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Publication numberUS2961049 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 22, 1960
Filing dateNov 12, 1957
Priority dateNov 12, 1957
Publication numberUS 2961049 A, US 2961049A, US-A-2961049, US2961049 A, US2961049A
InventorsToulmin Jr Harry A
Original AssigneeOhio Commw Eng Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fire prevention system
US 2961049 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 22, 1960 H. A. TOULMIN, JR 2,961,049


/ r d I ATTORNEYS Nov. 22, 1960 H. A. TOULMIN, JR

FIRE PREVENTION SYSTEM 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Nov. 12, 1957 IN VEN TOR.


Attorneys surroundings.

United States Patent FIRE PREVENTION SYSTEM Harry A. Toulmin, Jr., Dayton, Ohio, assignor to The Commonwealth Engineering Company of Ohio, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Nov. 12, 1957, Ser. No. 695,797

3 Claims. (Cl. 1692) The invention is of very considerable importance in '3:

the control of confiagrations initiated by explosives-and incendiaries. Whole cities have been substantially reduced to rubble and completely destroyed because of the rapid spread of fires started by bombings. The-havoc occurs not primarily from the original bomb detonations,

but because suitable means have hitherto been lacking to control the spread of the burning.

This invention provides a fire containing and quenching system which is automatically responsive to the initiation of the fire and which is substantially independent 'of a requirement for human control. Thus even evacuated areas are protected against building destruction by the utilization of the teachings of this invention. Further, a very considerable plurality of sources for the fire quenching liquid are readily dispersed throughout an area to be protected; accordingly destruction of any considerable portion of the supply of quenching liquid in an area by bombing for example is quite unlikely.

Also the sources are conveniently positionable within the confines of the building structures of the area to which they afford protection. Only slight structural modifications or additions are required to provide the invention in existent structures and the invention is readily incorporerable velocity. In the practice of this-invention this rush of air is directed toward a reservoir or pool of a fire-quenching liquid to occasion a pressure' 'change in the liquid. The reservoir is itself communicable through an outlet of the reservoir with nozzles of spray .units spaced about the area to be protected. The pressure change in the liquid causes the liquid to flow to the nozzles and to be sprayed into the fire area.

In the preferred embodiment of the invention the nozzles are supported on a building structure in the upper reaches thereof overlooking the area to be protected, and they are in communication with the pool of firequenching liquid; air scoops intercept the rush of air toward the fire and direct the air to influence a pressure change in the liquid and flow of liquid to the nozzles.

It is accordingly a primary object of this invention to provide a novel method for containing and quenching a fire.

It is an important object of this invention to provide a novel system of preventing the spread of fire.

It is a particular object of this invention to provide The'rush of air'to the fire is. atacon'sid novel devices useful in the fire prevention system of invention.

The invention will be more fully understood by reference to the following detailed description and accompanying drawings wherein:

Figure 1 is an elevational view illustrating an arrangement of the structure of invention on a building overlooking an area way and adjacent buildings;

Figure 2 is a plan view of building structures provided with the devices of invention;

Figure 3 is a fragmentary perspective view of parts broken away particularly illustrating the arrangement of nozzles, air scoops and a reservoir of the fire-quenching liquid;

Figure 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is a view like that of Figure 4 but illustrating a further modification;

Figure 6 is a sectional view like that of Figure4 but illustrating yet another modification;

Figure 7 is a fragmentary perspective view partially in section but illustrating another arrangement of the structure of invention;

. Figure 8 is a sectional view taken on line 8-8 of Figure 7;

Figure 9 is a view taken on line 99 of Figure 8; and

Figure 10 is a view in plan illustrating the system of invention with the spray units of the system circularly disposed.

In the drawings where practical similar-numerals designate corresponding parts. a

Referring now to the drawings more particularly the numeral 1 in Figure 1 indicates a conventional building structure separated from a similar building structure 2 by an area way 3, such as a street. The top of the building 1 is a parapet generally indicated by the numeral 4 and having formed therein a reservoir 5 for the retention of a fire-quenching liquid 6, such as water. It is to be understood that other materials or other materials in conjunction with water may be employed for effective action. Spray units 7 are formed through the parapet 4; each spray unit comprises a nozzle 8 having an opening 9 which extends from a throat indicated at 10. Nozzle 8 tilts slightly upwardly from the throat 10. I The reservoir has an outlet 11 communicable with the nozzle 8 through the throat 10. As shown in Figure the outlet from the reservoir comprises a tube 12. Also communicable with the throat 10 and tapering toward the throat 10 in a downward direction is an air scoop 13, In effect the throat 10 and the area immediately adjacent on each side of the outlet form with the tube 12 venturi apparatus. v 7 As will be. appreciated should a fire occur in building 2 the rush of airtoward the parapet 4 will be directed through the air scoops 13 to the throat 10 and will ooca; sion a pressure change on the liquid 6 within the reservoir, causing the liquid to be forced up the tube 12 and to be carried with the air to the nozzle 8 and outwardly through the nozzle opening 9 to the fire at the building 2;.

Referring now to Figure 2, which is a plan view of an area to be protected, it may be seen that by providing each of the buildings designated at 1, with the equipment described in connection with'Figure 1, and by similarly providing the buildings designated at 2 with the same equipment as indicated, the area will be fully protected.

Further, it is to be noted (Figure 1) that should the building 1 itself take fire centrally the nozzle 8 would serve as an air scoop and the scoop 13 would serve as a nozzle. Thus the device is reversibly usable.

Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the device in more detail and in addition the spray units are formed independently of the parapet, providing a more convenient mounting ar- -rangement. Such is or advantage with respect to provid- -ever, 'astindicated -in'Figure '4, a 'large portion of the air will the directed through the scoop-13 and the throafltl to thenozzle'8' 'and its opening 9;the fiow'of air through :spacings 16 is at a lesser velocity and is impeded by the supports and the spray units.

Referring-now toFigure 5 a-somewhat different ar- .rangement is shown wherein the nozzle 17 opens upwardly :at 18 for directing asprayof liquid from the pool 6 in an upward direction, as indicated by the arrows. Theair .scoop 19 in'this instance is of somewhat shorter length than the nozzle 17; air flowing through the scoop over the outlet 20 to the reservoir 5 causes the fire-quenching liquid to be drawn upwardly through the tube 21 to the nozzle. The spray unit of Figure 5 may be used in conjunction with the units of Figure 3 or of Figure l, for

example, for it will be appreciated that the turbulent air flowing towards the fire will have components in various directions, including the upward direction.

In" the structure of Figure 6 the reservoir'22 has a somewhat different configuration, as does the spray-unit "generally indicated at 23. Thus the reservoir has an outlet 24 communicable with the nozzle 25'havinga nozzle opening 26. 'The reservoir is itself divided by bafile 27 into compartments 28, 29. The outlet 24 communicates with'the'compartment 28. The compartments 28, 29

communicate with each other beneath the bafiie 27 "through the aperture 30. The air scoop 31 is, in this'instance, formed with a back wall 32, which directs the rushing air to the surface 33 of the liquid 6 within the compartment'29. The pressure exerted on the surface 33 forces the fire-quenching liquid 6 to the outlet 24, as indicated in Figure 6, and through the nozzle opening 26. "Referring now to Figures 7, 8 and 9, the air spray units of the parapet 4 are similar in structure to those described in-connection with Figure 3, but are protected and formed in -a somewhat difierent manner. Thus the covering 34,

which is suitably of cement or concrete, is formed integral with the reservoir 35. The tube 36 cast with the reservoir,

and suitably of metal, communicates the liquid 6 with the outlet 37in the throat 38 formed by the inwardly tapering-air 'scoop39-and the outwardly tapering nozzle 40 having an'opening41.

Similarly to the structure-of Figure 3, air, in-additicn to passing through the scoop-39, will pass in the spacings *42 between adjacent spray units. Such air however, as in the preceding instance, will-be of a lesser velocity than the air channeled through the spray units.

Figure 10 illustrates an arrangement which is' particularly "adapted for individual building structures; having iareaways'such as a-courtyard. Thus in Figure 10 the numeral 43 indicates in-pl'an view a building structure.

'facing that section, thus providing for directing a stream the fire has occurred.

in the devices described it is to be particularly noted that the spray units themselves are formed of fire-proof material, such as brick, concrete and similar structural compositions, which usuallyiorm building components; also in the event of fire adjacent the spray units the firequenching liquid suchjas-water would-tend to take heat and to cool the fire by evaporation ,of the quenching liquid; In .the event of emergency the "fire-quenching liquid is, of course, available for .distribution-byother methods.

The spray'nnits of Figures 4,15 and G maybe employed in any desired combination to efiect specific protective purposes. Also,'it will be appreciated that in given instances the reservoir itself may be located well down within the building with which it is associated, in such position that it g isprotected against bomb destruction by high explosives. 7

It will be understoodthat thisinvention is'susceptible to modification in order to adaptit to different usages and-conditions and accordingly,.it is desired .toacomprcof said venturitube and said outlet whereby the-vmovement of air through said venturi causedbyxa fire "outside 'ofvsaid building-will cause thefliquid to berdrawn into .theventuri and discharged therefrom.

2. In an arrangement for preventing the-spread of fire,

the combination of a building structure, 'a reservoirfor a supplyv of'fire quenching liquid carried by said building structure rear the" top thereof, 'an outlet from said reservoir of fire-quenching liquid, asubstantlally honzontal venturitube on 'the'roof of said buildingrstructure with one end of said venturi tube being =directed toward In the areaway 44 there is provided areservoir 45; spray units 46 have nozzles '47 facing towards the building structure 43. The air scoops-48 facetowards the reservoir. The spray units are circularly disposed and face such that inthe event of fire in any section of thebuilding structure: 43 air will bedrawn'to'the scoops of the spray units the 'fire, and :aconnection' between thelowpressure of saidventuri tube :and said outletzfromtthe reservoir of liquid whereby the movement of :air through. said ventu-ri caused bya, fire :outside :of 'said building will cause the liquid to be drawn into the venturi and discharged therefrom.

3. .In an arrangementjforzpreventing the spreadsiofffire asflclaimed in claim? 2 with said supply of;:fire quenching liquid'beingcarried by said building-structure below the :roof, thereof and said outlet extending upwardly :from

said reservoir .towarid .saidnventuri :tube on "the :roof of said building structure.

References Citedin-Uthe file of this patent UNITED STATES-PATENTS 1,455,969 Rayder, May 22, {1923 2,188,066 ,Timpson If an. '23, "1940 2;498,5l2 "Thompson 'Feb121, 1950 OTHER REFERENCES "Mingle: vDraft'and apaci y of'fChimneYs, D. Van Nmrand P Y,'New York, 1921px. 14

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1455969 *Apr 9, 1921May 22, 1923Necrosan Co IncEmbalming-fluid atomizer
US2188066 *Oct 2, 1937Jan 23, 1940Pyrene Minimax CorpApparatus for injecting foam stabilizing solutions
US2498512 *Aug 30, 1946Feb 21, 1950Factory Mutual Res CorpFire-extinguishing apparatus
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4836290 *Sep 17, 1986Jun 6, 1989Le Lande Jr Walter CFire suppression system
US4991657 *May 16, 1989Feb 12, 1991Lelande Jr Walter CFire suppression system
US6782792Sep 5, 2003Aug 31, 2004The Boeing CompanyBlast attenuation device and method
US6805035Dec 6, 2002Oct 19, 2004The Boeing CompanyBlast attenuation device and method
US6901839Sep 5, 2003Jun 7, 2005The Boeing CompanyBlast attenuation device and method
US7228916 *Aug 28, 2001Jun 12, 2007The University Of SheffieldExplosion suppression system
US20040020666 *Aug 28, 2001Feb 5, 2004Catlin Clive AdrianExplosion suppression system
US20040118272 *Sep 5, 2003Jun 24, 2004The Boeing CompanyBlast attenuation device and method
US20040154463 *Sep 5, 2003Aug 12, 2004The Boeing CompanyBlast attenuation device and method
U.S. Classification169/56, 169/5, 169/54
International ClassificationA62C3/02, A62C3/00
Cooperative ClassificationA62C3/0292
European ClassificationA62C3/02R