US 2966899 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 50, 1955 424/21. ,6. J 2=MA 4 IN V EN TOR.
Arron/ve y United States Paten INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Karl L. Herrmann, 1405 Air Way, Glendale 1, Calif. Filed Nov. so, 1955, Ser. No. 549,965
Claims. (01.123-58) This invention relates to internal combustion engines and has particular reference to two cycle.engines.-
This type of engine generally includes a crank-shaft and connecting rods between the shaft and the .pistons of the engine. Bolts and pins are depended upon to maintain the rods in position on the shaft and pistons. Springheld poppet valves are required to control cylinder in takes and exhausts. Such engines are difficult to. balance and the torsional vibrations caused. by the reciprocal forces appliedto the shaft through the connecting rods are so pronounced that it has been found necessary to provide vibration dampers, counter-weights, fly wheels and rubber mounts in order to produce smooth operation of the engine. All of these objectionable features may be eliminated by applying the pressure exerted by the pistons directly to a cam-shaped member which is mounted on a straight power shaft. This cam member is so shaped that the pressure applied theretoby the pistons will positively rotate the member, and the shaft, .all substantially as shown and described in my earlier-Patent No. 2,243,817, dated May 27, 1941.
The object of the present invention is to provide on the power shaft of the engine a single, ported member which is designed to-distribute fuel mixtures from the carburetor. of the engine, during rotation of the shaft thereby entirely eliminating spring-held valves and all connections fromsuch valves. A further object is to provide means for compressing the fuel mixture before it enters the combustion chambers of the cylinders thereby not only to obtain a sufiicient combustion yolumebut also to insure complete discharge of the combustion gases from the cylinders. 1;
6 These and other objects of the invention as well.-.as :the many advantageous, features thereof will be apparent from the followingdetaileddescription and by'referring to the accompanying drawings in which a preferred form of the invention is illustrated. Y
Fig. 1 is a side view of a device embodying the invention showing parts, thereof in sidesection and other parts in vertical section;
Fig. 2 is a view in. end elevation taken on line .2--,-2 of Fig. 1 in the direction of the arrows; z
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary end view taken on line 3-,.3 of Fig. 1 in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 4 illustrates, in perspective, the fuel distributing member of the device as it appears before placed. in position therein; and
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic view showing the uniformity and angular inclinations of the power transmitting member of the device.
The device of the invention, in .the form illustrated in the drawings, consists of a cylindrical housing divided into two parts, 1 and 2, and a cylindrical passage 3 extends axially through. the housing to provide therein a seat for a power shaft 4. The outerend 5 ofthis. shaft is in any suitable manner, not shown, connected to the wheel rotating mechahis'r'n of the vehicle the engine is designed 'to s eive'f cylindrical member is rigidly mounted on the shaft at or near the center of the housing 2. 5 99 mated Jan. 3; rest and the side surfaces of this member are machined to provide thereon identically shaped cam surfaces 11, 12. This member is hereinafter mostly referred to as the cam member of the device.
The housing is at one side of the cam member shown axially recessed to provide seats for a circular row of cylinders-13 to 18 radially spaced from the power shaft 4 by equal amounts and axially parallel to said power shaft. A second row of cylinders are 34-39 similarly placed at the opposite side of the cam member, see also Fig. 2, and as these cylinders are identical with the first row of cylinders and similarly positioned relative to the cam member, it is thought sufficient in Fig. '1- to indicate that the cylinders 34-39 of this second row are in axial alinementwith the cylinders of the first row. Pistons are seated for-reciprocation in the axially alined cylinders of the two rows as best shown at 21 in Fig. I of the drawmgs. 6
It is noticed that the pistons are double ended, terminating in heads 26, 27. The head 27 is for reasons which are hereinafter explained a good deal shorter than "the piston head 26. The middle portion of the piston is shown reduced in diameter to form a neck 28 and an opening 29 is cut into the neck from one side thereof to provide clearance for the peripheral portion of the cam member 10. In semi-cylindrical bearings 30, 31 of the neck are suitably mounted rollers 32, 33 which engage the cam surfaces of the member 10, substantially as indicated inFig.
l of the drawings. The pistons are in the manner which will now be described reciprocated, in'moving to apply rotation to'the cam member and the rotation of the -memher is transmitted through the power shaft 4 to the wheel rotating mechanism of the vehicle. It is to be noted that the cam member is double-lobed and that both lobes of the member are identically shaped, are uniformly inclined and evenly spaced, substantially as indicated in Fig. 5. When so proportioned, it is found that-continuous, uniform rotation will be applied to the member during piston reciprocations. It is also important to note that the cam member is given a ninety degree rotation on each forward stroke of the piston andthat the following ninety degree rotation of the member returns the piston to its'initial retracted position shown in the drawings." All of the foregoing features are-shown and described in my said earlier patent. l
A disk-shaped flow control member 40 is rigidly mounted on the power shaft in position to close an annular recess 41 of the housing thereby to provide a chamber 42 within the housing. An intake port 43 admits fuel mixture from a conventional carburetor assembly into this chamber. This mixture is, in the position of the member shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, free to pass from the chamber 42 through two diametrically opposite ports 45, 45 into the ends of the cylinders 34, 37, see also Fig. 2.
It is noticed in Fig. 2 that two diametrically opposed ports 46, 46 lead from an inner annular chamber 44 of the control member into the ends of the cylinders 34 and 37. It is also to be noted that ports 47, 47 of the power shaft 4 connect the chamber 44 with a cylindrical space 48 within the shaft and that passages 49 lead from the shaft chamber into the inner ends of the cylinders 1318, as best shown in Fig. 3. The relation of the ports 46 to the ports 45 is best shown in this drawing. The manner in which transfer of the fuel mixture from the intake 43 through the control member and the chamber .48 of the shaft to the cylinders is periodically made will now be described. r
Let it beassumed that the engine has been started and that the pistons have reached the positions indicated in Fig. 1. The fuel mixture has filled the cylinders 34 and 37. Rotation of the control member quickly causes the next following port 46 to move into registration with the cylinder 34 to open a passage for the fuel into the inner chamber 44 of the member. And when the mouth of this port is of considerable width, substantially as indicated in Fig. 2, it is seen that a passage is quickly opened for the fuel to pass from the cylinder 34 through the inner chamber to the space 48 within the shaft.
As the piston 26 now approaches and reaches the end of its forward stroke, it is seen that the fuel is free to pass from the space 48 through the port 49 into the space behind the piston. It is important to note than an exhaust port 50 is cut through the walls of the housing and the cylinder 13, at the inner end of the latter; also that this port is wider than the port 49. When these ports are correctly positioned and proportioned, it is found that the fuel, ignited by a conventional spark plug 51, will expand to advance the piston and will escape out through the exhaust port 50 before the port 49 is opened. It is also important to note that the fuel is forced at high speed into the shaft chamber 48 by the advancing piston head 27 of the cylinder 34 and becomes compressed therein before the piston reaches the end of its forward stroke. This compressed fuel will rush into the space behind the advancing piston 13 so speedily that all the combustion gases will be expelled before the receding piston again closes the exhaust port 50. This completes one cycle of piston operation.
The other five pistons of the engine operate in the same manner and in such rapid succession that uniform pressure is applied smoothly and evenly to rotate the power shaft of the engine. There are no intake and exhaust valves to get out of adjustment. No cranks and piston connections to become worn and chattery. And when the piston head 2.7 is, as above pointed out, considerably shorter than the head 26 and the size of the shaft chamber 48 correctly proportioned, it is found that pressure may be maintained within the chamber to assure complete evacuation of the exhaust gases and a sufiicient supply of fuel in the cylinder at the moment of combustion.
While I have found a six cylinder combination most advantageous, it is to be understood that the various parts and combinations of the flow control mechanism may readily be proportioned to serve a four cylinder engine efficiently. It should also be clear to anyone familiar with the art that suitable ball or roller bearings should be provided for the power shaft; also that gaskets must be provided to insure leak-proof joints. But as all such devices are required in internal combustion engines and well known in the art, they are merely outlined in Fig. l of the drawings and no further reference thereto is thought necessary.
1. An internal combustion engine comprising, a housing, a shaft rotatable in the housing, the shaft having a cylindrical compression chamber therein and inlet and outlet ports at the ends of said compression chamber, a series of compression cylinders at one end of the housing, a series of combustion cylinders at the other end of the housing in alinement with the compression cylinders and parallel with the shaft, double headed piston in the axially alined cylinders of the two series, a circular cam mounted on the shaft for rotation by the pistons, and a fuel flow control member on the shaft, said member having passages therein for fuel to the compression cylinders and passages for the fuel from the compression cylinders through the shaft compression chamber to the combustion cylinders.
2. An internal combustion engine comprising, a housing having intake and exhaust ports, a shaft rotatable in the housing, the shaft having a cylindrical compression cham ber therein and inlet and outlet ports at the ends of said compression chamber, a series of compression cylinders at one end of the housing, a series of combustion cylinders at the other end of the housing in alinement with the compression cylinders and parallel with the shaft, double headed pistons in the axially alined cylinders of the two series, a circular cam mounted on the shaft for rota tion by the pistons, and a fuel flow control member on the shaft, said member having passages therein for fuel from said intake port of the housing to the compression cylinders and passages for the fuel from the compression cylinders through said inlet port to the shaft compression chamber for discharge through the outlet port of the shaft compression chamber to the combustion cylinders for discharge through the outlet port of the housing.
3. An internal combustion engine comprising a cylindrical housing having fuel inlet and exhaust ports, a power shaft seated for rotation in the housing, a series of combustion cylinders and a series of fuel advancing cylinders encircling the shaft in axial parallel alinement therewith, the cylinders of one series being in axial alinement With the cylinders of the other series, double headed pistons seated for reciprocation in the axially alined cylinders, hearings in each piston intermediate the heads thereof, a cam on the shaft seated in the bearings of the pistons and shaped for rotation by the pistons, a cylindrical fuel flow control member on the shaft, there being an annular chamber within said member and a cylindrical space with in the shaft, two diametrically opposite fuel inlet ports through the member for registration with the fuel advancing cylinders, two diametrically opposite ports in the member leading from said cylinders through the annular chamber of the member to the space within the shaft, the inlet ports of the member being at right angles to the fuel advancing ports thereof, rotation of the shaft and member consecutively opening passages for the fuel from the fuel advancing cylinders through the chamber and shaft space to the combustion chamber of the other cylinders on the forward stroke of the pistons therein, subsequently opening passages from the intake to the fuel advancing cylinders on the return stroke of the pistons.
4. A device as set forth in claim 3 in which the fuel inlet and exhaust ports pass through the walls of the combustion cylinders at one end thereof, the exhaust ports being wider than the inlet ports, the ports being normally closed by the pistons, the latter moving past the ports at the end of their forward stroke first to open the wider exhaust port.
5. An internal combustion engine comprising, a housing, a power shaft seated for rotation within the housing, the power shaft having a cylindrical chamber therein and a port at each end of the chamber, the end wall of the housing being recessed to provide therein an annular space about the shaft, a cylindrical fuel flow control member mounted on the shaft in position to enclose the housing recess, the member having an annular chamber therein, a conduit carrying fuel mixture to the recess of the housing, a series of combustion cylinders and a series of fuel compression cylinders encircling the shaft in axial parallel alinement therewith, double headed pistons seated for reciprocation in the alined cylinders of the two series, and a cam on the shaft seated for rotation by the pistons in response to reciprocations thereof, there being two diametrically alined ports through the flow control member for admitting fuel from the recess of the housing into the fuel compression cylinders, two diametrically alined passages into the member for conducting fuel from the compression cylinders through the port at one end of the shaft chamber to the chamber and through the port at the other end thereof to the combustion cylinders, the passages through the member being axially alined with the passages from the inner chamber of the member, all four passages being circularly alined.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,610,060 Lind Dec. 7, 1926 1,762,437 Fnanklin June 10, i930 2,417,487 Hall Mar. 18, 1947