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Publication numberUS2962749 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 6, 1960
Filing dateOct 28, 1954
Priority dateOct 28, 1953
Publication numberUS 2962749 A, US 2962749A, US-A-2962749, US2962749 A, US2962749A
InventorsGunther Sasse
Original AssigneeJoseph Stachowicz, Otto Benecke
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Door closing device
US 2962749 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 6, 1960 G. sAssE 2,962,749

DOOR CLOSING DEVICE Filed Oct. 28, 1954 206 2'02 207 2a 240 205 I 2 4 J 2/2 PAC-3". 4

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INVENTOR.

Gunflzer Sass e BY Mums. swamp (Loft United States Patent DOOR CLOSING DEVICE Gunther Sasse, Bremerhaven, Germany, assignor to Joseph Stachowicz, New York, N.Y., and Otto Benecke, Bremerhaven, Germany Filed Oct. 28, 1954, Ser. No. 465,394

Claims priority, application Germany Oct. 28, 1953 4 Claims. (CI. 16-51) The present invention relates to door closing and checking devices.

More particularly, the present invention relates to automatic door closing and checking devices of the hydraulic type.

In the known structure of this type, there are several defects which have not yet been overcome. Thus, the known automatic door closing and checking devices do not always fully close the door, do not always permit a door to be fully opened through approximately 180, are not capable of being used without auxiliary devices for swinging doors, and must usually be designed specially for doors opening in a clockwise direction and for doors opening in a counter-clockwise direction. Furthermore, with known structures it it often a difiicult matter to adjust the olosing and braking forces. Also, these known devices must be mounted out in the open where they are always visible and where they collect dust and other dirt particles.

Known hydraulic closing and checking devices also require expensive sealing means, such as packing glands, so that hydraulic brake fluid used in these devices is retained within a casing or brake cylinder.

It is one of the objects of this invention to overcome the above disadvantages by providing a door closing and checking device which exerts the greatest door closing force at the end of the door closing movement so as to guarantee that the door will always be fully closed.

. It is another object of the present invention to provide a door closing and checking apparatus which permits a door to which the apparatus is connected to be opened easily through any desired angular distance, even up to 180 and more.

It is also an object of this invention to provide a door closing and checking apparatus which may readily be used in conjunction with swinging doors, with doors that open in a clockwise direction and with doors that open in a counter-clockwise direction.

adapted to exert no door closing force upon a door to which the apparatus is connected when that door is in any desired predetermined position, but which device will nevertheless exert the greatest door closing force at the end of the door closing movement so as to guarantee that the door will always be fully closed.

This invention further contemplates the provision of a door closing device which is equipped with a simple hydraulic braking mechanism.

A still further object of this invention is the provision of a filter arrangement for use in connection with an automatic door closing and checking apparatus, which filter arrangement causes dirt particles retained by a filter element during intake of hydraulic brake fluid to be washed away from the filter element upon fluid exhaust.

The novel features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its construction and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. l is a sectional elevational view of a preferred embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken along line 22 of Fig. l with the parts shown in one operative position;

Fig. 3 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 2, with parts shown in another operative position;

Fig. 4 is an elevational view, partly in section, of a preferred hydraulic braking arrangement.

An embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 which embodiment is particularly adapted for use with a door which, when the same has been opened a predetermined amount, will. remain open until closing movement is initiated.

A shaft 101 is rotatably supported within housing 100. The shaft 101 is formed with a crank portion comprising the cranks 102 and 103 which support an arcuate guide member 104.

The apparatus includes a spring arrangement which comprises two springs 75 and 76 which are fastened at i one end thereof to adjustable screws 77 and 78, respec- The objects of this invention also include the provision of a door closing and checking apparatus which may be mounted in a door frame, in the floor beneath or in the ceiling above a door so as not to be visible and vulnerable to dust and dirt particles.

The objects of the present invention likewise include the provision of a door closing and checking device which does not require the use of any sealing means such as packing glands or the like, and may therefore be produced very inexpensively.

An additional object of this invention is the provision of a door closing and checking apparatus which simultaneously exerts the greatest door closing force and the greatest braking force at the end of the door closing movement.

A further object of this invention is to equip an automatic door closing and checking apparatus with simple means for quickly and easily adjusting both the closing and braking forces thereof.

The present invention also contemplates theprovision of a door closing andchecking device which may be tively, and at their other ends to an intermediate member which is pivotally connected to the hinge member 106 at a point intermediate the ends thereof. A linkage arrangement including the arcuate link members 107 and 108 is provided to connect the spring arrangement to the shaft 101.

The link member 107 is pivotally connected at one end thereof to the crank 103 and the link member 108 is connected at one end thereof to the free end of the link member 107. The free end of the link member 108 is pivotally connected to the free end of the hinge member 106, as is clearly illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3.

The position of the parts is shown in Fig. 2 when the door to which the apparatus is connected is closed. When the door is then opened so as to rotate the shaft 101 in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 2, the parts assume the position shown in Fig. 3, wherein the other end of the link member 107 and the one end of the link member 108 are engaged by the guide member 104. In this position the springs act along a line of force which passes through the axis of rotation of the shaft 101. Consequently, the spring cannot act to turn the door to which the apparatus is connected, so that this position of the parts corresponds to that position of the door where the door will remain open until closing movement is initiated.

The permanent-open position of the door may be varied simply by exchanging the link 107 for a link having a different length. It will be understood thatthe I permanent-open position of the door is a function of the Patented Dec. 6, 1960 length of the link member 107; the shorter this member, the sooner will the end of the link member 107 which is connected to the link member 108 be engaged by the guide member 104 and the less will the door have to be opened before it attains its permanent-open position. On the other hand, the longer the link member 107, the greater the angular distance through which the door has to be rotated before it will attain its permanent-open position. In this way, an extremely simple arrangement is provided by means of which it is possible permanently to hold open a door after the same has been opened a predetermined amount until closing movement thereof is initiated.

Suitable hydraulic braking means are provided, the same including a piston which is connected to a. crank at the lower end of the shaft 101.

The hydraulic brake mechanism particularly adapted to be used in conjunction with the above described door closing and checking mechanism is shown in Fig. 4 in which a fluid inlet and outlet member 200 is adapted to be connected to the bottom of a cylinder 201 in which a piston 202 is slidably arranged. The member 200 is formed with passages which put the interior of the cylinder in communication with the exterior.

The passages include a combined fluid inlet and outlet portion 203 which forms the sole communication through the fluid inlet and outlet member between the exterior of the cylinder and the interior thereof so that all fluid flowing through the member 200 from the interior of the cylinder to the exterior thereof, and vice versa, must flow through this passage portion 203.

An inlet passage portion 204 is in communication with the interior of the cylinder and with the passage portion 203. A non-return valve including a ball member 205 is arranged within the passage portion 204, and is urged downwardly by a spring 206 which engages the ball member 205 and an inner shoulder 207 formed within the passage portion 205.

A fluid outlet portion 208 is in communication with the interior of the cylinder and with the passage portion 203. A control valve including a nozzle 209 and a needlevalve 210 is arranged within the outlet portion 208. The needle-valve 210 is slidably mounted in a sleeve 211 which is seated within another sleeve 212, which, in turn, is threadedly mounted in the member 200. The sleeve 212 may readily be rotated so as to move the needlevalve 210 into and out of the nozzle 209 so as to vary the cross-sectional area thereof in order to control the rate of fluid flow through the passage portion 208 and consequently the speed at which the piston 202 may move relative to the cylinder 201.

When the piston is moved outwardly within the cylinder, the ball member 205 rises from its valve seat so that fluid may readily flow into the cylinder. When the piston is moved inwardly, however, the ball member 205 is urged toward its valve seat and no fluid can flow through the inlet passage portion 205 so that fluid can flow only in the outlet passage portion 208, in which the rate of fluid flow is controlled by the needle valve 210, as described above.

A tubular filtering element 213 is arranged Within the combined fluid inlet and outlet passage portion 203. Since all fluid entering or leaving the interior of the cylinder must flow through the passage portion 203, it will be readily understood that any dirt or dust particles filtered out and retained by the filtering element 213 during fluid intake will be washed away during fluid exhaust. As a result, the filtering element will not become clogged but will be kept clean and free from any excessive amounts of dirt and dust particles. Consequently, a device incorporating such a filtering arrangement will give long periods of trouble-free service.

In order to prevent damage to the apparatus when a door to which it is connected is closed very suddenly with an extremely large force, the needle-valve 210 is provided with pressure responsive means which include an enlarged head 214. A spring 215 is arranged within the sleeve 212 and engages the inner face 216 of the sleeve 212 and the enlarged head 214 of the needle-valve so as to urge the same to the position shown in Fig. 4. However, when an exceedingly large force prevails within the passage portion 208, the needle-valve 210, which is slidably mounted in the sleeve 211, will be urged to the right, as viewed in Fig. 4, so that fluid may flow through the nozzle 209 at a greater rate.

The spring 215 is calibrated to prevent flow of fluid through the nozzle 209 at a rate greater than a desired predetermined rate during normal opening and closing of the door. Only when an exceedingly large force is applied to the door is the force of the spring 215 overcome so that the needle-valve moves to the right to allow oil to flow through the nozzle at an increased rate. In this way injury to the apparatus is avoided.

The instant embodiment may advantageously be used in door closing and checking apparatus in which the casing is filled with sufficient oil so that the entire cylinder is submersed, such as the device illustrated in Figs. 1-3. In this case, the member 200 is attached to the housing of the apparatus in any convenient manner by screws or welding so that the cylinder 201 connected to the member 200 will extend in the position as shown in Figs. 1-3.

It will be understood that each of the elements described above, or two or more together, may also find a useful application in other types of door closing devices differing from the types described above.

While the invention has been illustrated and described as embodied in an adjustable door closing device, it is not intended to be limited to the details shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be made without departing in any way from the spirit of the present invention.

Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can by applying current knowledge readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this invention and, therefore, such adaptations should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalence of the following claims.

What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:

1. Automatic door closing and checking apparatus comprising, in combination, a housing; a shaft mounted for rotation about its axis in said housing; a first crank portion connected to said shaft, being located in said housing, and extending radially from the turning axis of said shaft, said first crank portion being turnable to and from an end position where the moment arm of said first crank portion about said shaft axis is at a maximum and where a door to which the apparatus is connected is closed; spring means located in said housing and including at least two coil springs, each of said coil springs being secured at one end thereof to said housing, an intermediate member operatively connected to each of said coil springs at the other end thereof, a hinge member pivotally mounted at one end thereof on said housing, said intermediate member being pivotally connected to said hinge member intermediate the ends thereof; an arcuate guide member secured to said first crank portion; linkage means connected to said first crank portion and to said spring means for transmitting the force of said spring means to said first crank portion in such a manner that said spring means urges said first crank portion to turn said shaft in a direction which closes the door, that said spring means acts along a line of force which is at a maximum distance from said shaft axis when said first crank portion is in said end position thereof, and that said spring means acts along a line of force passing through said shaft axis when the door has been moved a predetermined angular distance from the closed position thereof so as to rotate said shaft throughout a predetermined angular distance, said linkage means including a first arcuate link member pivotally connected at one end thereof to said first crank portion, and a second elongated link member pivotally connected at one end thereof to said first link member at the other end thereof, the other end of said second link member being pivotally connected to the free end of said hinge member, said other end of said first link member and said one end of said second link member engaging said guide member when said shaft is rotated throughout said predetermined angular distance; a second crank portion connected to said shaft, being located in said housing and extending radially from the turning axis of said shaft; and hydraulic braking means operatively connected to said second crank portion for braking the turning of said shaft under the influence of said spring means during the closing of the door.

2. In a hydraulic braking mechanism for automatic door closing and checking apparatus, in combination, a fluid inlet and outlet member adapted to be connected to a cylinder member forming a part of the hydraulic braking mechanism, said fluid inlet and outlet member being formed with passage means for putting the interior of the cylinder member in communication with the exterior of the cylinder member, said passage means including a combined fluid inlet and outlet passage portion and forming the sole communication through said fluid inlet and outlet member between the exterior of the cylinder member and the interior thereof so that all fluid flowing through said fluid inlet and outlet member from the exterior of the cylinder member to the interior thereof and from the interior of the cylinder member to the exterior thereof flows through said combined fluid inlet and outlet passage portion, said passage means also including an inlet passage portion in communication with said combined fluid inlet and outlet passage portion and the interior of the cylinder member and an outlet passage portion in communication with said combined fluid inlet and outlet passage portion and the interior of the cylinder member; first valve means arranged within said inlet passage portion for limiting the flow of fluid through said inlet passage portion to flow from the exterior of the cylinder member to the interior thereof; second valve means arranged within said outlet passage portion for controlling the rate of flow of fluid through said outlet passage portion from the interior of the cylinder member to the exterior thereof; adjusting means operatively associated with said second valve means for adjusting the operative position thereof so that said second valve means permits fluid to flow from the interior of the cylinder member to the exterior thereof through said outlet passage portion at a predetermined rate; pressure responsive means operatively associated with said second valve means for permitting the same to be moved from a predetermined adjusted operative position thereof where said second valve means permits fluid to flow from the interior of the cylinder member to the exterior thereof through said outlet passage portion at said predetermined rate to another operative position where said second valve means permits fluid to flow from the interior of the cylinder member to the exterior thereof through said outlet passage portion at a rate greater than said predetermined rate when the pressure within said outlet passage portion exceeds a predetermined pressure; and filtering means arranged within said combined fluid inlet and outlet passage portion for filtering fluid flowing from the exterior of the cylinder member to the interior thereof whereby particles retained by said filtering means during fluid intake through said fluid inlet and outlet member will be urged away from said filtering means during fluid exhaust.

3. Automatic door closing and checking apparatus comprising, in combination, a housing; a shaft mounted for rotation about its axis in said housing; a first crank,

portion connected to said shaft, being located in said housing, and extending radially from the turning axis of said shaft, said first crank portion being turnable to and from an end position where the moment arm of said first crank portion about said shaft axis is at a maximum and where a door to which the apparatus is connected is closed; spring means located in said housing and including at least two coil springs, each of said coil springs being secured at one end thereof to said housing, an intermediate member operatively connected to each of said coil springs at the other end thereof, a hinge member pivotally mounted at one end thereof on said housing, said intermediate member being pivotally connected to said hinge member intermediate the ends thereof; an armate guide member secured to said first crank portion and having a convex engaging surface of a predetermined radius of curvature; linkage means connected to said first crank portion and to said spring means for transmitting the force of said spring means to said first crank portion in such a manner that said spring means urges said first crank portion to turn said shaft in a direction which closes the door, that said spring means acts along a line of force which is at a maximum distance from said shaft axis when said first crank portion is in said end position thereof, and that said spring means acts along a line of force passing through said shaft axis when the door has been moved a predetermined angular distance from the closed position thereof so as to rotate shaft throughout a predetermined angular distance, said linkage means including a first arcuate link member pivotally connected at one end thereof to said first crank portion and having a concave engaging surface conforming to the curvature of said convex engaging surface of said guide member, and a second elongated link member pivotally connected at one end thereof to said first link member at the other end thereof, the other end of said second link member being pivotally connected to the free end of said hinge member, said first link member being so arranged that its concave engaging surface seats upon said convex engaging surface of said guide member when said shaft is rotated throughout said predetermined angular distance; a second crank portion connected to said shaft, being located in said housing and extending radially from the turning axis of said shaft; and hydraulic braking means operatively connected to said second crank portion for braking the turning of said shaft under the influence of said spring means during the closing of the door.

4. Automatic door closing and checking apparatus comprising, in combination, a housing; a shaft mounted for rotation about its axis in said housing; a first crank portion connected to said shaft, being located in said housing, and extending radially from the turning axis of said shaft, said first crank portion being turnable to and from an end position where the moment arm of said first crank portion about said shaft axis is at a maximum and where a door to which the apparatus is connected is closed; spring means located in said housing and including at least two coil springs, each of said coil springs being secured at one end thereof to said housing, an intermediate member operatively connected to each of said coil springs at the other end thereof, a hinge member pivotally mounted at one end thereof on said housing, said intermediate member being pivotally connected to said hinge member intermediate the ends thereof; an arcuate guide member secured to said first crank portion and having a convex engaging surface of a predetermined radius of curvature; linkage means connected to said first crank portion and to said spring means for transmitting the force of said spring means to said first crank portion in such a manner that said spring means urges said first crank portion to turn said shaft in a direction which closes the door, the said spring means acts along a line of force which is at a maximum 7 distance from said shaft axis when said first crank portion is in said end position thereof, and that said spring means acts along a line of force passing through said shaft axis when the door has been moved a predetermined angular distance from the closed position thereof so as to rotate shaft throughout a predetermined angular distance, said linkage means including a first arcuate link member pivotally connected at one end thereof to said first crank portion and having a concave engaging surface conforming to the curvature of a portion of said convex engaging surface of said guide member, and a second arcuate link member pivotally connected at one end thereof and having a concave engaging surface conforming to the curvature of another portion of said convex engaging surface of said guide member, the other end of said second link member being pivotally connected to the free end of said hinge member, said first and second link members being so arranged that their engaging surfaces seat, respectively upon the corresponding portions of said convex engaging surface of said guide member When said shaft is rotated throughout said predetermined angular distance; a second crank portion connected to said shaft, being located in said housing and extending radially from the turning axis of said shaft; and hydraulic braking means operatively connected to said second crank portion for braking the turning of said shaft under the influence of said spring means during the closing of the door.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,595,723 Norton Aug. 10, 1926 2,223,045 Pariot NOV. 26, 1940 2,468,410 Schacht Apr. 26, 1949 2,585,625 Carlson Feb. 12, 1952 2,669,745 Rydberg Feb. 23, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 344,038 Great Britain Mar. 2, 1931

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1595723 *Sep 5, 1924Aug 10, 1926Norton Door Closer CompanyFloor door closer
US2223045 *Sep 15, 1938Nov 26, 1940Oscar C Rixson CompanyDoor closure and check mechanism
US2468410 *Aug 27, 1947Apr 26, 1949Schacht Louis LDoor closer and check
US2585625 *Jan 21, 1950Feb 12, 1952George W Houlsby JrDoor check mechanism
US2669745 *Apr 22, 1950Feb 23, 1954Eskilstuna Jernmanufaktur AktiDoor-closing device
GB344038A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3094093 *Sep 23, 1958Jun 18, 1963Zimmerman Jack JAutomatic soldering machine
US3108315 *Feb 9, 1961Oct 29, 1963Doerken & Mankel KgAutomatic door closer, especially loft door closer
US5666692 *Jan 31, 1996Sep 16, 1997Jackson CorporationDoor closer
EP0409485A1 *Jul 12, 1990Jan 23, 1991Ryobi Ltd.Door Closer
Classifications
U.S. Classification16/51, 137/512, 188/285
International ClassificationE05F3/10, E05F3/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05F3/225, E05F3/106
European ClassificationE05F3/10D