US 2968734 A
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Jan. 17, 1961 c M. YEOMANS DEVICE FOR IN VENTOR (Zn 5 n1. yfaMfl/vs,
United States DEVICE FOR THE EXPOSURE F FLUID TO RADIATION Filed Jan. 6, 1956, Ser. No. 557,671
4 Claims. (Cl. 250-106) This invention relates to a device to permit controlled exposure of fluid materials to radiation without causing undesired irradiation of the surroundings or exposure of the operator.
It is well known that in order to irradiate or expose materials to radiation, specially prepared rooms are required, usually of thick, shielded concrete walls or shielded pits, both requiring additional shielding and some sort of remote controlled handling device for handling the material within the shielded enclosure.
It is an object of this invention to provide a small, portable irradiation unit for fluids, for small, experimental batches or limited production. It is portable in the sense that it is a unit that can be moved, as distinguished from a pit or concrete room, but it is not necessarily limited in size.
It is another object of this invention to provide a unit that affords adequate shielding of the entire are surrounding the unit.
It is another object of this invention to provide a unit wherein one or two fluids simultaneously can be exposed to radiation.
It is another object of this invention to provide a unit in which the temperature of the fluid being exposed to radiation can be controlled during the process.
It is another object of this invention to provide a simple and relatively inexpensive unit to expose liquids, gases, emulsions or slurries to a source of radioactivity quickly and in a continuous process, without the use of remote controlled devices.
It is another object of this invention to provide a unit in which all the fluid passages into and out of the unit are formed in a non-collimating arrangement to prevent direct emission of radiation from the source to the surrounding area.
It is another object of this invention to provide a compact unit accomplishing all of the foregoing objects, suitable for experimental or laboratory purposes.
Further and other objects will be apparent from the description of the accompanying drawings, in which like numerals refer to like parts.
Figure 1 is a sectional view of the unit; and
Figure 2 is a section taken on the line 22 of Figure l.
The drawing shows a block of dense material which may be any one of a number of materials known to be capable of acting as a shield for radioactive material and reducing radiation therethrough to a desired minimum. The thickness of the wall and the type of material thereof surrounding the cavity, in which the source of radiation is located, depends upon the degree of shielding desired in proportion to the degree of radiation.
The unit is made up of a block or container having a bottom portion 1 and a top portion 2 providing therebetween a chamber 3. Block portions 1 and 2 engage with any type of a labyrinth fit that will preclude the escape of radiation. A tubular member 4 is positioned within chamber 3. Tubular member 4 is a source of atent radioactivity. It is either irradiated to act as a source or the wall structure may incorporate radioactive material. Such radioactive material can either be a suitable radioactive isotope or a suitable fission product from a nuclear pile or any material capable of breeding. Tube 4 may be formed of the radioisotope Cobalt 60 in tube or rod form.
Surrounding tubular member 4 are arranged passages 5 and 6 which may be provided by coiled tubes or may be formed integrally in block 1. When passages 5 and 6 are formed by coiled tubular elements, they may be sprayed with a metal spray to improve the heat exchange relationship. Passages 7, 8, 9 and 10 may be formed integrally in block 1 if passages 5 and 6 are integral therewith or they may be extensions of the coiled tubes forming passages 5 and 6. It will be noted that passage 7 for example which connects with passage 5 makes two right angle bends before it emerges outside block 1. By providing tortuous passages 7, 8, 9 and 10 in a fashion such that they are non-collimating, it is not possible for direct radiation to reach the outside space around the block through these passages. Passages 7 and 9 form an inlet and outlet to passage 5 while passages 8 and 10 form an inlet and outlet for passage 6. Fittings 14 are secured to passages 7 to 10 to facilitate the connection of other piping for the passage of liquids or gases.
With this arrangement of passages 5 and 6 in good mutual heat exchange relationship positioned adjacent a source of radiation, it will be apparent that two liquids, gases, emulsions or slurries, or any combinations of these can be exposed to radiation from member 4 in a continuous and controlled manner. It will be noted that if one or the other of the passages is employed for the passage of fluid to be irradiated, the other passage may be used for a cooling medium to control the temperature conditions within and around member 4. The control of radiation is effected by the speed of passage of the fluid through the passages and by the selection of the particular radioactive material incorporated in member 4 or the degree of irradiation of member 4.
Referring again to the drawing, eyebolt 11 is threaded into top portion 2 to afford a means to lift the cover for the replacement of member 4. Any suitable latch means such as members 12 may be provided for the cover. Loops 13 provide means for lifting the unit.
From the foregoing description, it will be seen that a self-contained, portable unit for irradiation of one or more fluids in batch or continuous process operation is provided, which ensures adequate safety for the operator.
It is to be understood that certain changes, alterations, modifications and substitutions can be made Without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
1. An irradiation device comprising a hollow member having an opening therein, said member being composed of a material emitting atomic radiation, a container of shielding material defining a chamber about said member, said chamber having an opening adapted to provide access to the interior of said member, a removable closure of shielding material for said opening in said chamber, and two tubes for carrying fluids to be irradiated by said atomic radiation, said tubes being positioned in said chamber adjacent said member and extending in a tortuous manner from said chamber to the exterior of said container.
2. An irradiation device comprising a. container of shielding material having a substantially cylindrical chamber therein, a hollow cylinder of material emitting atomic radiation disposed concentrically in said chamber, a removable closure of shielding material for said chamher, and two tubes for carrying fluid material adjacent said hollow cylinder to be irradiated by said atomic radiations, said tubes circumscribing said hollow cylinder References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Saubermann Sept. 4, 1917 Postell Apr. 28, 1953 Groddeck Mar. 9, 1954 Browne et al. Apr. 24, 1956 Baum June 12, 1956 Gendler et al. Oct. 2, 1956