Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2960777 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 22, 1960
Filing dateJan 7, 1957
Priority dateJan 7, 1957
Publication numberUS 2960777 A, US 2960777A, US-A-2960777, US2960777 A, US2960777A
InventorsDoll August
Original AssigneeBemberg Ag
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Device for the removal of liquids adhering to running textile threads
US 2960777 A
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 22, 1960 A. DOLL DEVICE FOR THE REMOVAL OF LIQUIDS ADHERING E THREADS TO RUNNING TEXTIL Filed Jan. 7, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.

- ATT'YS Nov. 22, 1960 A. DOLL 2,960,777

DEVICE FOR THE REMOVAL OF LIQUIDS ADHERING T0 RUNNING TEXTILE THREADS Filed Jan. 7, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 F I G. 5

FIG.4

FIG. 7

IN V EN TOR.

DOLL

l S U G U A ATT'YS United States Patent DEVICE FOR THE REMOVAL OF LIQUIDS ADHER- ING TO RUNNING TEXTILE THREADS August Doll. WunpertalBarmen, Germany, assignor to J. P. Bernberg Aktiengesellschaft, Wuppertal-Oberba'rmen, Germany Filed Jan. 7, 1957, Ser. No. 632,922 12 Claims. (Cl. 341) The invention relates to the removal of drip water and other liquids from running textile threads that are running out from secondary treatment baths.

It has been usual, heretofore, to remove drip water from running threads by delivering the threads at an angle over scrapers or by conducting them through squeezing rollers arranged in pairs. Such mechanisms had the great drawback that the capillaries of the threads were violently crushed together and strained, with the result that their cross section took on the character of a ribbon, so that further processing was made difiicult. Whenever, as is usual in the continuous production of threads, it is necessary to rid whole masses of thread from their liquid, the use of pressure rollers causes still another drawback, which lies in the fact that the broad pressure rollers tend to bend under the load, so that they exercise a varying squeezing pressure, with the result that the threads at the edge and in the middle of the mass of threads have significantly different degrees of remaining moisture.

The mechanism of the present invention not only avoids the distortion of the thread section, in particular the development of the ribbon character, but also assures equilization of the liquid content of threads running parallel within the thread masses.

According to the invention, the threads are conducted over electric main contacts set at a distance from one another, so that a predetermined electric potential is imparted to each thread, while between the main contacts, somewhat underneath the lines of the thread, one or more metal counterpoles are arranged, so that the counterpoles, charged with an electrical potential differing from that of the threads, form with the threads an electrical field, through which the running threads are caused to vibrate in such a way that the liquid is thrown off. Advantageously, the one pole of an alternating or pulsating electrical high-tension source of low to medium frequency is connected with the main contacts, and the other pole with the metal counterpoles. It is, however, also possible to ground either the main contacts or the metal counterpoles. The metal counterpole, as a conductor, carries the potential without lag with respect to the machine, while the electrically poor conducting textile threads, as semi-conductors, bring about a certain phase shifting, as they conduct the electric potential onward with differing speed according to their loading with moisture and the electrical conduction capacity of their liquid. It is necessary, therefore, to be careful that the transference velocity of the electric wave between the poorly conducting thread and its metal counterpole is certainly large enough so that the entire wave is built up over half the length of vibration, early enough so that the phase shift at the alternating potential imparted remains sufiiciently small.

Correspondingly, for the building up speed of the electric wave, the greatest distances apart of the main contacts are to be selected. If the ohmic resistance of the badly conducting thread becomes too great, then the alternating potential applied should be raised. By means 2,960,777 Patented Nov. 22, 1960 of the electric field, the tense running thread is brought into mechanical vibration, so that at the turning points of the vibratory amplitudes, the drip liquid is thrown off. It has been found that the frequency of the electrical alternating potential should be equal to or somewhat larger than the half-frequency of the elastic mechanical self-vibration of the thread. It is only in such a case that a space filling mechanical vibration of the threads can be achieved. Likewise, with pulsating direct current, the pulsation frequency should be selected which is equal to or somewhat greater than the frequency of the elastic self-vibration. The device of the invention utilizes the reduction of the surface tension of the adhering liquid in consequence of the electric charge or the electrical field, to heighten the throwing off effect of the vibrating thread.

In the mechanical vibratory process it is desirable that the amplitude of the vibrating thread be kept as large as possible until close to the turning point for the achievement of better throwing off effects. In order to accomplish this, it is recommended that the operation be carried out either with electrical alternating potential containing a strong third harmonic or, with pulsating current with steep short circuit course. The vibrating thread, thus, undergoes an acceleration until just before reaching the metal counterpole, or, at least, without material retardation, whereupon, with sudden potential dropthat is, upon disintegration of the field-the elastic tension in the thread, which has accumulated greatly in the meantime, causes an abrupt snapping back, so that a good moisture casting ofi effect is achieved.

In another manner of operation, it is possible to provide intermediate contacts between the main contacts, arranged somewhat underneath the lines of thread, whereby the vibrating threads, in the range of their highest velocity rebound, are suddenly braked in their middle portion and, accordingly, likewise throw off their liquid. If it is desired to strengthen the further vibration over the intermediate contact, said intermediate contacts may be connected with the electrical high potential of the main contacts.

It is advantageous to have the liquid loaded thread conducted over several vibration ranges in succession. Since the thread, on its entry into the first vibration range carries the greatest quantity of liquid and, consequently, its mass-that is, thread mass plus liquid mass-will be a maximum in the first range, it is recommended that the separations between the main contacts be gradually enlarged in the direction of the running of the thread, for the purpose of better adjustment of the mechanical selffrequency of the thread to the electric vibration frequency. Furthermore, it is desirable to insure a light contact pressure against these contacts from the main contacts, during the introduction of the electric wave to the running thread. In order to achieve this, the entire arrangement of the electrical vibration production may be constructed in such a way that the threads follow a polygonal course corresponding to an arc with a slight curve as they are applied to the main contacts.

Since the device operates at high electrical tension, up to 10,000 volts, special precautions must be taken to make the installation safe if touched, and to reduce the spark-over tendency between thread and counterpole. This may be accomplished in a familiar manner by high ohmic resistances between current source and electric contacts, or by magnetic dispersion in the transformers or by electronic suppressors. For reasons of safety, a pair of resistances should always be connected in series, in each individual branch conductor, each being of sufficient size so that it is adequate by itself to make personal contact harmless, in case of short circuit of the other.

The device described above can be used to insure an even moisture content of running, electrically poor conducting threads after their the counterpoles.

emergence from processing baths. For this purpose, the device may be arranged in a regulating circuit which feels out the degree of moisture of the threads run'over the device by measurement of electrical resistance of the same, and where there are deviations from the desired resistance value, a relay may be activated to the high potential situated at the electric -contacts or at the metal counterpoles, in order to reduce the deviations. The threads treated in this man- 'ner have a controlled, and therefore uniform, moisture content and, in most cases, they are especially well suited for further processing.

For the activation of the measuring member in the control circuit, other methods for the measurement of the moisture content may also be used. It is, for example, possible to accomplish the feeling-out by means of high frequency variations of the resulting dielectric constants, of thread and liquid, which are controlled by the -varying quantity of the adhering liquid. Alternately,

the thread may be statically charged, whereupon, it

' will lead off a part of the charge, corresponding with its liquid content, while the remaining charge is withdrawn by way of a condenser with a fixed and a vibrating plate,

' and the current conducted by the condenser, for example, to ground, may be made to cause a potential drop at a resistance, which controls an electron tube.

The invention will now be described in detail with the aid of the examples represented in the drawings.

Figure 1 shows the basic arrangement of the device with the vibratory ranges indicated by broken lines;

Figure 2 shows an individual vibration range with inserted intermediate contact;

Figure 3 shows an arrangement with the main contacts 7 on a slightly curved arc and a conduction of the thread corresponding to a polygon;

Figure 4 shows an effectlve characteristic curve of potential with alternating current;

- Figure 5 shows an ettective characteristic curve of potential with a pulsating direct current;

Figure 6 shows the course of the thread with vibration ranges requiring little space;

Figure 7 shows a regulating scheme for the achievement of uniformity of liquid content on running threads;

and

Figure 8 is a perspective view of a modified form of contact bar which may be employed in place of one or more of the bars 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

In the drawings the same parts are always indicated 7 with the same numbers.

I thread, which runs in the direction of the arrow over The number 1 represents the the main contacts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, between the main contacts and the metal counterpoles 7, 8, 9 and 10, which are preferably constructed as elongated plates with their ends turned away from the thread. The main contacts and counterpoles are connected with the terminals of a high potential source 11, which supplies the device with alternating current or pulsating direct current. After the charging of the thread and the counterpoles, the thread, following the electric field effect and its own elasticity, is brought into vibration according to the broken lines and, in the process, at the turning points of the vibrations, throws olf its liquid mainly in the range of Since the thread carries along the most liquid on its entry into the device, its massthat is, thread mass plus liquid mass-will also be a maximum here. In order, now, to achieve an adaptation of the vibratory frequency of all the vibration fields of the thread to the constant overall electrical frequency, it is recommended that the spacement of the main contacts 7 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 disposed in the course of the thread be contacts 2 and 3. Correspondingly, the mental counterpoles must be subdivided into two partial counterpoles 7a and 7b. The thread vibrating between the main contacts 2 and 3 will first form a constant wave of vibration; then, however, it will strike the intermediate contact 12, so that, especially in this range of the thread, the liquid is thrown off. Likewise, in Fig. 3, pairs of partial counterpoles 8a8b, 9a-9b, and 10a-10b, and intermediate contacts 12, 13 and 14, may be disposed respectively between successive pairs of contacts 34, 4-5 and 5-6. The thread will then continue to vibrate in two vibration waves and at the turning point of the partial vibration waves will throw off more liquid.

In Figure 3, an arrangement is .shown which is to prevent, for example, the roughening of the thread surface on the main contacts by miniature arcs in consequence of badly established contact. For this purpose, the contacts are arranged in a slightly curved circular arc, so that under the influence of the thread tension, there is always a certain pressure present on the main contacts and a perfect transmission of the current is provided. The thread is then conducted over the main contacts in a polygonal pattern. The intermediate contacts and metal counterpoles are situated to correspond to the position of the main contacts.

Since the drying device operates at high voltage, it is necessary to take safety measures to remove the danger of contact with the apparatus, to reduce the sparking-over between the opposite charges, or, in the event of a spark-over and the damaging of the thread, it is necessary to seek to effect an immediate breaking of the tension between the thread and the counterpoles. As an eifective protection against human contact in the supply line to each individual metal counterpole or main and intermediate contact, or to both, high-ohmic resistances 16, 17, 17a and 17b, 18a and 18b, 19a and 1% may be interposed between the potential source 11 and the counterpoles 7, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a and 10b, respectively. By the allocation of the resistances to the individual field of vibration, in case of short circuit, the potential collapses only in the damaged field of vibration. For the increase of safety, instead of the one high-ohmic resistance, it is also possible to connect two in series, of which each individual one reduces the current flow sufliciently, so that it is not dangerous for human contact. If, then, one resistance should fall out because of an accidental short circuit, the current flowing to the device is still without danger.

In Figure 3, the protective resistances are provided only between the source of potential and the metal counterpoles, since the main contacts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 and intermediate contacts 12, 13 and 14 are all attached to ground 15. Besides the limitation of current and potential by the high-ohmic resistances drawn, an arrangement of a familiar sort is also possible of transformers with magnetic dispersion or corresponding electronic members, which cause the potential to break down in case of spark-over.

The acceleration of the vibrating thread or the maintenance of a maximum velocity up to the turning point can be controlled, along with the arrangement of intermediate contacts described with the aid of Figures 2 and 3; also by the special design of the electrical potential. It is, for example, possible to build up an alternating potential according to the diagram of Fig ure 4, which has a specially prominent third harmonic 20 and, accordingly, evokes an increased power effect on the thread in the range of its advanced deflection, so that shortly before the turning point an accelerated vibratory motion is executed, which, because of the highly stored up elastic energy of the thread built up in the meantime, when the electric field is suddenly broken, leads to an instantaneous reverse of the previous acceleration, so that the throwing ofi of liquid is t. zy

favored. With pulsating direct current according to Figure 5, it is necessary to take heed that the short circuit course 21 is built up steeply, in order, through this sudden drop, to achieve a corresponding effect on the vibration of the thread, and, accordingly, an improved throwing otf. The especially prominent third harmonic may be easily achieved, for example, by the interposition of a saturated transformer with an ohmic resistance in series. The characteristic diagram of potential depicted in Figure 5 can be effected, for example, by an R-C member and a sweep tube.

In Figure 6 a possible space saving construction of the device of the invention is shown for the removal of drip water in machines already on hand. The thread 1, moving up and down, is here conducted around rollers 22, 23 and 24, which are driven or partly driven. Such arrangements may be placed next to one another, and one or more vibration ranges can be switched in, both in the feed and in the withdrawal area.

In Figure 7, a regulating device is shown for constantly controlling the moisture content of the running thread 1, which is conducted over a device for the removal of adhering liquid. As shown, the thread may be first conducted over a double grounding 30 for the elimination of any electrical charge, and then, for example, felt out at the contact points 31 to determine its resistance. For this purpose, a highly sensitive resistance meter 32 may be provided, which, by the application of a constant potential at contact points 31, determines the variable current flow through the thread. If this current flow deviates from a desired value in eithe direction, a control impulse may be imparted to the amplifier 33 and further to the switching system 34, to accelerate or retard a motor 29, so that an electric trolley arm 28 may be shifted on a slide transformer 27. The slide transformer 27 may be connected with the potential source 26, which supplies the high tension transformer 25, which, in turn, influences the potential for the main contacts and counterpoles of the mechanism of the invention.

If the resistance at the feeler contacts 31 should be too great-which event indicates an excessive throwing off of liquidsthen the regulating device lowers the high potential at the feed transformer 25, so that a weaker vibration of the threads between the vibratory ranges 2/3 and 3/4 is achieved, whereby, in consequence, the throwing oit effect of liquid is reduced. In the event of too low a resistance at the contact points 31, the regulating device operates in a correspondingly reversed manner.

When the device of the invention is employed for the removal of liquid from numerous parallel running threads forming a so called thread multitude or mass, then the electric contacts extend over the width of the thread mass as continuous contact parts, and the metal counterpoles may be constructed as counterpole surfaces. In order to assure a good conduction of the thread mass in traversing the vibratory fields, a second contact bar may be constructed as a notched bar. As the material for the contact bar rustproof wire may be used, and for the metal counterpoles rustproof sheet metal, perforated if desired, may be employed. In place of sheet metal a close meshed sieve is also usable.

The mechanism of the invention is not exhausted by the parts of the device as indicated in the drawings. The essential inventive idea is the production of mechanical vibrations through the effect of an electric field with the charging of electrically poor conducting thread, and the realization was described in principle with the aid of examples.

The invention is hereby claimed as follows:

1. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising spaced apart thread guiding and supporting contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means -for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact membersv in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, and means for applying alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpole, to thereby establish an electrical field of alternating character in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpole between said contact mem ers.

2. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising spaced apart principal contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving the thread over said contact members and along said path, a pair of spaced apart plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpoles disposed between a pair of said contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, an auxiliary contact member mounted between said counterpoles, medially of said principal contact members and offset outwardly of the path of traveling movement of thread supported on and extending between said principal contact members, and means for applying alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpoles, to thereby establish an electrical field of alternating charactor in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpoles and said auxiliary contact member between said principal contact members.

3. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising a series of spaced apart principal contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving the thread over said contact members and along said path, a pair of spaced apart plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpoles disposed between each of several pairs of said principal contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, an auxiliary contact member mounted between each pair of counterpoles and offset outwardly of the path of traveling movement of thread supported on and extending between said principal contact members, and means for applying alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpoles, to thereby establish an electrical field of alternating character in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpoles and said auxiliary contact member between said principal contact members.

4. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising spaced apart thread guiding and supporting contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, means for connecting said contact members with one side of a high tension potential source of alternating character, and means for connecting said counterpole with the other side of said source.

5. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising spaced apart thread guiding and supporting contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, means forming a source of alternating potential containing a strong third harmonic component, and means for connecting said source between said counterpole and said contact members.

6. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising spaced apart thread guiding and supporting contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, means forming a source of pulsating unidirectional potential having a steep short circuit interval, and means for connecting said source between said counterpole and said contact members.

7. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising spaced apart thread guiding and supporting contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like. thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, means forming a source of electrical potential fluctuating at a frequency in synchronism with the frequency of natural vibration of the thread between a spaced pair of said contact members, and means for connecting said source between said counterpole and said contact members.

8. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising a series of spaced apart principal contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, said contact members being disposed along a curve to thereby correspondingly shape said path of thread travel, means for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, and means for applying alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpole, to thereby establish an electrical field of alternating character in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpole between said contact members.

9. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising spaced apart thread guiding and supporting contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means -for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, means for applying alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpole, to thereby establish an electrical field of alternating character in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpole between said contact members, and means for limiting short circuit flow of electrical energy in said counterpole to an intensity safe for human contact.

10. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising a series of spaced apart principal contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving the thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members in position'adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, certain of said contact members comprising bars extending transversely of said path and formed with longitudinally spaced apart thread receiving and guiding notches, and means for applying alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpole, to thereby establish an electrical field oi alternating character in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpole between said contact members.

11. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising a series of spaced apart principal contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel therebetween, means for moving the thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact mem bers in position adjacent the path of travel of the contact supported textile thread, means for applying alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpole, to thereby establish an electrical field of alternating character in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpole between said contact members, means for measuring the moisture content of said thread as delivered from said apparatus, and means for changing the potential applied between said counterpole and contact members in response to measured change in the moisture content of said thread.

12. Apparatus for removing adherent liquid from a moving textile thread, by laterally vibrating the same between node forming stations, comprising a series of spaced apart principal contact members defining said stations and a path of thread travel, means for moving said thread over said contact members and along said path, a plate-like thread vibrating metal counterpole disposed between a pair of said contact members, in position spaced from the path of thread travel, a resistance meter, means to electrically connect said meter with said thread, as the same is delivered from said apparatus, in order to determine the moisture content thereof, an amplifier responsive to said meter, operating means driven by the amplifier, and potential applying means, responsive to said operating means, for applying a controlled alternating electrical potential between said contact members and said counterpole to thereby establish an electrical field of alternating character in position to vibrate the thread as the same traverses the space adjacent said counterpole, between said contact members.

FOREIGN PATENTS 691,038 Germany May 15, 1940

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1557730 *Feb 15, 1921Oct 20, 1925Products Prot CorpMethod of producing a fibrous mass impregnated with a phenolic condensation product
US2303983 *May 31, 1941Dec 1, 1942Rca CorpHeat treating apparatus
US2393243 *Oct 6, 1943Jan 22, 1946Western Electric CoStrand handling apparatus and a method of handling strands
US2397615 *Nov 3, 1941Apr 2, 1946Eugen MittelmannApparatus for drying materials
US2433842 *Feb 16, 1944Jan 6, 1948American Viscose CorpMethod of drying rayon thread by high-frequency electric currents
US2642000 *Nov 29, 1944Jun 16, 1953Hoe & Co RInk drying equipment for web printing machines
US2745136 *Mar 10, 1952May 15, 1956Deboutteville Marcel DelamareApparatus and method for making wool-like artificial fibres
DE691038C *Jul 1, 1937May 15, 1940Siemens AgEinrichtung zum Trocknen von Papierbahnen und aehnlichen Stoffbahnen
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3205334 *Jul 30, 1963Sep 7, 1965Radio Frequency Company IncTextile thread heating apparatus
US3355812 *Aug 4, 1965Dec 5, 1967Fitchburg PaperDrying by high frequency electric field
US3478187 *Oct 6, 1967Nov 11, 1969Skandinaviska ProcessinstrHeating arrangement utilizing microwaves
US3701875 *Jun 15, 1970Oct 31, 1972Interhern LtdH. f. heating apparatus
US3941643 *Dec 20, 1973Mar 2, 1976Tetra Pak International AbApparatus for the manufacture of laminated packing material containing metal foil
US3965581 *Feb 10, 1975Jun 29, 1976Candor James TLiquid removing method and apparatus
US3969828 *Aug 23, 1974Jul 20, 1976Roberts Keith EMeans to vibrate chain link fabric
US3985604 *Jul 30, 1974Oct 12, 1976Deering Milliken Research CorporationMethod for the manufacture of laminated packing material containing metal foil
US3999302 *Aug 11, 1975Dec 28, 1976Candor James TLiquid removing method and apparatus
US4073855 *Mar 5, 1974Feb 14, 1978Donnelly Mirrors, Inc.Mirror assembly method
US4574413 *Mar 14, 1985Mar 11, 1986Otting International, Inc.Methods and apparatus for employing electrical conductivity for fixing dye to carpets
Classifications
U.S. Classification34/245, 219/770, 264/442, 426/383, 426/87, 34/164
International ClassificationB65H57/16, D01D10/04, D06B15/06
Cooperative ClassificationD06B15/06, D01D10/06, B65H57/16, B65H2701/31
European ClassificationD01D10/04H, B65H57/16, D06B15/06