirably been se'- cured to the girders in the shop. It is also advantageous to provide for support of the direct downward load by saddles or'seats which engage the connectors.
I illustratein Figure l suitably in top plan View a Lhexagonal building structure Ztl having diverging flanged channels as columns at 21 suitably at the outside wall, combinations of two such column units joined together and functioning as columns at 22 where loads and'loor angles 24around the sides of the hexagon, and girders lZ5 exte'ndradially and connect at a joint 26 at the center of each hexagonal unit.
The column unit which is used alone for the columns 21 land which is used to build more complex shapes in the columns 22 and 23 comprises a web 26 and diverging 'flanges 27 at the two sides. The length of the web and lthe length of each of the anges in cross section is desirably made the same as shown. The angles at 28 between each flange and the web are `desirably approximately as shown.
While the column unit may be rolled, it may also be formed by bending plate, and it is widely adaptable to various other fabricating methods. It will be evident that in any one of the positions of the column 21 or in the other columns each flange 27 and the web 26 is in right jangle abutting relationship with one of the girders, so
` that a very simple and conventional attachment can be "ing'if a web 26' and flanges 27 is placed in face tov face *abutting relationship with an angle 30 as'shown in Figures an'dS, the angle consisting of one flangel of a length corresponding to the length of one of the anges 27, and a longer flange 32 which corresponds in length to the base of the triangle across between the web 26 and one flange 27. Welds 33 join together the outer adjoining ends of the flanges of the column unit and the angle. Here -again each of the sides 31, 27, 26 and 27 is in right angle :abutting relationship with one of the girders to be connected to the column.
For the columns 22 two opposed column units are placed with the ends of their flanges in engagement and their hollow sides toward one another and joined by welds 34 at the ends of the flanges. Here again each one rof the sides is in right angle abutting relationship to one tof the griders to be secured to the column.
In some cases it is desirable to provide a joint of the ygirders at 26 in the center of the hexagonal unit, where ino column is used, since the structure at 26 is supported ifrom the radial beams. :shown in Figures 8 to 10. Here one girder 25 is continued uninterruptedly across the joint. It, like the other 4-girder shown, is of I-beam construction but it can equally well be of open web joist or other metal construction. This girder has a web 35, top anges 36 and bottom flanges 37. There are two pairs of girders which come in at 60 angles from one another on the opposite sides. In the preferred embodiment each of the girders 252, 253, 254 and 255 has its top and bottom anges cut off diagonally at 38 to abut against the outer edge of the corresponding flange of the girder 25. All of the cuts will suitably be identical. On the side toward the opposite girder of the pair, each iiange is bevelled at 40 to allow the flanges to meet. The web of the girders coming in at the 60 angles to the girder 25 is allowed to extend beyond the flanges at 41 and to rest on the bottom flange 37 of the girder 25. Suitable T-shaped brackets 42 are desirably welded to the web of the girder 25 at a posi- -tion between the ends of the extended webs 41, and welds are desirably made at 43 in the space between such brackets and the web ends 41. The T-shaped brackets are desirably used to assist `in positioning the beam elements. Likewise welds 44 are made between the top anges and between the bottom flanges of each of the girders abutting against the girder 25', and the corresponding anges of the girder 25. Also welds 45 are made at the bevel positions between the top flanges and between the bottom anges of the abutting girders. In this way the fact that the girder 25 is :integral strengthens the joint, and the fact that the webs of the other girders rest on the girder 25' gives them better support While the welds to the ends of the webs of the girders and to other anges secure the struc-ture firmly together, thereby performing the function usually contemplated in beam design, by making each of the -six beams of equal structural value.
There is a great advantage in some instances in employing shop-assembled or prefabricated sub-assemblies of girders or beams. In Figure ll, I illustrate a structure similar to Figure l, making use of prefabricated girder assemblies. The Prefabricated units are shown by crosshatching.
The columns 22 in Figure 11 are desirably carried through two stories of the building, and the exterior columns 23 are carried through two stories. In the case of columns 21, a column member one story high connects to another at each oor level, and the same is true of interior columns 23.
Half hexagonal assemblies of girders as indicated by the crosshatching at 46 are Prefabricated in the shop, and are inserted in the directions indicated by the arrows adjoining each of the units. The assembly to columns 22 is indicated in Figure l2, which shows beams, channels or angles 24, each abutting and welded to a connector 47, which is bent to conform to adjoining sides 4S and 50 of thev column 22. In this case, the angle between two adjoining sides on the column is 120, and the angle between two adjoining sides on the connector is also 120. It will This is accomplished best as 4 in any case be substantially greater than a right angle and substantially less than 180, depending on the number of sides in the polygon. The connector is desirably supported on a saddle as later described, and the connector is welded to the column to form top, bottom and edge seams at the space 51 in Figure 12.
In some instances, as illustrated in Figure 11a, it is preferable to use triangular prefabricated assemblies of girders 52 (see crosshatching) which are inserted in the directions of the arrows and secured to the columns 22 in the manner indicated in Figure 12. Prefabricated girder structures 46 may also be used for other parts of the same structure as shown.
In this instance, the girders or beams 53 are erected on the job.
The manner of securing prefabricated girder assemblies to the interior columns 22 is indicated by Figures 13 and 14. In this case, each girder or beam 24 is secured as by welding at the ends to a connector 47', which in this case has three sides conforming to the sides 48, 50 and 50' of the column. Each of the sides of the column makes an angle of with the adjoining side (the angles conform to Figure 12), and similar angles are made by the sides of the connector.
The connector, as shown in Figure 14 is desirably shorter in depth than the girder or beam, and a saddle or seat 54 is prefastened as by welding to the column and extends around and against the three sides of the column in t-he same manner as the connector. In assembly, the Prefabricated girder unit is supported by resting the connector 47' on the saddle 54 and then the structure is assembled by welding the connector to the column at 55, Welding the connector to the saddle at 56 and Welding the saddle to the girders at 57. It will be evident that welds will be made around the edges of the connector at 58.
In view of my invention and disclosure, variations and modications to meet individual whim or particular need will doubtless become evident to others skilled in the art, to obtain all or part of Ithe benets of my invention without copying the structure shown, and I, therefore, claim all such insofar as they fall within the reasonable spirit and scope of my claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a building, a plurality of columns dispersed at positions which correspond to the corners of a hexagon, each of said columns having at least three sides which are correspondingly disposed at 120 from one another, one of said column sides being perpendicular to one side of the hexagon, a space one of said column sides being perpendicular to another side of the hexagon and an intermediate column side being perpendicular to a diagonal of the hexagon which passes through the center of the hexagon, horizontal beams coinciding with said hexagon sides and secured respectively perpendicular to the one and to the spaced column side and secured to the columns, and horizontal beams extending diagonally and passing through the center of the hexagon secured perpendicularly to the intermediate coluimn side, the space between said columns and beneath said beams comprising a room of said building.
2. A building comprising a multiplicity of columns which are placed at positions corresponding to the corners of a multiplicity of adjoining hexagons having common sides, said columns being hexagonal and having sides which are perpendicular to the sides of the hexagons, and a side which is perpendicular to a diagonal passing through the center of the hexagon, horizontal beams secured in abutting relation to the columns and coinciding with the sides of said hexagons, and horizontal beams secured to the columns coinciding with the diagonals of said hexagons through the centers of said hexagons and in abutting relation to sides of the columns, the space between said columns and beneath said beams comprising rooms of said building.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Brock July 29, 1879 Macphail Nov. 19, 1901 Clutter Sept. 8, 1903 York Aug. 27, 1912 Meaden et al. Oct. 24, 1916 Schottenberg Mar. 12, 1940 Curran May 12, 1942 6 Donahue et a1. Apr. 6, 1948 Donahue et a1. May 10, 1949 Bobst Nov. 6, 1951 Bibb et al. June 14, 1955 Shelton July 31, 1956 Petter May 19, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain of 1906 Great Britain of 1914 France Oct. 30, 1944 OTHER REFERENCES Architectural Record, pages 60 and 61, Iuly 1938.