|Publication number||US2969226 A|
|Publication date||Jan 24, 1961|
|Filing date||Jan 19, 1959|
|Priority date||Jan 19, 1959|
|Publication number||US 2969226 A, US 2969226A, US-A-2969226, US2969226 A, US2969226A|
|Inventors||Huntington Morgan G|
|Original Assignee||Pyrochem Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (264), Classifications (8) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Pendant parting petro pyrolysis process
US 2969226 A
Jan. 24, 196,1
M. G. HUNTINGTON PENDANT PARTING PETROPYRDLYSIS PROCESS Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 19. 1959 MP0. HZ
PRODI/c 11s' *J Mayan GHwzb' Z'om WASTE' GAS Jan. 24, 1961 M. s. HUNTINGTON PENDANT PARTING PETRO PYROLYSIS'PROCESS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 o c @E A.
INVNTOR Morgan 6'. Hwzfffgofz ATTORNEKS7 PENDANT PARTING PETRO PYROLYSIS PROCESS Morgan G. Huntington, Washington, D.C., assigner to Pyrochenl Corporation Filed Jan. 19, 1959, Ser. No. 787,755
S Claims. (Cl. 262-3) This invention relates to the in situ pyrolysis and recovery of insoluble and/or viscous hydrocarbons from initially impervious and impermeable sedimentary irnpregnations such as the Colorado oil shales, and 1t particularly relates to the method whereby frequently repeated pendant parting of the pyrolyzed rocks insures the ow of thermal carrier fluid close against the impermeable, retreating, unpyrolyzed front.
Oil shales which occur, for example, in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming, contain potentially liquid hydrocarbons many times greater than the known petroleum reserves 1n continental United States. These kerogen-impregnated fresh water marls known as the Green River formation constitute one of the greatest single non-coal deposits of potentially liquid hydrocarbon in the world and have approximately four times the total estimated reserve potential of all the oil pools in the Middle East combined.
Many attempts and known prior proposals have been directed to producing salable petroleum commodities by in situ recovery of oil from the oil shale. However, none of the known prior proposals have been commercially successful.
There are a number of problems involved in the situ recovery of the petroleum products of oil shale which contributed to the failure of the prior attempts at in situ recovery. These problems are created mainly by the nature of the oil shale, which is a kerogen impregnated material that is dense, practically impervious to fluids, and contains only about one percent moisture. Further, formations of oil shale although dense and impervious, contain planes of weakness.
The character of oil shale thus creates problems for in situ recovery by a thermal carrier uid which must be overcome to provide a workable process. First of all, it is necessary to afford free entry and controlled circulation of some thermal carrier uid at requisite temperatures to heat the massive shale formation to above 800 F. Following destructive distillation of the shale when heated by the thermal carrier fiuid, the products carried by the thermal carrier fluid must not be heated too greatly or indiscriminate cracking will occur. Also, initially impervious oil shale formation becomes porous following destructive distillation and therefore can hold and absorb condensed products of pyrolysis. Hence, crude shale oil will tend to recondense and remain in the cooler portion of the porous pyrolyzed rock. This invention relies on a novel process which overcomes all of the aforesaid problems. Among the objects of this invention are the following:
To provide a method whereby initially impervious and impermeable oil shales and other hydrocarbon impregnations may be pyrolyzed in situ and whereby substantially all of the :duid products of pyrolysis may be recovered.
ments may be raised in temperature to above 800 F States Patent O by a lthermal carrier medium which itself is below 1300 F.
To provide a means whereby the kerogen will be pyrolyzed and expelled from the host rocks in the vapor phase and yet which will insure against the indiscriminate cracking of the vaporized products of pyrolyzation.
To provide a means of absolutely preventing the reimpregnation of already calcined porous strata by the products of pyrolysis.
To provide a method whereby the strata may be frequently and repeatedly parted in order that the flow of thermal carrier fluid be always directed close against the retreating, impermeable, unpyrolyzed front.
To provide a means whereby unpyrolyzed strata cannot inadvertently part by becoming pendant due to the development of interplanar pressures.
To provide a means whereby the vaporized products of destructive distillation are promptly driven from the formation and conveyed to the surface at temperatures which still may be above 700 F.
To provide a means whereby partial hydrogenation may be accomplished coincidentally with pyrolysis and whereby practically all of the sulphur will be combined as hydrogen sulphide and part of the nitrogen will be recoverab-le as ammonia and whereby Various unsaturated organic compounds will be hydrogenated in varying degrees. At the same time, and as a result of such mild hydrogenation, normal retort yields of liiquid oil will be increased and the fixed carbon ordinarily remaining upon the inorganic host will substantially diminish.
To pyrolyze and recover distillable hydrocarbons from any selected bed at any depth beneath the surface.
To produce a superior grade of shale oil at approximately half the overall cost of any method which incorporates mining, retorting and calcine disposal.
Other objects of this invention will be pointed out in the following detailed description and claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which disclose, by way of example, the principles of this invention and the best mode which has been contemplated of applying these principles.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a sectional elevation view of a rolling oil shale stratum to which the recovery method of this invention has been applied, and a schematic illustration of the above ground apparatus for carrying out the preferred form of the invention.
Figure 2 is a sectional elevation of an oil shale stratum on a larger scale illustrating the retreating unpyrolyzed front, pendant parting, and hot water flood of the calcine.
Figure 3 is a schematic plan of a field showing one possible location of the various wells illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.
In general, this invention consists of a method of in situ pyrolysis of oil shales by introducing through bore holes a pressurized heated fluid, such as steam with hydrogen or oxygen added thereto for hydrogenation and/or combustion purposes, and forcing the heated iluids through a pressure-parted plane of weakness in 'the formation from injection bore holes to production wells. In the passage of the thermal carrier fluids from the injection holes to the production wells, the sensible heat of the fluid is transferred to the surrounding oil shale by conduction whereupon pyrolysis and vaporization of the kerogen occurs, and resulting hydrocarbon vapors being expelled from the host rock are entrained in the carrier tluid. The carrier Huid and the hydrocarbon entrained therein are passed to production wells through the plane of weakness which is held open by the pressure 'of the carrier fluid. Upon emerging from the production wells, the hot carrier fluid and its entrained hydrocarbon vapors are separated and the heat of the carrier uid is partially recovered in a primary thermal circuit. To prevent large sections of the unpyrolyzed oil shale formation from becoming pendant and parting during pyrolyzation, a higher plane of weakness in the formation is vented and the strata of oil shale between the vented and parted planes of weakness is rendered relatively impermeable. Thus, when the hot carrier uid acts upon the lower surface of the formation at the pressure parted plane, no large unpyrolyzed chunks of the stratum will part, as they will be continually held up by the carrier uid at high pressure until they have been pyrolyzed, and, at that time, the porous calcine will become pendant and will part from the unpyrolyzed oil shale and drop to the bottom of the pressured parted plane. In this manner, the unpyrolyzed front of the oil shale continually retreats upwardly toward the vented plane of weakness of the shale. Reimpregnation of the porous parted calcine is prevented by a hot water flood.
Referring to the drawings for an explanation of the process, at the beginning of the exploitation of any oil shale bed, a plurality of production, injection and water flood control wells are first drilled, cased and sealed olf a short distance above the shale oil bed. These wells are designated P (production), I (injection) and W (water flood control) in Figures 1 and 2. Then, all these wells are drilled ten to fifty feet below the shale bed base, and the formation from below the bed at this point to about the same distance above the bed is thoroughly grouted and sealed in order to render the stratum to be exploited and its immediate surroundings impervious at rock pressures. The production, injection and water ood control wells P, I and W, are then cased and cemented or otherwise effectively sealed from the base of the bed of the oil shale to an initial sealing packer, ten to fifty feet above the oil shale bed, and this sealing is accomplished at near rock pressures to insure against any leakage upwardly along the casings.
During the drilling of the injection and production holes, cores are taken and the stratum is carefully logged, particular attention being paid to the natural planes of weakness throughout the oil shale bed. Such planes of weakness are identified in Figures l and 2 as 10 and 12.
Pressure relief holes R are then drilled at Strategic points to within a few feet above the base of the bed or just above the horizon which is to be initially parted. The pressure relief holes are cased and sealed off just above the bed, as are the other wells described above. The relief holes are then perforated 16 at a rst major plane of weakness above a selected initial parting plane of weakness 12 at the basev ofthe bed to be exploited.
The injection and production well casings are then perforated 14 at the base of the oil shale bed on the same selected plane of weakness 12, and a iuid is pumped into each individual well under pressure just slightly below that calculated to cause the base of the bed to part by hydraulically lifting the entire overburden. This maximum hydraulic pressure is equal to the static weight of any column of rock and is termed the rock pressure. The calculated rock pressure may be attained in a hydraulic system by sealing the formation with bentonite mud or some other sealing medium. Any sealing fluid leaking into the next above plane of weakness will be pumped out until sealing becomes effective between the selected parting plane of weakness 12 below and the vented plane of weakness 10 above. The relief holes which are in communication with the selected plane of weakness 10 above the parted plane of weakness 12 will then vent the parted plane of weakness and the stratum therebetween will be suiciently impermeable to, in effect, vbecome a lifting diaphragm.
Upon achieving the sufficient sealing of the intervening layer between the parting plane of Weakness 12 and the vented plane 10 in the stratum, an increase above the calculated rock pressure in uid injected through perforations 14 will then cause the formation to part at the parting plane of weakness 12 and lift the exact selected plane of weakness at the casing perforations 14. Flow may then be proven between any of the injection and production holes I and P in the parting pattern.
After these preliminary operations, the in situ pyrolysis and pendant parting of the impermeable hydrocarbon impregnations may begin by continuously introducing a thermal carrier uid such as steam at a temperature suicient to cause pyrolysis, Le., 700 to 1400" F., and a pressure above the rock pressure into the injection holes through perforationsV 14.
The introduction of the thermal carrier uid, which in the preferred embodiment is steam, causes the pyrolysis of the formation at the pressure-parted plane 12 of the formation, and the hydrocarbon vapors are entrained in the thermal carrier lluid and passed out the production wells P. The ow out of the production wells P is controlled by valving 18 such that there will be an equal distribution of flow from the production wells P which may be supplied from the same injection well I. As the pyrolysis proceeds upward and the shale becomes somewhat pervious, the pressure exerted by the thermal carrier fluid, which is at rock pressure, is transferred progressively upwards always against the impervious stratum; hence, as the hydrocarbon of the impregnation is forced out, the calcined host rock 22 becomes pendant and automatically and repeatedly parts or falls from the upward retreating unpyrolyzed front 20. Thus, the thermal carrier uid is continually directed against the fresh, cold oil shale and the heat transfer by conduction is rapidly effected.
The calcine 22 which has fallen from the unpyrolyzed front is continually covered by hot water flood 24 which is introduced through the water ood control well W. This well is perforated 21 at the bottom of the stratum and water is introduced therein at a controlled rate so that the calcine will almost be covered. This prevents re-impregnation of the already calcined porous strata by the products of pyrolysis. To accomplish this hot water ood it is desirable to occasionally reperforate 25 at the level of the unpyrolyzed front 20. Y
Because the plane of weakness 10 above the unpyrolyzed front 20 is vented, no pressure can build up above the unprolyzed front 20 or the selected plane of parting 12, and therefore, no large slab or chunk of the unpyrolyzed oil shale can indavertently become pendant and part from the pressure-supported mass. However, as the pyrolysis advances upward, the relief holes R will bleed an increasing amount as the thermal carrier fluid at rock pressure gets closer and closer to the ven-ted plane of weakness 10. When the advancing front of pyrolysis 20 has reached the vented plane of weakness and ow through the relief vholes R becomes excessive, the pressure of the thermal carrier fluid is dropped to the point where there is no ow through the relief holes and the relief holes are then cemented to the next higher plane of weakness (not shown) and the relief hole casing is then reperforated at this next higher plane of weakness to insure adequate venting. This may be accomplished in successive steps to as many planes of weakness as are necessary and occur in the stratum. If it is necessary to insure adequate venting of the Vented planes of weakness, each succeeding plane of weakness may be pressure-parted to some extent from the relief holes R.
vIt is desirable that an oil shale recovery process in corporate hydrogenation, and the process of this invention may incorporate mild hydrogenation coincidental with the situ pyrolysis to increase the total amount of organic soluble products, and to remove most of the sulphur as hydrogen sulphide and part of the nitrogen as ammonium. The hydrogenation may be accomplished by introducing manufactured hydrogen into the superheater tubes of the boiler and passing these gases with the steam at rock pressure into the formation through the injection wells I; see Figure l. Mild in situ hydrogenation may also be accomplished by manufacturing hydrogen in situ by injecting oxygen into the steam and oxidizing residual carbon on the pyrolyzed shale and using this hydrogen for hydrogenation as explained above. The hydrogenation may be aided by the introduction of a catalyst of the metallic fume or soluble salt type into the carrier gas Ias indicated in Figure l.
The choice of whether to inject hydrogen into the boiler super-heater tubes with the steam and thus provide a hydrogen-rich carrier gas from an outside source, or whether to inject oxygen with the steam to provide a means of oxidizing a residual carbon on the pyrolyzed shale and thus to manufacture hydrogen in situ, or whether to do neither, is a matter of economic decision. In the preferred embodiment of this invention, any one of these three operations or none of them may be done.
The hot carrier -uid and its entrained hydrocarbon vapors and oil shale mists are passed out of the formation and upward from the production wells P through a heat exchanger or condenser 26 and the condensates are led through pipes 2S to fractionating towers 30 where the products of pyrolyzation and coincidental hydrogenation are conveniently fractionated according to the boiling ranges. Ammonium and hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide may be removed from the uncondensable gases. The fuel gas is passed to the boiler to be burned to supply energy for the process. In condenser 26, the cold fluid may be water which is being supplied to the boiler. A large portion of the heat of the carrier gases and entrained hydrocarbons is transferred to the boiler feed water during this opera-tion, thus effecting a considerable heat economy.
In actual practice, the production and injection wells P and I may be drilled on a hexagonal pattern as shown in Figure 3, such that the spacing along the legs between the wells will range from fifty to two hundred feet or farther, depending upon the character of the oil shale stratum. The water flood control wells W are drilled near the lowest point of the stratum so that the water may be always introduced from below the pyrolyzed front. The relief holes R may be drilled between the injection and production wells as needed. Each injection well I will occupy the relative center of each hexagon, and six production wells form the periphery. If drilled according to this embodiment, one injection well would force the thermal gas to as many as six production wells, and flow from the individu-al production well may be controlled by suitable valves 18 at the surface.
As shown in Figure l in rolling strata and having planes of weakness which deviate markedly from the horizontal, the injection wells must be down-slope from the production wells, because a static pressure of the rock must necessarily increase down slope with increasing rock depth. To exploit folded and/or rolling strata, the injection holes are always drilled in the troughs of the synclines and the production holes are always o-n the crest of the anticlines. The thermal carrier fluid, in general, is readily forced from the injection wells to production wells in the direction of descreasing rock pressures.
While there has been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of this invention as applied to the preferred embodiment, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and change in the form and details of the process illustrated and described may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention, therefore, to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims and reasonable equivalents thereof.
What is claimed is:
l. An in situ method :of winning shale oil from oil shale that comprises: fracturing the impermeable formation of oil shale at a plane of weakness therein, venting a higher level natural plane of weakness in the formation, introducing a fluid into the formation along the parted plane of weakness, said uid being at a temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the oil shale and at a pressure equal to or slightly greater than the rock pressure, whereby the sensible heat of the fluid is tranferred to the surrounding oil shale formation and pyrolysis and vaporization of the oil shale occurs, and recovering the uid with hydrocarbon vapor products of pyrolysis entrained therein.
2. A process for the recovery of shale oil from a subsurface oil shale formation that comprises: pressureparting an initially impervious and impermeable for mation of oil shale in situ near the lower portion thereof, venting a higher plane of weakness in the formation,
l introducing a thermal carrier fluid into the formation at the parted plane of weakness, the carrier fluid being at a temperature between 700 and 1400" F. to pyrolyze the oil shale and a pressure above the rock pressure, to support the layer of oil shale between the parted plane and the vented plane of Weakness and prevent any large piece thereof from parting therefrom before it is pyrolyzed, whereby the initially impervious and impermeable oil shale will be pyrolyzed and lthe hydrocarbon products thereof will be entrained in the carrier fluid, thereby causing an unpyrolyzed front of the oil shale to retreat upwardly and the calcine of the pyrolyzed shale to become pendant and repeatedly part from the unpyrolyzed front, and passing rthe thermal fluid and entrained hydrocarbons to the surface and separating the same.
3. A process for in situ pyrolysis and pendant parting of impermeable hydrocarbon impregnations, the process comprising: drilling at least one injection well and one production well to provide access to a formation of an impermeable hydrocarbon impregnation, pressure-parting the formation at a plane of weakness along the lower portion thereof, Venting a natural plane of weakness in the impermeable hydrocarbon impregnation formation above the pressure-parted plane, introducing a thermal carrier fluid into the injection well, the thermal carrier fluid being above rock pressure and at a temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the impermeable formation, passing the thermal carrier fluid through the pressure-parted plane of weakness to pyrolyze the impermeable formation and entrain hydrocarbons therein and thereby causing an unpyrolyzed front of the formation to retreat upwardly, thus causing pyrolyzed porous calcine to become pendant and repeatedly part from the unpyrolyzed front, and recovering the carrier fluid entrained with the hydrocarbons at the production well.
4. A process as defined in claim 3 further comprising: preventing re-impregnation of the pendant-parted porous calcine by the products of pyrolysis by partially covering the porous calcine by a hot water flood.
5. A process as defined in claim 3 further comprising: mildly hydrogenating the impermeable hydrocarbon impregnation formation in situ coincidental with the recovery of the hydrocarbon vapors from the formation by injectilng manufactured hydrogen into the thermal carrier 6. A process as defined in claim 3 further comprising mildly hydrogenating the impermeable hydrocarbon impregnation by injecting manufactured oxygen into the carrier gas, whereby the oxygen will produce hydrogen in situ for the mild hydrogenation operation.
7. A process as defined in claim 5 further comprising: catalyzing the hydrogenation by injecting a catalyst into the carrier fluid.
8. A process as defined in claim 3 wherein the in situ pyrolysis is accomplished in a rolling formation, the process further comprising: drilling the injection wells at the troughs of the synclines of the formation and drill- -7 ing the production wells at the crests of the antiolines 2,825,408 of the formation. 2,838,117
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 5 FH6520 1,422,204 Hoover et al. July 11, 1922 `S Watson Mar. 4, 1958 Clark et a1. June 10, 1958 FUREIGN PATENTS Great Britain Oct. 13, 1954
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1422204 *||Dec 19, 1919||Jul 11, 1922||Brown Thomas E||Method for working oil shales|
|US2825408 *||Mar 9, 1953||Mar 4, 1958||Sinclair Oil & Gas Company||Oil recovery by subsurface thermal processing|
|US2838117 *||May 22, 1953||Jun 10, 1958||Pan American Petroleum Corp||Fracturing formations at selected elevations|
|GB716620A *|| ||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3202219 *||Feb 9, 1962||Aug 24, 1965||Phillips Petroleum Co||Apparatus for protection of in situ combustion wells|
|US3221813 *||Aug 12, 1963||Dec 7, 1965||Shell Oil Co||Recovery of viscous petroleum materials|
|US3250328 *||Nov 19, 1963||May 10, 1966||Shell Oil Co||Oil production method utilizing in situ chemical heating of hydrocarbons|
|US3273640 *||Dec 13, 1963||Sep 20, 1966||Pyrochem Corp||Pressure pulsing perpendicular permeability process for winning stabilized primary volatiles from oil shale in situ|
|US3280909 *||Jan 20, 1964||Oct 25, 1966||Shell Oil Co||Method of producing an oil bearing formation|
|US3285342 *||Jan 8, 1964||Nov 15, 1966||Dow Chemical Co||Well fracturing|
|US3302707 *||Sep 30, 1964||Feb 7, 1967||Mobil Oil Corp||Method for improving fluid recoveries from earthen formations|
|US3316962 *||Mar 15, 1966||May 2, 1967||Deutsche Erdoel Ag||In situ combustion method for residualoil recovery from petroleum deposits|
|US3322195 *||Jan 20, 1964||May 30, 1967||Exxon Research Engineering Co||Process and apparatus for recovery of additional fuels from oil and gas wells|
|US3330353 *||Sep 22, 1964||Jul 11, 1967||Shell Oil Co||Thermal soak zones by fluidized fractures in unconsolidated, petroleum producing reservoirs|
|US3342258 *||Mar 6, 1964||Sep 19, 1967||Shell Oil Co||Underground oil recovery from solid oil-bearing deposits|
|US3382922 *||Aug 31, 1966||May 14, 1968||Phillips Petroleum Co||Production of oil shale by in situ pyrolysis|
|US3467191 *||Nov 17, 1966||Sep 16, 1969||Shell Oil Co||Oil production by dual fluid injection|
|US3493060 *||Apr 16, 1968||Feb 3, 1970||Woods Res & Dev||In situ recovery of earth minerals and derivative compounds by laser|
|US3500931 *||Aug 20, 1968||Mar 17, 1970||Tenneco Oil Co||Method for heating an oil reservoir by injecting alternate slugs of steam and higher specific heat material|
|US3513914 *||Sep 30, 1968||May 26, 1970||Shell Oil Co||Method for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation|
|US3596993 *||Feb 14, 1969||Aug 3, 1971||Mc Donnell Douglas Corp||Method of extracting oil and by-products from oil shale|
|US3598182 *||Apr 25, 1967||Aug 10, 1971||Justheim Petroleum Co||Method and apparatus for in situ distillation and hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials|
|US3739851 *||Nov 24, 1971||Jun 19, 1973||Shell Oil Co||Method of producing oil from an oil shale formation|
|US3759328 *||May 11, 1972||Sep 18, 1973||Shell Oil Co||Laterally expanding oil shale permeabilization|
|US3759574 *||Sep 24, 1970||Sep 18, 1973||Shell Oil Co||Method of producing hydrocarbons from an oil shale formation|
|US3766982 *||Dec 27, 1971||Oct 23, 1973||Justheim Petrol Co||Method for the in-situ treatment of hydrocarbonaceous materials|
|US3804169 *||Feb 7, 1973||Apr 16, 1974||Shell Oil Co||Spreading-fluid recovery of subterranean oil|
|US4018279 *||Nov 12, 1975||Apr 19, 1977||Reynolds Merrill J||In situ coal combustion heat recovery method|
|US4086960 *||Feb 25, 1976||May 2, 1978||Haynes Charles A||Apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from earth strata|
|US4148359 *||Jan 30, 1978||Apr 10, 1979||Shell Oil Company||Pressure-balanced oil recovery process for water productive oil shale|
|US4149597 *||Dec 27, 1977||Apr 17, 1979||Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd.||Thermal sand cracking of crude oils to form coke and hydrocarbons, igniting coke in air to heat sand|
|US4265310 *||Oct 3, 1978||May 5, 1981||Continental Oil Company||Fracture preheat oil recovery process|
|US4310049 *||Apr 17, 1979||Jan 12, 1982||California Institute Of Technology||Bubbling chlorine in the presence of water|
|US4319635 *||Feb 29, 1980||Mar 16, 1982||P. H. Jones Hydrogeology, Inc.||Method for enhanced oil recovery by geopressured waterflood|
|US4362213 *||Nov 19, 1980||Dec 7, 1982||Hydrocarbon Research, Inc.||Method of in situ oil extraction using hot solvent vapor injection|
|US4398602 *||Aug 11, 1981||Aug 16, 1983||Mobil Oil Corporation||Gravity assisted solvent flooding process|
|US4417620 *||Nov 12, 1981||Nov 29, 1983||Mobil Oil Corporation||Method of recovering oil using steam|
|US4458758 *||Mar 8, 1982||Jul 10, 1984||Mobil Oil Corporation||Selected well completion for improving vertical conformance of steam drive process|
|US4546829 *||Feb 11, 1985||Oct 15, 1985||Mason & Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc.||Enhanced oil recovery process|
|US4614234 *||Mar 14, 1985||Sep 30, 1986||Standard Oil Company||Method of recovering coal values by combining underground coal gasification with surface coal liquefaction|
|US4687058 *||May 22, 1986||Aug 18, 1987||Conoco Inc.||Solvent enhanced fracture-assisted steamflood process|
|US5221159 *||Jun 7, 1991||Jun 22, 1993||Environmental Improvement Technologies, Inc.||Subsurface contaminant remediation, biodegradation and extraction methods and apparatuses|
|US5277518 *||Nov 27, 1991||Jan 11, 1994||Environmental Improvement Technologies, Inc.||Contaminant remediation, biodegradation and removel methods and apparatus|
|US5472294 *||Jan 10, 1994||Dec 5, 1995||Environmental Improvement Technologies, Inc.||Purification|
|US5554290 *||Apr 11, 1995||Sep 10, 1996||Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||Conduit in injection well pumps carbohydrates and sulfates into groundwater|
|US5575589 *||Apr 11, 1995||Nov 19, 1996||Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||Apparatus and method for removing volatile contaminants from phreatic water|
|US5588490 *||May 31, 1995||Dec 31, 1996||Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||For removing volatile contaminants in a two-dimensional configuration|
|US5653288 *||Dec 5, 1995||Aug 5, 1997||Billings; Jeffery F.||For laterally dispersing substances outward from an injection well|
|US6007274 *||May 19, 1997||Dec 28, 1999||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller||In-well air stripping, oxidation, and adsorption|
|US6102623 *||May 18, 1999||Aug 15, 2000||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||In-well air stripping, oxidation, and adsorption|
|US6116816 *||Aug 26, 1998||Sep 12, 2000||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||In situ reactive gate for groundwater remediation|
|US6143177 *||Sep 21, 1998||Nov 7, 2000||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||Bioremediation of groundwater by supplying carbohydrates and sulfates to an injection well where microorganisms metabolize the carbohydrates, creating sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions so chlorinated hydrocarbons are reduced to ethene|
|US6254310||May 8, 2000||Jul 3, 2001||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||In-well air stripping and adsorption|
|US6280118||Jun 9, 2000||Aug 28, 2001||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller, Inc.||In situ reactive gate|
|US6283674||May 8, 2000||Sep 4, 2001||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller||In-well air stripping, oxidation, and adsorption|
|US6322700||Aug 2, 2000||Nov 27, 2001||Arcadis Geraghty & Miller||Engineered in situ anaerobic reactive zones|
|US6540023 *||Mar 27, 2001||Apr 1, 2003||Exxonmobil Research And Engineering Company||Process for producing a diesel fuel stock from bitumen and synthesis gas|
|US6632364||Jun 8, 2001||Oct 14, 2003||Arcadis G & M||Reductive dechlorination, the precipitation of chromium, the precipitation of heavy metals, and microbial denitrification|
|US6871707||Apr 24, 2001||Mar 29, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration|
|US6877554||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 12, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Pyrolysis|
|US6877555||Apr 24, 2002||Apr 12, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking|
|US6880633||Apr 24, 2002||Apr 19, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Includes shutting-in an in situ treatment process in an oil shale formation may include terminating heating from heat sources providing heat to a portion of the formation; hydrocarbon vapor may be produced|
|US6880635||Apr 24, 2001||Apr 19, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for production of hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or other products from underground coal formations|
|US6889769||Apr 24, 2001||May 10, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content|
|US6896053||Apr 24, 2001||May 24, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources|
|US6902003||Apr 24, 2001||Jun 7, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Allowing heat to transfer from heaters to a formation selected for heating using a total organic matter weight percentage of > 5% and recirculating hydrogen|
|US6913078||Apr 24, 2001||Jul 5, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation|
|US6915850 *||Apr 24, 2002||Jul 12, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections|
|US6918442||Apr 24, 2002||Jul 19, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ conversion of hydrocarbons to produce hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or novel product streams from underground oil shale formations|
|US6918443||Apr 24, 2002||Jul 19, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range|
|US6923257||Apr 24, 2002||Aug 2, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate|
|US6923258||Jun 12, 2003||Aug 2, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content|
|US6929067||Apr 24, 2002||Aug 16, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US6932155||Oct 24, 2002||Aug 23, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well|
|US6948562||Apr 24, 2002||Sep 27, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation|
|US6948563 *||Apr 24, 2001||Sep 27, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content|
|US6951247||Apr 24, 2002||Oct 4, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Control the heat exchanging, pyrolyzing hydrocarbons, enhancing oil recovery|
|US6953087||Apr 24, 2001||Oct 11, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation|
|US6959761||Apr 24, 2001||Nov 1, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells|
|US6964300||Apr 24, 2002||Nov 15, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore|
|US6966372||Apr 24, 2001||Nov 22, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids|
|US6966374||Apr 24, 2002||Nov 22, 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility|
|US6969123||Oct 24, 2002||Nov 29, 2005||Shell Oil Company||Upgrading and mining of coal|
|US6973967||Apr 24, 2001||Dec 13, 2005||Shell Oil Company||hydrocarbons within a coal formation are converted in situ within the formation to yield a mixture of relatively high quality hydrocarbon products, hydrogen, and other products; the coal is heated to to temperatures that allow pyrolysis|
|US6981548||Apr 24, 2002||Jan 3, 2006||Shell Oil Company||heating and pyrolysis of heavy hydrocarbon sections in subterranean wells to produce light hydrocarbons; reduced viscosity improves movement; fluid removal in liquid and/or vapor phase|
|US6991032||Apr 24, 2002||Jan 31, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Heat sources positioned within the formation in a selected pattern raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature.|
|US6991033||Apr 24, 2002||Jan 31, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation|
|US6991036||Apr 24, 2002||Jan 31, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation|
|US6991045||Oct 24, 2002||Jan 31, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Forming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking|
|US6994160||Apr 24, 2001||Feb 7, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range|
|US6994161||Apr 24, 2001||Feb 7, 2006||Kevin Albert Maher||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content|
|US6994168||Apr 24, 2001||Feb 7, 2006||Scott Lee Wellington||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio|
|US6994169||Apr 24, 2002||Feb 7, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property|
|US6997255||Apr 24, 2001||Feb 14, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment|
|US6997518||Apr 24, 2002||Feb 14, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation|
|US7004247||Apr 24, 2002||Feb 28, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US7004251||Apr 24, 2002||Feb 28, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation|
|US7011154 *||Oct 24, 2002||Mar 14, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7013972||Apr 24, 2002||Mar 21, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor|
|US7017661||Apr 24, 2001||Mar 28, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation|
|US7032660||Apr 24, 2002||Apr 25, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation|
|US7040397||Apr 24, 2002||May 9, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation|
|US7040398||Apr 24, 2002||May 9, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment|
|US7040399||Apr 24, 2002||May 9, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate|
|US7040400||Apr 24, 2002||May 9, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore|
|US7051807||Apr 24, 2002||May 30, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control|
|US7051808||Oct 24, 2002||May 30, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Seismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7051811||Apr 24, 2002||May 30, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation|
|US7055600||Apr 24, 2002||Jun 6, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate|
|US7063145||Oct 24, 2002||Jun 20, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations|
|US7066254||Oct 24, 2002||Jun 27, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation|
|US7066257 *||Oct 24, 2002||Jun 27, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7073578||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 11, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Staged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7077198||Oct 24, 2002||Jul 18, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers|
|US7077199||Oct 24, 2002||Jul 18, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation|
|US7086465||Oct 24, 2002||Aug 8, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7086468||Apr 24, 2001||Aug 8, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores|
|US7090013||Oct 24, 2002||Aug 15, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids|
|US7096942||Apr 24, 2002||Aug 29, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure|
|US7096953||Apr 24, 2001||Aug 29, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element|
|US7100994||Oct 24, 2002||Sep 5, 2006||Shell Oil Company||injecting a heated fluid into the well bore, producing a second fluid from the formation, conducting an in situ conversion process in the selected section.|
|US7104319||Oct 24, 2002||Sep 12, 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation|
|US7114566||Oct 24, 2002||Oct 3, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Heat treatment using natural distributed combustor; oxidation of hydrocarbons to generate heat; pyrolysis|
|US7121341||Oct 24, 2003||Oct 17, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Conductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters|
|US7121342||Apr 23, 2004||Oct 17, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US7128153||Oct 24, 2002||Oct 31, 2006||Shell Oil Company||Treatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating|
|US7156176||Oct 24, 2002||Jan 2, 2007||Shell Oil Company||Installation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7165615||Oct 24, 2002||Jan 23, 2007||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden|
|US7219734||Oct 24, 2003||May 22, 2007||Shell Oil Company||Inhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7225866||Jan 31, 2006||Jun 5, 2007||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources|
|US7320364||Apr 22, 2005||Jan 22, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Inhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system|
|US7353872||Apr 22, 2005||Apr 8, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Start-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)|
|US7357180||Apr 22, 2005||Apr 15, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores|
|US7360588||Oct 17, 2006||Apr 22, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US7370704||Apr 22, 2005||May 13, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Triaxial temperature limited heater|
|US7383877||Apr 22, 2005||Jun 10, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations|
|US7424915||Apr 22, 2005||Sep 16, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Vacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters|
|US7431076||Apr 22, 2005||Oct 7, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters using modulated DC power|
|US7435037||Apr 21, 2006||Oct 14, 2008||Shell Oil Company||Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes|
|US7461691||Jan 23, 2007||Dec 9, 2008||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7481274||Apr 22, 2005||Jan 27, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters with relatively constant current|
|US7490665||Apr 22, 2005||Feb 17, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Variable frequency temperature limited heaters|
|US7500528||Apr 21, 2006||Mar 10, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing|
|US7510000||Apr 22, 2005||Mar 31, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Reducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7527094||Apr 21, 2006||May 5, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process|
|US7533719||Apr 20, 2007||May 19, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials|
|US7540324||Oct 19, 2007||Jun 2, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a checkerboard pattern staged process|
|US7546873||Apr 21, 2006||Jun 16, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Low temperature barriers for use with in situ processes|
|US7549470||Oct 20, 2006||Jun 23, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US7556095||Oct 20, 2006||Jul 7, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent|
|US7556096||Oct 20, 2006||Jul 7, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US7559367||Oct 20, 2006||Jul 14, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation|
|US7559368||Oct 20, 2006||Jul 14, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US7562706||Oct 20, 2006||Jul 21, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations|
|US7562707||Oct 19, 2007||Jul 21, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process|
|US7575052||Apr 21, 2006||Aug 18, 2009||Shell Oil Company||In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system|
|US7575053||Apr 21, 2006||Aug 18, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers|
|US7581589||Oct 20, 2006||Sep 1, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid|
|US7584789||Oct 20, 2006||Sep 8, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products|
|US7591310||Oct 20, 2006||Sep 22, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds|
|US7597147||Apr 20, 2007||Oct 6, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material|
|US7604052||Apr 20, 2007||Oct 20, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process|
|US7610962||Apr 20, 2007||Nov 3, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Providing acidic gas to a subterrean formation, such as oil shale, by heating from an electrical heater and injecting through an oil wellbore; one of the acidic acids includes hydrogen sulfide and is introduced at a pressure below the lithostatic pressure of the formation to produce fluids; efficiency|
|US7631689||Apr 20, 2007||Dec 15, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations|
|US7631690||Oct 19, 2007||Dec 15, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence|
|US7635023||Apr 20, 2007||Dec 22, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7635024||Oct 19, 2007||Dec 22, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures|
|US7635025||Oct 20, 2006||Dec 22, 2009||Shell Oil Company||Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US7640980||Apr 7, 2008||Jan 5, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US7644765||Oct 19, 2007||Jan 12, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure|
|US7673681||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 9, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones|
|US7673786||Apr 20, 2007||Mar 9, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Welding shield for coupling heaters|
|US7677310||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 16, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations|
|US7677314||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 16, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations|
|US7681647||Oct 19, 2007||Mar 23, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations|
|US7683296||Apr 20, 2007||Mar 23, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters|
|US7703513||Oct 19, 2007||Apr 27, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations|
|US7717171||Oct 19, 2007||May 18, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid|
|US7730945||Oct 19, 2007||Jun 8, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process|
|US7730946||Oct 19, 2007||Jun 8, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with dolomite|
|US7730947||Oct 19, 2007||Jun 8, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations|
|US7735935||Jun 1, 2007||Jun 15, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals|
|US7740062 *||Jan 30, 2008||Jun 22, 2010||Alberta Research Council Inc.||System and method for the recovery of hydrocarbons by in-situ combustion|
|US7785427||Apr 20, 2007||Aug 31, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Chromium, nickel, copper; niobium, iron manganese, nitrogen; nanonitrides; system for heating a subterranean formation;|
|US7793722||Apr 20, 2007||Sep 14, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing|
|US7798220||Apr 18, 2008||Sep 21, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment|
|US7798221||May 31, 2007||Sep 21, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7831134||Apr 21, 2006||Nov 9, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Grouped exposed metal heaters|
|US7832484||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 16, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation|
|US7841401||Oct 19, 2007||Nov 30, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process|
|US7841408||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 30, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation|
|US7841425||Apr 18, 2008||Nov 30, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures|
|US7845411||Oct 19, 2007||Dec 7, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system|
|US7849922||Apr 18, 2008||Dec 14, 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7860377||Apr 21, 2006||Dec 28, 2010||Shell Oil Company||Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters|
|US7866385||Apr 20, 2007||Jan 11, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid|
|US7866386||Oct 13, 2008||Jan 11, 2011||Shell Oil Company||production of hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or other products from various subsurface formations such as hydrocarbon containing formations through use of oxidizing fluids and heat|
|US7866388||Oct 13, 2008||Jan 11, 2011||Shell Oil Company||High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel|
|US7912358||Apr 20, 2007||Mar 22, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US7931086||Apr 18, 2008||Apr 26, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Heating systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US7942197||Apr 21, 2006||May 17, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process|
|US7942203||Jan 4, 2010||May 17, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US7950453||Apr 18, 2008||May 31, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations|
|US7986869||Apr 21, 2006||Jul 26, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters|
|US8011451||Oct 13, 2008||Sep 6, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations|
|US8027571||Apr 21, 2006||Sep 27, 2011||Shell Oil Company||In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation|
|US8042610||Apr 18, 2008||Oct 25, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Parallel heater system for subsurface formations|
|US8070840||Apr 21, 2006||Dec 6, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process|
|US8083813||Apr 20, 2007||Dec 27, 2011||Shell Oil Company||Methods of producing transportation fuel|
|US8113272||Oct 13, 2008||Feb 14, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations|
|US8146661||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 3, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Cryogenic treatment of gas|
|US8146669||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 3, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation|
|US8151880||Dec 9, 2010||Apr 10, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods of making transportation fuel|
|US8151907||Apr 10, 2009||Apr 10, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations|
|US8162059||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 24, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations|
|US8162405||Apr 10, 2009||Apr 24, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8172335||Apr 10, 2009||May 8, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8177305||Apr 10, 2009||May 15, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8191630||Apr 28, 2010||Jun 5, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations|
|US8196658||Oct 13, 2008||Jun 12, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8220539||Oct 9, 2009||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation|
|US8224163||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Variable frequency temperature limited heaters|
|US8224164||Oct 24, 2003||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters|
|US8224165||Apr 21, 2006||Jul 17, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor|
|US8225866||Jul 21, 2010||Jul 24, 2012||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8230927||May 16, 2011||Jul 31, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process|
|US8233782||Sep 29, 2010||Jul 31, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Grouped exposed metal heaters|
|US8238730||Oct 24, 2003||Aug 7, 2012||Shell Oil Company||High voltage temperature limited heaters|
|US8240774||Oct 13, 2008||Aug 14, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds|
|US8256512||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 4, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8261832 *||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 11, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heating subsurface formations with fluids|
|US8267170||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 18, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations|
|US8267185||Oct 9, 2009||Sep 18, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation|
|US8272455||Oct 13, 2008||Sep 25, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations|
|US8276661||Oct 13, 2008||Oct 2, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier|
|US8281861||Oct 9, 2009||Oct 9, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations|
|US8327681||Apr 18, 2008||Dec 11, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US8327932||Apr 9, 2010||Dec 11, 2012||Shell Oil Company||Recovering energy from a subsurface formation|
|US8353347||Oct 9, 2009||Jan 15, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations|
|US8355623||Apr 22, 2005||Jan 15, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters with high power factors|
|US8381815||Apr 18, 2008||Feb 26, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation|
|US8434555||Apr 9, 2010||May 7, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation|
|US8448707||Apr 9, 2010||May 28, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Non-conducting heater casings|
|US8459359||Apr 18, 2008||Jun 11, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones|
|US8485252||Jul 11, 2012||Jul 16, 2013||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8536497||Oct 13, 2008||Sep 17, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Methods for forming long subsurface heaters|
|US8555971||May 31, 2012||Oct 15, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with dolomite|
|US8562078||Nov 25, 2009||Oct 22, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8579031||May 17, 2011||Nov 12, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US8606091||Oct 20, 2006||Dec 10, 2013||Shell Oil Company||Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates|
|US8608249||Apr 26, 2010||Dec 17, 2013||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US8627887||Dec 8, 2008||Jan 14, 2014||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8631866||Apr 8, 2011||Jan 21, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US8636323||Nov 25, 2009||Jan 28, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8662175||Apr 18, 2008||Mar 4, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities|
|US8701768||Apr 8, 2011||Apr 22, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations|
|US8701769||Apr 8, 2011||Apr 22, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology|
|US8701788||Dec 22, 2011||Apr 22, 2014||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||Preconditioning a subsurface shale formation by removing extractible organics|
|US8739874||Apr 8, 2011||Jun 3, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations|
|US8752904||Apr 10, 2009||Jun 17, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8789586||Jul 12, 2013||Jul 29, 2014||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8791396||Apr 18, 2008||Jul 29, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations|
|US8820406||Apr 8, 2011||Sep 2, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore|
|US8833453||Apr 8, 2011||Sep 16, 2014||Shell Oil Company||Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness|
|US20100101794 *||Oct 9, 2009||Apr 29, 2010||Robert Charles Ryan||Heating subsurface formations with fluids|
|USRE33102 *||Jul 12, 1988||Oct 31, 1989||The Upjohn Company||Removal of volatile contaminants from the vadose zone of contaminated ground|
|DE1245290B *||Jan 19, 1966||Jul 27, 1967||Equity Oil Company||Verfahren zur Gewinnung von Erdoel aus OElschiefer|
|WO2010101612A2 *||Feb 26, 2010||Sep 10, 2010||Energy Independence Of America Corp.||Method for recovering energy in-situ from underground resources and upgrading such energy resources above ground|