US 2968855 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 24, 1961 v w. J. STOLZ 2,968,855 REMOVABLE INSERTS FOR PIPE PASSAGES. IN CONCRETE Filed March 24, 1958 FIG.
FIG. 5 I FIG. 6 INVENTOR WILLIAM J. STOLZ ATTORNEYS United States Patent 6) F REMOVABLE INSERTS FOR PIPE PASSAGES IN CONCRETE William J. Stolz, 333 West Ave., Elyria, Ohio Filed Mar. 24, 1958, Ser. No. 723,306
2 Claims. (Cl. 25'-128) This invention relates to a removable pipe sleeve.
It has been proposed to form passages in floors or walls in reinforced concrete buildings through which pipes of various types are passed and these passages are formed by constructing wooden boxes in connection with steel and conductor pipe filled with sand which must be carefully attended when the concrete is poured and during the setting of the concrete. All of these elements, however, must be destroyed before they can be removed which causes added expense for labor and material.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a removable form for constructing passages in concrete used in buildings so that pipes of various kinds employed for plumbing, heating and other equipment may be inserted through the passages, the removable form including a rubber or elastic sleeve which is expanded internally by a coil spring when pressure is exerted upon the opposite ends of the spring, the spring, sleeve and associated elements being removable from the passage after the poured concrete has set for use many times thereafter.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a device for forming openings in the walls of buildings when concrete is employed in which an expansible sleeve is secured in position at the desired point with internal means for expanding the sleeve so that after the concrete has been poured and set around tne sleeve the same may be retracted and withdrawn to leave a passage of suitable diameter for the insertion of various kinds of pipes.
This invention relates to US. Patent No. 2,234,784 and is a continuation-in-part of application Serial Number 591,400, filed June 14, 1956, which application is specifically abandoned in favor of this more full teaching of the invention.
It is a principal object of this improved invention, over the prior art and application, to provide a spring formation which will eliminate the need for the plates required for end support of the device.
Another specific object of utmost importance is the provision of a tapered external sleeve formation, in order to produce a tapered opening through a floor slab and thereby hold a flood preventative sleeve liner in the finished passageway through the concrete, and permit mastic sealing of the sleeve, without the use of external support devices.
Other objects and a fuller understanding of the invention may be had by referring to the following description and claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure l is a vertical section of a device constructed in accordance with the principles of this invention;
Figure 2 is a section through a tapered floor opening with a sleeve liner positioned therein; the drawing does not illustrate'sealing mastic in the resultant annular space in the interest of clarity of illustration;
Figure 3 is a section through a poured slab, with the liner device partially broken away, the section being i1- 2,968,855 Patented Jam. 24, 1961 lustrated vertically but being applied more frequently to horizontal wall sections;
Figure 4 is an end view of the improved spring liner;
Figure 5 is a vertical section of a device constructed in accordance with this invention, as applied to a mesh 01- screen form; and,
Figure 6 is an illustration of the use of the device on a sloped surface, and tripod means to adapt the device to such sloped surface.
When installing standpipes, capped drains or the like in concrete floors, it is good building practice and, in many cases required by building codes or to fulfill Fire Underwriters Specifications, that such conduits extend a specified distance above the finish floor line and be sealed in the floor. This, in the event that water should accumulate on the floor, it would be prevented from running down around the pipe to the floor below.
An insert for forming passages in floors to allow installation of pipes or tubes in accordance with such requirements is illustrated in Figure 1, wherein 10 designates the insert generally. In Figure 1 insert 10 is shown in- Y stalled on a wooden form 12 which supports the poured concrete mixture 14. conventionally, mixture 14 is a coarse-aggregate mix which forms the floor slab. Reference numeral 16 designates the passage formed by the insert.
Insert 10 comprising a sleeve 18 of a deformable, resilient material such as rubber. The sleeve is usually of circular cross-section, as shown, although this is a matter of selection depending on the cross-section of the passage to be formed. Thus the sleeve may have, for example, an oval, square-rectangular, or other cross-section. The normal axial dimension of sleeve 18 exceeds, at least slightly, that of passage 16, so that its upper end projects above the top surface of the concrete 14, even when the sleeve is longitudinally compressed in use, as hereinafter explained. The wall thickness of sleeve 18 should be substantial, depending on the compliance of the material of which it is made, so that it will retain its shape under normal handling and stresses.
In the particular embodiment being described, the lower end of sleeve 18 has its outer wall formed with an inwardly tapering portion 20 which extends along a substantial minor part of the sleeve-length. In practice, the tapered portion 20 would extend at least an inch or two and would be tapered at an angle of perhaps 15 degrees or more to the sleeve axis.
Coaxially disposed within sleeve 18 is a simple coil spring 22 having an unstressed or relaxed length roughly in. longer than that of the sleeve. The outer diameter of the spring is such that the convolutions engage or nearly engage inner wall 24 of sleeve 18.
Previously, an end plate has been used to support the end of the sleeve 18 and hold the end of the coil spring. According to this invention, the end convolution of the spring has been formed into a final convolution lying substantially in a flat plane with the extreme end of the wire of the spring jutting inwardly to an eye loop 27 on one end of the spring and an eye loop 28 on the other end of the spring. Each end convolution defines an outer part 80, A at opposite ends of the spring. The eye loops 27 and 28 encompass the central longitudinal axis of the spring spiral. Hence, the improved spring of this invention does not require the use of extraneous end cap members or other accessory means for establishing a fixed longitudinal axis pin.
The sleeve 18 has a first end 11 defined by an annular end Wall surface 50 lying in a plane which is a continuation of the plane of the final convolution of the spring and its eye loop 28. Likewise, the sleevehas a second end 11A defined by an annular end wall surface 50A which likewise defines a plane which corresponds to the plane of the end convolution and its eye loop 27. Thus, the sleeve end walls and the spring ends lie and abut a common fiat plane surface in order to provide a common seat for the structure without the need for other end devices to level or affix the structure.
A cap plate 34 is provided to sit upon the end of the sleeve 18 in order to employ the screw 38 to apply .pressure longitudinally upon the sleeve member.
Extending coaxially through alinged apertures 32, 36 and sleeve 18 is a screw member 38, one end of which carries a screw head 40 which bears on plate 34 and is adapted to be engaged by a suitable-preferably conven tional-tool for turning it. The screw member is substantially longer than sleeve 18, and, at its end opposite head 40, is provided with screw threads 42 adapting it to be secured by a toggle head 39.
An improved toggle device 39 is employed as an anchor for the screw 38. This toggle device is a one-piece device without the provision of any spring or intermediate pivot. A threaded collar 42 fits the screw 38 and is provided with laterally extending pins 40, which are not shown because of the cross-section in Figure l, but are shown in the Figure 5. The collar is concealed under the toggle 39 and is therefore not revealed in the drawing, but is of usual nut-like structure. By the use of such device, constructed off center as illustrated, the toggle may be allowed to tilt by gravity for the purpose of inserting the toggle through a convenient form opening and to be just as readily removed back through the opening, while being retained on the end of the screw 38. Thus, there is no loss of such toggle device as would be necessary with the use of a spring actuated toggle,
The insert described above operates in the following manner: the center-line of the passages to be formed is determined and marked on the wooden form 12. Preferably, this location is marked with a center-punch and then drilled. Thereafter the insert is assembled by first slipping screw member 38 through aperture 36 of plate 34, slipping the spring 22 over the shank of the screw member, and then into the sleeve 18. From the structure described it will be appreciated that the improved new end configurations of spring 22 serve to automatically establish a concentric relation between the screw member and spring and, in turn, between the screw member-spring assembly and the sleeve. The screw member is tightened up until substantial pressure is exerted on the ends of sleeve 18, thus compressing both spring 22, and sleeve 18. Compression of spring 22 is reflected in a slight increase in its lateral dimension which takes up any peripheral clearance which may exist between the spring convolut ions and inner sleeve Wall 24 and then exerts a radially outward pressure tending to increase the lateral dimension of the sleeve. In addition, due to the Well-known Poisson effect, the axial compressive stress exerted on sleeve 18 by screw member 38 produces a lateral strain which, in a hollow body like sleeve 18, tends to thicken the walls,
i."e., increase the outer dimension and diminish the inner dimension. The latter effect, however, is resisted by the "radially outwardly directed force exerted by the convolutions of spring 22 and the net result is a general expansion or increase in the outer lateral dimension of sleeve 18, the expansion being substantially uniform along the entire length of the sleeve so that there is no spurious distortion of the sleeve.
At this stage the insert is in place and ready for the pouring of the concrete mixture 14. While it is rarely necessary, the outer surfaces of the sleeve may be lubricated to preclude adherence of the concrete. After the concrete has been poured and has set sufficiently, the insert is removed by simply removing screw member 38. This allows plate 34 to be removed whereafter spring 22 is slipped out of sleeve 18. The sleeve, which returns to its original dimensions when the screw member is looserred, can usually be gripped and pulled out without difiiculty although its deformable character may be re sorted to if necessary to simplify removal. Obviously, the amount of clearance between the relaxed sleeve and passage 16 is, within limits, a function of the amount of pressure exerted on the sleeve during setting of the concrete. Therefore, the degree of tightening of screw member 38, which is obviously within the control of the operator, may be selected to achieve the desired clearance, a few thousandths of an inch usually being sufficient.
Removal of insert 10 leaves passage 16 having an inward, conical taper 44 at its lower end. Referring to Figure 2, the pipe 01" tube 46, of appropriate length and diameter, is slipped into passage 16, its lower end seating a taper 44. Thereafter, a suitable water-proof groat is tamped into the clearance "around the tube at the upper surface of slab 14, thus forming a water seal at 48. Thereafter, the finish floor 50 is poured over slab 14 to complete the installation. The great is not shown in Figure 2 because the small space would confuse the illustrative drawings. 7
A modified form of the invention is shown in Figure 3 and designated generally by reference numeral 119. In describing this embodiment, parts identical or wholly analogous to those in the first described embodiment will be identified with the same numerals of reference increased by a factor of 100.
Insert is particularly adapted for use in forming passages in concrete walls, constructed by pouring the concrete mixture between substantially parallel wooden forms, such as designated at 112 and 112a Figure 3. The locus of the passage to be formed is defined by respective coaxially aligned holes 111 and 111;: in terms 112 and 112a. Insert 110 comprises, a sleeve 118, and a screw member 138 all of which are generally furictiohally equivalent to corresponding parts in Figure 1;
However, two coil springs 122 "and 122a are used. In
dividually, springs 122 and 122a arestructurally identical to spring 22, Figure 1. More springs are used for thicker walls.
Springs 122 and 122a are placed end-to-end, within sleeve 118 in coaxial alignment with each other and with the sleeve. The respective end configurations of springs 122 and 122a abut each other and the corresponding ey'e loops 27 are in registration, although hidden from view in the Figure 3. Among the several advantages of two springs in this particular construction are: (1) additional guiding and supporting effects, which may be necessary in a horizontal installation and particularly with a long passage, are provided; (2) such effects are provided "a lower cost, as compared to a single long spring specially manufactured for such limited use; (3) the springs may be used individually in a shorter insert. Many short sleeves -18 may also be employed.
Continuing with the description, the axial dimension of sleeve 118 and the contined unstressed length of coil springs 122 and 122a should exceed slightly the aggregate axial dimensions of passage 116 and the two holes 111, 111 The lateral dimensions of the springs 122', 122a conform to the detailed description of the corresponding parts in Figure 1. However, the plates 134 and 134a are of such peripheral dimension and configuration that they extend beyond the margin of holes 111, 111a for a purpose which will be apparent presently.
Preferably, screw members 138 have screw threads 1'42, 142a at both ends for the engagement of suitable nuts143, 143a which bear on plates 134, "134.1. The manner of installation and operation of insert 110 is believed obvious from the structure described and the detailed description given in conjunction with Figure 1.
However, it should be noted that by virtue of the plates 134, 134a extending beyondholes 111, 111a, screw member 138 becomes effective as a tie-rod for the forms, precluding separation thereof under the weight of the concrete mixture 114.
Figure 5 is an illustration of the invention employed on a screen formrather than on a wooden support. ,1?
is supplied for the purpose of illustrating the versatility of the invention. Figure 5 illustrates a feature of the invention which enables adjustment of the angle between the axis of the passage and the supporting form. It may be employed as a leveling device, for example, to achieve a vertical passage in a slab which is not precisely horizontal. Conversely, it may be used to create a passage which does not extend perpendicular to the form.
The adjustment feature is illustrated as applied to an insert as in Figure l, with the addition of an adaptor plate 340. Plate 340 contains one or more tapped holes, each of which threadedly receives an adjustment screw such as cap screw 41.
In Figure 6, support form 120 is at an appreciable angle to the horizontal. Insert 10 is installed in the same manner as previously described, but by selective adjustment of screws 41 and plate 340, may be leveled so that the axis of the insert is substantially vertical. Preferably two screws 41 are employed to provide a tripod support. In Figure 6 the second screw 41 is hidden from view.
Although the invention has been described in its preferred form with a certain degree of particularity, it is understood that the present disclosure of the preferred form has been made only by way of example and that numerous changes in the details of construction and the combination and arrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and the scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed.
What is claimed is:
1. A device for forming passages in concrete structure work comprising an elastic sleeve around which concrete may be poured and which thereby forms a passage in the concrete, said sleeve having a first end defined by an annular end wall surface lying in a first plane, said sleeve having a second end defined by an annular end wall surface lying in a second plane, said first and second planes being substantially parallel, a coil spring retaining said sleeve in extended position and fully expanded condition during the pouring and setting of the concrete, said spring having a central longitudinal axis with a spiral configuration therearound defining a cylinder surface corresponding to the interior surface of the sleeve, said spring having first and second end configurations, each end configuration including an outer part disposed in said cylinder surface defined by the spiral configuration, the first end configuration including a first arm part extending generally radially inwardly from the first end outer part and terminating in an end eye loop part circumscribing said axis, the second end configuration including a second arm par-t extending generally radially inwardly from the second end outer part and terminating in an end eye loop part circumscribing said axis, said first and second end configurations having first and second end wall surfaces respectively, said first end wall surface of said spring first end configuration defining one surface of said first end configuration part and said second end wall surface of said spring second end configuration defining one surface of said second end configuration part such that each of said end wall surfaces of said spring end configuration circumscribes said longitudinal axis, said first end wall surface of said spring first end configuration being disposed in its entirety in the first sleeve end plane, said second end wall surface of said spring second end configuration being disposed in its entirety in the second sleeve end plane, said end configurations serving as an internal expansion end support for the sleeve and as a base for the composite device and means projecting through said end eye loops for expanding the spring against the walls of the sleeve for expanding the sleeve before concrete is poured.
2. The device of claim 1 wherein said first and second sleeve end wall surfaces are at top and bottom ends and wherein the sleeve outer surface tapers outwardly from the bottom end toward the top end and terminates at a location between the longitudinal midpoint of the sleeve and the bottom end, the internal diameter of the sleeve is relatively constant throughout its length.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 427,914 Schilliger May 13, 1890 1,391,988 Zents Sept. 27, 1921 1,396,280 Paine Nov. 8, 1921 2,138,015 Barnhart Nov. 29, 1938 2,234,784 Stolz Mar. 11, 1941 2,311,358 Baily Feb. 16, 1943 2,527,874 Bradley Oct. 31, 1950 2,720,017 Youtz Oct. 11, 1955 2,721,369 Burke Oct. 25, 1955