US 2969170 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 24, 1961 E H. WALDORF COMBINED WOOD AND CORRUGATED- PAPER BOARD STRUCTURES Filed Sept. 4, 1957 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. bMU/YD H M44 00 1 V II rmy/vars Jan. 24, 1961 E. H. WALDORF 2,959,170
COMBINED woon AND CORRUGATED PAPER BOARD STRUCTURES Filed Sept. 4, 1957 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Emu/v0 A! MLDO/PF Jan. 24, 1961 E H. WALDORF COMBINED WOOD AND CORRUGATED PAPER BOARD STRUCTURES Filed Sept. 4, 1957 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 IIIIIIIIIIIIII INVENTOR. [mu/r0 b- Adam/- I AWO WS Jan. 24, 1961 E. H. WALDORF 2,969,170
COMBINED WOOD AND CORRUGATED PAPER BOARD STRUCTURES Filed Sept. 4, 1957 4 Sheets$heet 4 I I I ENTOR. @MU/YO MW? United States Patent COPJBINED WGGD AND-CORRUGATED PAPER BOARD STRUCTURES Edmund H. Waldorf, Farmingdale, N.Y., assignor to Tri- Wall Containers, Inc, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Sept. 4, 1957, Ser. No. 631,991
Claims. c1. 229-23 The present invention relates generally to housing and shipping structures formed by walls of corrugated paper board to which are attached Wood blocks or other solid members. More particularly, the invention deals with fastening elements or cleats adapted to secure wood pieces .0 triple-Wall corrugated paper board so as to provide floating supports within a box and for many other purposes.
Cartons and boxes formed of corrugated paper board are widely employed for housing and shipping a variety of articles. Corrugated board of conventional design may be of the single face, double face or double wall type. Single face refers to a combination of one liner with a sheet of corrugating media or fluting, the liner preventing the arches from flattening out, while in double face the fluting is sandwiched between two liners. In double wall, three liners are provided separated by two sheets of fiuting material. Double face and double wall boards are used in the manufacture of containers whereas the use of single face is restricted to Wrapping and cushioning.
Double face and double wall containers are of limited structural strength. In recent years, increased use has been made of three-ply corrugated containers for the purpose of packaging relatively heavy objects or for protecting frail objects in transit. These containers are con structed of triple Wall corrugated paper board manufactured in accordance with US. Patent No. 2,759,529, issued August 21, 195 6, to Goldstein et al., and identified by the trademark Tri-Wall.
Because of the superior structural and cushioning properties of Tri-Wall containers, they have in many instances replaced boxes made of plywood, lumber and other packaging materials. Tests have shown that even if a loaded box of triple wall corrugated construction is dropped, it does not shatter like wood but continues to give full protection to its contents.
An admitted limitation of any type of corrugated board is its inability to be nailed or bolted Without having the fastening means quickly shear through the corrugated wall when stressed. Plies of corrugated board oifer poor nail-holding strength and moreover permit easy tearing when fastenings are subjected to lateral stresses. It has heretofore not been possible to block or cradle an article within a corrugated box, as could be done with wooden boxes.
Thus when packaging an article whose dimensions do not conform exactly to that of the corrugated box, in order to prevent displacement of the article in transit it has been the practice to place inserts of corrugated material or force stufling into the box. so as to occupy all the free space therein, and thereby immobilize the article. However, the use of unattached. inserts and stuifings adds materially to the cost of packaging and does not always effectively float or cradle the article within the corrugated container.
In viewof the foregoing, it is the principal object of the invention toprovide combined corrugated paper board and wood structures and fastenings therefor having a broad range of packaging and shipping applications.
More particularly, it is an object of this invention to provide a cleat which may be anchored onto a corrugated board and nailed or bolted to a wooden member, where by the wooden member is held firmly to the board.
Among the many important packaging and shipping applications for the invention are the following:
A. Wooden blocking may be internally secured by cleats to the sides of triple-wall corrugated containers to provide braces, hold-downs, cradles and floating mounts.
B. Expendable and economical pallets may be formed by nailing sheets of triple-wall corrugated board to wooden skids.
C. Skidded contents may be secured within a corrugated container by bolting or nailing right through the triple-wall corrugated container bottom into the wood skid.
D. Wooden end pieces may be nailed to long wraparound triple-wall corrugated containers for packaging items With excessive end thrust, such as rod and bar stock.
E. Equipment already possessing mounting holes may be immobilized by bolting directly through these holes to cleats embedded on the underside of the triple-wall container.
F. The cleats may be used as anchor plates to secure steel strapping ends to half-slotted containers mounted on lengthwise wooden skids when it is not practical to continue the strapping across the bottom.
Briefly stated in multiple ply corrugated board structures in accordance with the invention, a cleat is provided in the form of a plate having a plurality of prongs projecting at right angles thereto, the prongs being embedded in the board and having a length such as to penetrate at least two plies thereof, thereby firmly anchoring the plate. The plate is provided with holes to receive nails for fastening a Wood piece to the corrugated board or to receive bolts for securing equipment having mounting holes to the board.
For a better understanding of the invention, as well as other objects and features thereof, reference is made to the following detailed description to he read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, wherein like components in the several views are identified by like reference numerals.
, In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a cleat in accordance with the invention.
Fig. 2 illustrates a wooden block attached to a corrugated paper board by means of the cleat.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line 33 in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a view of a corrugated paper hoard carton containing an article blocked in by wooden blocks in a manner in accordance with the invention.
Fig. 5 shows a container provided with a floating support for an article Whose dimensions do not conform. to that of the corrugated board container.
Fig. 6 is a view of the container in Fig. 5 after it is strapped. I
Fig. 7 illustrates an elongated corrugated board container having end pieces nailed thereto.
Fig. 8 shows a wrap-around box incorporating end pieces nailed in by cleats.
Fig. 9 is a view of the box shown in Fig. 8 after it is strapped.
Fig. 10 illustrates a single-service palletin accordance with the invention.
Fig. 11 shows a skidded-container which is strapped in accordance with the invention.
Fig. 12 shows an arrangement for anchoring an article within a corrugated board container.
Fig. 13 shows means to bolt an article within a corrugated board container. 1 A I. 5 A
Fig. 14 shows further means received to package an article within a corrugated board box.
Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to Figs. 1 to 3, there is shown a multi-ply board of corrugated paper, fastened by nails to a Wooden block 11 by means of an anchoring clip or cleat 12.. Board 10, as best seen in Fig. 3 is preferably of the triple-wall type described in Patent No. 2,759,523 and comprises three corrugated fluting sheets 10a, lllb'and 10c interposed between four spaced liner sheets 10d, 10e, 10 and 10g, the several sheets being intimately and securely bonded together. Triple-wall corrugated board is rigid, strong and non-yielding, comparing favorably instreng'th with wood as a packaging material.
, CleatlZ is constituted by a rectangular plate whose four pointed corners are each bent at right angles to the plane of the plate to form triangular teeth or prongs 12a, 12b, 12c and 12d. Also provided in the plate is a central hole 12:: of relatively large diameter for accommodating a bolt, and a pair of smaller holes 12 and 12g on either side of the central hole for receiving nails. Cleat 12 may be made of sheet metal which is stamped or cut and bent to form the desired prongs.
To join the Wooden block 11 to the corrugated board 10, the cleat 12 is pressed into the board, the prongs 10a to 10d biting into the board and piercing all but the innermost liner. The length of the prongs must be such as to span at least two of the plies. Nails 13 and 14 are hammered through holes 12 and 12g in the cleat to penetrate the end of the block 11, thereby fastening the block securely to the board. 7
The holding power of this arrangement is far greater than that obtained by nails alone. In an extensive series of tests on the holding ability of the cleats, it was found that the use of cleats in conjunction with nails usually doubled the holdingpower obtained with nails alone, the tests encompassing a variety of uses and different types of container construction. In many of the compression tests, nails secured by cleats were anchored so firmly that the ends of the wooden blocking split without tearing the triple-wall corrugated board of the container.
It is important to note that the length of the prongs is such as to be almost equal to the thickness of the corrugated board. This significantly contributes to the strength of the wood-to-co-rrugated board bond, for in the event a deflecting force is applied to the block relative to the board, the points on the prongs engage the end of the block to prevent deflectionJ Inasmuch as prong points are positioned at the four corners of the cleat, lateral tearing is eflectivelyopposed in all directions. Moreover, since the prongs span at least two plies of the board any force tending to cause angular movement to the cleat relative to the board is strongly resisted.
Referring now to Fig. 4, there is shown a carton 15 wholly constructed of triple-wall corrugated board and intended to package an article 16 whose dimensions are such that the article does not fully occupy the carton. To prevent displacement of the article, it has heretofore been the practice to introduce inserts in the carton to fill the space therein between the top of the carton and the article. it is now possible to block the article in by means of wooden. blocks 17 and 18 which are attached at either end to the sides of the carton by cleats 19 and 20 in the manner described above. These blocks not only hold down the article and prevent displacement thereof but also to a degree serve to brace the carton. I
As shown in Figs. 5 and 6, it is also possible by means of the invention to provide float supports within a corrugated board container. Such supports are desirable In accordance with the present invention,
where the bulk and geometry of the article being packaged are such as to require a symmetrical suspension within the box. The float support'is constituted by a rectangular Wooden frame 21 secured by nails to the internal sides of the carton by means of cleats 22. The article supported is in the form of a heavy motor differential 23 which is bolted to the frame and thereby maintained in an upright position within the box without the use of inserts or other expedients. As shown in Fig. 6, the completed package is encircled by metal strapping or bands 24 in the usual manner.
Where it is necessary to package such items as rod and bar stock in elongated corrugated board containers as, for example, the container 25 shown in Fig. 7, it is necessary to provide end pieces 26 of wood. The reason for this is that the rods or bars give rise to an end thrust which in the absence of end reenforcement will rupture the container. With the invention it becomes possible to nail the wood end pieces 26 to the sides of the container by means of cleats 27, such that the end pieces securely enclose both ends of the box.
The elongated box is of the wrap-around type formed by a single sheet of tri-wall material which is so scored as to define five panels constituting the side walls of the container. After the end pieces are nailed into place, the package is strapped in the usual manner. It will be noted that one wall of the box is formed by overlapping panels or flaps of corrugated board.
In a container of the type shown in Figs. 8 and 9 the wall material may not be of sufficient strength to prevent flexure of the elongated box, hence it becomes necessary to rigidity the structure. This is accomplished as shown in Fig. 8 by attaching a wooden plank 28 to one panel or flap of the wrap-around container by means of cleats 29. The cleats are nailed to the plank with their teeth projecting therefrom and the plank is then pressed against the side wall of the box so that the teeth enter therein, thereby anchoring the plank. The plank may be shorter than the length of the box, the cleats serving to prevent lengthwise slippage. The resultant structure is highly rigid and capable of supporting heavy loads of flexible metal tubing and the like. In the completed package, as shown in Fig. 9, metal bands 30 encircle the box to tie in the reinforced flap.
As shown in Fig. 10, expendible or single service pallets may be formed by nailing a large rectangular sheet 31 of tri-wall corrugated board to spaced skid members 32 by means of cleats 33. A pallet of this construction may be quickly put together and it is far more economical to manufacture than its equivalent all-wood structure.
It is sometimes not practical to encircle a metal strap about a container, particularly where the container is supported on a skid 35 in the manner shown in Fig. 11. Withcleats 36 in accordance with the inventiom it becomes possible to nail the ends of the straps 37 onto the skids rather than to continue the strapping across the bottom in the usual manner. The end of the strap is placed under the cleat and the nails are driven therethrough into the skid, thus firmly securing the strap end to the skid. The straps are otherwise tightened and clamped in the usual manner.
In order to immobilize an article being packaged so that it cannot be displaced within a container, cleats 38 may be :bolted or otherwise attached at various points on the bottom of the article 39, as shown in Fig. 12 and the article then placed in the corrugated box 40. The prongs on the cleats will bite into the bottom wall of the box and thereby immobilize the article, without the need for straps, blocks or other expedients. Thus, it becomes possible to provide an air space clearance around the product without the use of spacers or other means.
Alternatively, as shown in Fig. 13, where the article A 41 includes mounting brackets 42, having a threaded hole the article may be immobilized within the box by attaching cleats 43 exteriorly to the bottom wall of the box at positions corresponding to the mounting brackets and then passing bolts 44 through the cleats and the bottom wall to engage the mounting brackets.
Another technique for securing an article 45 of irregular shape within a corrugated board container 46 is shown in Fig. 14, wherein the article is bolted to the box wall of a U shaped insert 47 formed of Tri-Wall material, by means of cleats 48, the insert then being telescoped within the container.
In view of the foregoing, it is evident that the use of cleats in accordance with the invention in combination with Tri-Wall corrugated board greatly enlarges the packaging and shipping possibilities of corrugated board and effects major economies both in time and material. While there has been shown preferred embodiments of the invention, it will be appreciated that many changes and modifications may be made without departing from the essential spirit of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A combined corrugated-board and wood structure comprising a triple-ply corrugated board, a wood member engaging the inner surface of said board, a cleat fastening said wood member to said board, said cleat having a plate portion lying against the outer surface of said board and a plurality of prongs integral with said plate portion and projecting therefrom, said prongs penetrating into said board and being embedded in at least two plies thereof, said plate being provided with holes and fastening elements inserted in said holes connecting said board to said wood member.
2. A combined corrugated-board and wood structure comprising a corrugated board having three interconnected walls having an inner liner and an outer liner, a wood member engaging the inner liner of said board, a metal cleat fastening said wood member to said board, said cleat having a plate portion lying against the outer liner of said board and a plurality of prongs integral with said plate portion and projecting perpendicularly therefrom, said prongs penetrating into said board and being embedded in at least two walls thereof, said plate being provided with holes having nails inserted in said holes and extending into the end of the wood member connecting said board to said wood member.
3. A combined corrugated-board and wood structure comprising a box having corrugated board sides having three interconnected walls having an inner liner and an outer liner, a wood piece to block an article within said box, the ends of said wood piece engaging the inner liners of said sides, cleats fastening said wood piece to said sides, said cleat having a plate portion lying against the outer liner of said sides and a plurality of prongs integral with said plate portion and projecting therefrom, said prongs penetrating into said sides and being embedded in at least two walls thereof, said plate being provided with holes having nails inserted in said holes extending into said wood piece connecting said sides to said wood piece.
4. A combined corrugated-board and wood structure comprising a box having triple wall corrugated board sides, a wood frame mounted within said box to provide a floating support for an article to be contained therein, cleats fastening said wood frame to said sides, said cleats having a plate portion lying against the outer surface of said board and a plurality of prongs integral with said plate portion and projecting therefrom, said prongs penetrating into said board and being embedded in at least two walls thereof, said plate being provided with holes having nails inserted in said holes extending into said wood piece connecting said sides to said wood piece.
5. The structure as set forth in claim 4 wherein said cleat is constituted by a rectangular plate whose four corners are each bent at right angles to the plane of the plate to form four triangular teeth.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,261,130 Jasper Apr. 2, 1918 1,449,468 Walter Mar. 27, 1923 1,956,458 Watson Apr. 24, 1934 2,253,428 Henderson Aug. 19, 1941 2,283,814 La Place May 19, 1942 2,304,155 Dyball Dec. 8, 1942 2,370,749 Perkins Mar. 6, 1945 2,444,183 Cahners June 29, 1948