US 2963785 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1960 E. D. DILLING 2,963,785
SAMPLING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 2, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
Elmer D. Dilling BY Agent Dec. 13, 1960 E. D. DILLING 2,963,785
SAMPLING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 2, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Elmer D. Dilling v I Agent ilnited States Patent SAMPLING APPARATUS Elmer D. Dilling, Las Vegas, Nev., assignor to Titanium Metals Corporation of America, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Filed Feb. 2, 1959, Ser. No. 790,470
4 Claims. (Cl. 30-165) This invention relates to apparatus for obtaining samples, and more particularly to obtaining a unitary, pintype sample from a mass of solid material.
Analysis, by chemical or physical methods, of many substances requires a sample in the form of a unitary, solid body, as distinguished from powder, chips, drillings, and the like. Such unitary bodies are often referred to as pins and are employed for spectrographic analysis, for determination of gas elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen in metals and alloys, and for other tests. Pin-type samples are often prepared by casting molten material into a suitable mold but this method has obvious limitations, and cannot be employed when the material to be sampled will be afiected by the melting operation, or when a unitary sample of the material in its original unaltered state is required. Cutting and machining may be used to produce pin-type samples but these methods waste material, are time consuming and expensive, and also often involve radical dissection of a mass if a sample of an interior portion is desired.
It is therefore a principal object of this invention to provide an improved apparatus for obtaining a sample pin of solid material. Another object of this invention is to provide an improved shearing device for separating a pin-type sample from solid material. Yet another object of this invention is to provide an improved apparatus for obtaining a unitary sample of the interior of a mass of solid material. These and other objects of this invention will be apparent from the following description thereof, and from the annexed drawings in which:
Fig. 1 illustrates a type of boring tool useful in the practice of this invention.
Fig. 2 shows a vertical section of a block of material bored with the tool of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 shows a side View partially broken out of a shearing device embodying features of this invention.
Fig. 4 shows a horizontal section of the device of Fig. 3 taken along the line 44.
Fig. 5 shows the same sectional view of the shearing device illustrated in Fig. 4, but with the handles rotated to cut-ofi position.
Fig. 6 shows the block of material as bored and illustrated in Fig. 2 with the lower end of the shearing device shown in Fig. 3 inserted in the bored hole and receiving the sample pin.
Fig. 7 shows the same sectional view of the block of material and the inserted lower end of the shearing device as shown in Fig. 6, but with the handles of the shearing device rotated to cut-off position, and the pin sheared from the block.
Fig. 8 shows a pin formed in a bored hole so as to provide a sample from the interior of a mass of material.
Referring now particularly to Figs. 1 and 2, a hollow boring tool useful in the practice of this invention is illustrated generally at 10 and comprises an elongated body 12 spirally fluted to form projecting lands 14. The lower end surfaces of lands 14 are sharpened to provide cutting edges 16 and these extend from the outer edge of tool 10 inwardly toward the periphery of central longitudinal bore 18. Preferably the interior ends of cutting edges 16 are undercut slightly in the bore 18, as shown at 20, so that the tool 10 will not tend to bind on a core or pin formed interiorly in the bore hole 18 during the boring operation.
A solid mass or block of material 22 is shown in Fig. 2 after boring with the tool illustrated in Fig. 1. As a result of the construction of the boring tool as described, the hole 24 produced in block 22, is characterized by the presence of central upstanding pin 26, which after boring is still attached to the bottom 28 of the hole 24 essentially as shown.
Referring now particularly to Fig. 3, the shearing device 30 employed to separate the pin 26 from the bottom 28 of the bore hole 24 comprises a cylindrical body 32 provided with an off-center longitudinal bore 34. Rotatably mounted in bore 34 is inner cylindrical shaft 36 provided with ofi-center longitudinal bore 38. Fixedly attached to the top portion of body 32, as by locking bolt 40, is collar 42. Shaft 36, whose bottom is substantially flush with the bottom of body 32, extends upwardly beyond the top end of body 32 and is similarly provided with fixedly attached collar 44 maintained in position suitably by locking bolt 46. Radially projecting handle 48 is fixedly attached to collar 42 as by welding at 50 thus being fixedly attached to body 32. To provide suitable bracing, handle 48 may be loop shaped as shown with its top rotatably mounted over the extending top end of shaft 36 as shown at 52. Radially projecting handle 54 is fixedly attached as by welding at 56 to shaft collar 44, thus being fixedly attached to shaft 36 intermediate the top of shaft 36 and the top of body 32.
As will be seen from Fig. 4, in the embodiment illustrated handles 48 and 54 are attached respectively to body 32 and shaft 36 so that the bore hole 38 is central and concentric with the outer surface of body 32 when handle 54 is at a degree angle to, and on one side of handle 48. Referring to Fig. 5 it will be seen that rotation of handle 54 with respect to handle 48, over an arc of degrees to a new position 270 degrees from the original side of handle 48, or 90 degrees now from the other side thereof, causes the bore hole 38 to be displaced the maximum distance from its original position. Displacement of bore hole 38 by rotation of one handle with respect to the other, is, as will be apparent, due to the design of the two body members and their ofi-center bore holes to provide a double eccentric. This unique organization can provide .a very powerful shearing force in a plane parallel to the bottom of the device, which when employed as described, will be the plane of the bottom of the hole bored in the mass or block of material to be sampled. Proper action and cooperation is attained by arranging the external diameter of body 32 of shearing device 30 slightly less than the internal diameter of the hole 24 bored by tool 10 and also arranging the diameter of the inner bore hole 38 in the shearing device, slightly larger than the external diameter of pin 26. To shear off pin 26 from the bottom 28 of hole 24 in block 22 (as it stands as shown in Fig. 2) the bore hole 38 of shearing device 30 is centrally positioned as shown in Fig. 4 and the lower end of the device inserted in hole 24 with pin 26 inserted in and mating with bore hole 38 as will be clear from Fig. 6. Then handles 48 and 54 are re-positioned by rotation of one with respect to the other to apply a shearing force in the plane of the bottom 28 of hole 24 to shear off and separate pin 26 from block 22 as shown in Fig. 7.
Thus the complete method for obtaining sample pins comprises boring the solid material to form the upstanding pin as shown in Fig. 2 and then shearing the pin from the bottom of the bored hole as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. In
cases in which a sample pin from the interior of a mass of solid material may be desired, a preliminary boring step may be employed, using a conventional drill or other means to provide a normal hole to the desired depth. Then the hollow tool having a central bore (asillus trate'd in Fig. 1) is employed to bore an extension of the first bored hole and to provide the central upstanding pin 26a as shown in Fig. 8 :in the bottom of the hole extension. Pin 26a may then be sheared from the bottom 28 of the hole 24 by the same method and shearing device described above. This procedure has the advantage that a starting guide hole is provided for the hollow drilling'tool; otherwise a rigid and firm tool mounting should be employed to insure that the tool cuts its design diameter circle and makes a clean, smooth hole and upstanding pin.
Conventional mechanical apparatus, such as a drill press (not shown), isconveniently employed to rotate the hollow boring tool, and as explained above, a rigid and firm mounting is necessary, generally, to insure proper boring action. The shearing device is readily operated manually, sufiicient shearing force being readily obtained with actuating handles of reasonable length to separate pins 'of even steel and other hard metals.
It is important that the bore hole 38 be central in the shearing device when placing this in the hole in the material being sampled, so that it will be in proper position to receive and mate with the upstanding pin 26 '(or 26a). Setting this condition is best accomplished by the relative positioning of handles 54 and 48 by their attachment to shaft 36 and body 32, and it is advantageous that the bore hole 38 be central with respect to the outer surface of body 32 when the handles 54 and 48 are arranged in a recognizable angular relationship so that a simple adjustment of these handles to such position will insure central location of bore hole 38 and proper operation when the shearing device is employed as described. In the embodiment illustrated this angular relationship is 90 degrees and the two handles 54 and 48 may readily be placed in such relationship'which is clearly recognizable as such because of the visible and apparent right angle formed by the handles. It will be obvious that a stop or other mechanical indicia may equivalently be employed to evidence or establish the desired angular relationship. It has been found that starting with a 90 degree relationship with one handle grasped in each hand, very effective and powerful manual rotative force may be exerted in moving the handles, or one of them, so that handle 54 is displaced 180 degrees with respect to handle 48.
The apparatus of this invention is useful to obtain unitary pin-type samples of various solid materials including metals, metallic alloys, plastics, chemical products and other solid substances. Ability to produce such a sample from the interior of solid material is an important advantage of this invention. The shearing device employed enables a sample pin to be readily and efiiciently separated 4 from the bottom of a bored hole in a solid mass of material.
I claim: 0 V
1. A shearing device comprising; a cylindrical body having a longitudinal off-center bore, a shaft having a longitudinal off-center bore rotatably mounted in the bore of said body, the bottomof said shaft being substantially flush with the bottom of said body, radially projecting handle means fixedly attached to said body, and radially projecting handle means fixedly attached .to said shaft.
2. A shearingdevice comprising; a eylindrical body having a longitudinal off-center bore, a shaft having a longitudinal off-"center bore rotatably mounted in the bore of said body, the bottom of said shaft being substantially flush with the bottom of said body, radially projecting handle means fixedly attached to said body, and radially projecting handle means fixedly attached to said shaft, said-radially'projecting handle means attached to said body andto said shaft so that they radiate in a recognizable angular relationship when the bore of said shaft is essentially centrally positioned with respect to the outer surface of said body.
3; A shearing device comprising; a cylindrical body having a longitudinal off-center bore, a shaft having a longitudinal off-center bore rotatably mounted in the bore of said body, the bottom of said shaft being substantially flush with the bottom of said body, radially projecting handle means fixedly attached to said body, and radially projecting handle means fixedly attached to said shaft, said radially projecting handle means attached to said shaft and to said body so that they radiate in an angular relationship of about 90 degrees when the bore of said shaft is essentially centrally positioned with respect to the outer surface of said body.
4. A shearing device comprising; a cylindrical body having a longitudinal off-center bore, a shaft having an off-center bore rotatably mounted in the bore of said body, the bottom of said shaft being substantially flush with the bottom of said body and the top of said shaft projecting upwardly from the top of said body, a radially projecting loop shaped handle having its bottom fixedly attached to said body and its top rotatably mounted on the projecting top of said shaft, and a radially projecting handle fixedly attached to said shaft intermediate the top of said shaft and the top of said body.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 434,597 Hay Aug. 19, 1890 1,848,590 Willis Mar. 8, 1932 2,167,393 Muncy July 25, 1939 2,860,015 Matterson Nov. 11, 1958