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Publication numberUS2970634 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 7, 1961
Filing dateJul 13, 1955
Priority dateJul 13, 1955
Publication numberUS 2970634 A, US 2970634A, US-A-2970634, US2970634 A, US2970634A
InventorsGeorge Hantscho
Original AssigneeHantscho Co George
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for applying cover material to book cores and cases
US 2970634 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 7, 1961 G. HANTSCHO METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING COVER MATERIAL TO BOOK CORES AND CASES 4 She ets-Sheet 1 Filed July 13. 1955 INVENTOR $5626: AQ/vmyo 2L5 ATTORNEY 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 G. HANTSCHO METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING COVER MATERIAL TO BOOK CORES AND CASES Feb. 7, 1961 Filed July 13, 1955 Feb. 7, 1961 G. HANTSCHO 2,970,

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING COVER MATERIAL TO BOOK CORES AND CASES 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed July 13, 1955 Q LI INVENTOR 92-024: ,klvrs'c/la figlmv Feb. 7, 1961 s. HANTSCHO 2,970,634

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING COVER MATERIAL TO BOOK COREIS AND CASES 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed July 13, 1955 INVENTOR 427M745 fiiwvrrcfi/a M 1/6 ATTORNEY METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MATERIAL TO BOOK CORES AND A George Hantscho, Tuckahoe, N.Y., assignor to George Hautscho Company Inc., a corporation of New York Filed July 13, 1955, Ser. No. 521,699

14 Claims. (Cl. 154--1.8)

This invention relates to the manufacture of book covers and cases, and similar articles, and more specifically concerns a method and apparatus for fabricating book covers and cases of the type embodying stiffening members covered by cloth, paper or other similar material.

The manufacture of book covers has presented numerous problems to the industry and the serious limitations of present procedures and apparatus have resulted in materially increased fabrication costs. Most books embodying covers having stiffening members therein utilize some form of design or lettering for identifying the book that must be exactly coordinated and aligned with the stiffening members. To attain this end, prior methods have involved steps of first covering the stiffening members and then printing or embossing the completed cover. In the alternative, pre-cut portions of the covering material are printed and then such pre-cut portions are applied to the stiffening members. In either case the costs involved are high and the process is of necessity a relatively slow and laborious one. Moreover prior devices for merely assembling the elements of covers to be subsequently printed have required a change in the direction of movement of the cover during the fabricating process and in many cases intermittent operations have been employed. These factors of course materially slow up the fabrication rate and contribute substantially to the cost of the finished article.

Accordingly, this invention contemplates the provision of a high speed continuously operating machine and method for fabricating book covers, cases and other similar articles that can be readily adapted to handle a wide range of cover sizes and functions to perform all operations while the covers move continuously in a substantially uninterrupted path through the apparatus. This end is attained through the utilization of improved means for folding the covering material about all four edges of the core or stiffening members as they are transported. Moreover, the invention further contemplates utilization of cover material in preprinted continuous web form which greatly simplifies the process and apparatus and avoids the added costs in severing the covering material into sheets of predetermined size as heretofore generally practiced in the case of prior devices.

A further object of the invention resides in the provision of a new and improvedmethod and apparatus so that printed covering material prepared in roll form may be used directly in the cover fabricating apparatus. This is attained through a system for correlating a continuous strip of preprinted cover material with thecore material so that the designs will be exactly and precisely positioned on the finished covers. This system not only controls the process in a manner that automatically compensates for deformations of the printed cover material either by reason of elongation or shrinkage, but insures automatic phasing so that the pre-cut cores or stiffening material cannot be fed onto the cover material out'of step with the cover design.

- ...'Ihe above and other objects and advantages will be.-

States Patent come more apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings forming part of this application.

The accompanying drawings show, for purposes of illustrating the present invention, one embodiment in which the invention may take form it being understood that the drawings are illustrative of the invention rather than limiting the same.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of the invention in perspective and illustrating certain principles thereof;

Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of a. portion of the apparatus of Fig. 1 to illustrate other features thereof;

Fig. 3 is a side elevation of one embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 4 is a plan view'of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a crosssectional view of Fig. 4 taken from along the line 5-5 thereof;

Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view of edge creasing cams to illustrate in greater detail the operation thereof;

Figs. 7 and 8 are plan views of the left hand cams of Fig. 6 in successive positions during a single cycle of operation;

Figs. 9 and 10 are cross sectional views of Figs. 6 and 7 taken along the lines ?9 and til-iii respectively;

Figs. ll, 12 and 13 are plan views of the right-hand cam of Fig. 6 showing successive positions of the cam during a single cycle of operation; and

Fig. 14 is a cross sectional view of Fig. 12 taken along the line ltd-14 thereof.

Broadly the invention provides a high speed system for assemblyiug book covers and cases wherein all steps in the process are carried out while the covers are in motion. In other Words the covers or parts thereof are continuously moving at all times and in no instance is the cover entirely stationary for the purpose of performing an opera: tion or changing its direction of transport. In the assembly of the web of covering material with the cores, the feeding means are correlated one with the other so that precise coordination is attained. Thus each successive design on the continuous strip of cover material is accurately coordinated and aligned with the core material. To facilitate an understanding of the invention, reference is made to Figs. 1 and 2 which illustrate the several steps in the assembly of the core and cover materials.

In the fabrication of book covers, the core usually comprises two pieces of. stiffening material 19 and 11 which form the front and back stiffness for the book covers and a central member 12, usually of lighter weight material, which will ultimately overlie the book binding. While the central section 12 is illustrated as forming part of the core material, it is apparent that its use is optional. The covering material for the core is in the form of a roll 13 that may have repeated cover designs thereon spaced one from the other an appropriate distance so that when the successive designs are severed from the strip, sufficient material remains to be folded over the edges of the cores in the manner illustrated. In the actual process of assemblying the covers the three sections of core material it), 11 and 12 are glued to the cover material and then the marginal edges are folded over the edges of the core to form a completed structure ready to receive the book to be bound therein.

In Figs. 1 and 2, the cover material 13 is fed over a guide roller 14 and then between successive sets of power drivenpressure rollers 15-l5' to 2tl-2tt' inclusive which control the transportation of the cover and core materials. While not illustrated in these figures, the cover material is coated with a cement or glue prior to its entrance between the rollers l5l5. .As the cover material is fed between the drive rollers, sets of core sections it) to 12 are successively fed between the rollers --15' by suitable feeding means 21. The action of the feeder 21 is accurately correlated with the speed of the cover material 13 between the rollers 1515' to -49 so that accurate and precise coordination between the two is maintained at all times.

As each set of core sections iii to 12 is cemented firmly to the cover material 13 by the action of pressure rollers 15-i5, they successively pass a first pair of cutting blades 22 suitably mounted to produce diagonal corner cuts on each edge of the cover material and adjacent the outer corners of the trailing edge of each set of core sections. The next step in the process constitutes the provision of a second set of diagonal cuts adjacent the outer corners of the leading edge of each set of core sections by means of cutting blades 23 similar to the blades 22. This second set of cuts removes a small triangular piece of material 24 from each edge of the cover material and leaves a pair of V-notches 25. In order to insure proper operation of the knives 22 and 23, their actuation is precisely coordinated with the feeder 21.

After the cover material has been notched between successive sets of core sections, it then passes a fold over station having a pair of curved guides 2626' which engage the marginal sections, the cover material extending from the outer edges of the core sections 10 and 11. These guides fold this marginal cover material over onto the top side of the core whereupon it is permanently secured by the pressure rollers i.717. As each cover assembly passes between the pressure rollers 1.717' it is picked up by the next set of rollers 1818 so that it is positively driven forwardly at all times and at a predetermined speed. As each cover assembly engages the rollers 19-19, the transverse cutter 27 severs it from the preceding cover assembly along a line determined generally by the apices of the V-notches 25. This cutter, as in the case of cutters 22 and 23, is coordinated with. the operation of the feeder 21.

After the marginal edges 28 and 29 of the web 13 have been folded over the outer edges of the stifiening members by the guides 26 and 26, it is desirable to press down the portions of the marginal edges 28 and 29 that extend beyond the leading and traiing edges of the core sections lit) and 11. These overlapping portions or corners are denoted by the numerals 30, 30' and 33, 31. Creasing or tucking of these portions is attained by means. of two pairs of rotatably supported cams or fingers 32, 32 and 33, 33'. These cams are rotated in synchronism with the movement of the Web 13 and periodically engage the successive corner portions to flatten or score them and produce a tighter and more compact corner. Operation of these cams will be discussed more fully in connection with Figs. 6 to 14.

Referring again to the cutter 27, the severed cover assembly, while in engagement with the pressure rollers 1919, is moved into engagement with a rotating plate 34, forming the final turn-in station. This plate functions to bend the leading marginal edge 35 of the web upwardly as shown in Fig. 2. Continued forward motion of the cover assembly folds the edge 35 backwardly as shown in dotted outline whereupon it is picked up by the pressure rollers 36 and at. These rollers move the cover assembly forwardly and into the notch 37 in cushioning bar 37. This bar is slidably mounted on a track 38 and is moved backwardly against suitable com pression springs 39, so that the trailing edge 40 of the cover assembly can be moved downwardly over the surface. of shield 41 which overlies a portion of the periphery of roller 36. The cover is forcibly moved down under the action of a rotary depressor 42. This action rolls the edge 4%) tightly over the edge of the cores 10 to 12 whereupon the spring loaded bar 37 moves the cover into engagement with rollers E6 and 43 to complete the last marginal fold and discharge the finished cover from the apparatus.

The coordination of the speed of the cover material 13 with the feeding means 21 for feeding said core sections 10 through 12 is preferably accomplished in the following manner. One edge of the cover material 13 is provided with a series of marks or lines 44 along one edge thereof as illustrated in Fig. 1 and it is preferable to have at least two or'three such marks in the distance comprehended by a section of the material forming'a single cover. While perforations may be employed instead of the marks 44, it is preferable to use the marks as they can be applied during the actual printing process which automatically coordinates them with the cover design. Moreover, these marks are positioned so that they be wholly on the margin (28 or 29) and are completely covered when the book and cover are finally assembled.

This series of marks 44 are utilized to coordinate the web feed with the core feed 21 by means of suitable photoelectric devices and coordinated speed controlling means. More specifically the marks 44 are detected by photoelectric means comprising a light source 45 and lens 46 for focussing a narrow beam of light onto the marks 44 and reflected light is picked up by a photocell generally denoted by the numeral 47. This cell 47 is connected to an electronic correlator 48 which, as will be shown, coordinates the speed of the web 13 with the core feeding means 21. While the marks 44 may be of any desired color, it is of course important to have contrasting marks.

Considering now the driving means for the apparatus in which the power source is preferably an electric motor 49 connected to a suitable source of electrical energy, this motor is arranged to drive a variable speed changer 50 through a suitable mechanical coupling 51. The motor 49 also directly drives the cutting blades 22, 23 and 27, the rotary plate members 34 and 42, and actuates the feeding means 21 so that these devices operate in exact synchronism.

Inasmuch as the cover material 13 can either stretch or shrink, it is therefore important that its speed be governed in such a manner that a predetermined num: ber of cover designs are fed into the machine corresponding to the rate at which the core material is fed to the machine. Should the cover material stretch slightly it is apparent that it must be fed more rapidly in order to attain absolute alignment of each cover design with its associated set of core sections. Accordingly, means are provided in the form of a perforated disc 52 directly coupled to and rotated by the motor 49. A series of pulses are provided by means of a photoelectric device. consisting of a source of light 53, a lens 54 and a photoelectric cell SS, the source of light and the photocell being on opposite sides of the perforated disc. Rotation of the disc therefore produces a series of pulses corresponding to the speed of the motor 49 and these pulses" are fed by suitable e'ectric wires to the electronic co'rrelator 48.

The correlator 48 may be of any appropriate design that will accept a standard pulse such as the pulses received from photocells 47 and 55 and produce a'voltage corresponding in polarity and magnitude to the relative phase difference and magnitude of such difference between the signals. This voltage is utilized to operate a control motor 56 having a shaft 56 coupling it with the speed change mechanism 58 so that rotation of the motor 56 in onedirection or the other will vary the speed on the output shaft 57 relative to the input shaft 58. Since the drive rollers i4 and i5i5'. to 2-3 -20.' and '3ri-36' are all coupled one with the other and driven by the variable speed shaft 57 by gearing to be described, it is apparent that any shift in the frequency that will automatically adjust the speed of the cover mate'rial to coordinate with the speed of the motor 49.

Thus should the web 13 become stretched the: else tronic correlatorwould immediately sense a relative decrease in speed of the marks 44 past the photoelectric cell 47 and this would result in a modification of the ratio of the speeds of the speed reducer shafts 57 and 58 to the speed of the cover material with reference to the speed of operation of the feeder 21 and cutting devices as described.

Conversely should the material contract, the electronic correlator would cause a proportional decrease in the speed of travel of the cover material 13. In this way the marks provide an absolute control governing the rate at which designs are fed into the apparatus. Therefore absolute alignment of each set of core sections with a corresponding design on the cover material is attained and the degree of accuracy of such alignment can be controlled by the number of marks 44 employed. An increase in the number of marks on the cover material and a corresponding increase in the number of holes 52 in the disc 52 will produce a higher frequency and enable the electronic correlator 48 to function more frequently to correct the relative speeds of the motor 49 and the covering material 13. If desired, means in the form of a second series of marks, as for instance the perforations 59 on the web 13 may be utilized together with one or more enlarged openings 60 in the disc 52 in order to provide a synchronizing signal electrically solute phasing of the covering material with each set of core sections and prevent the core feeding means from being locked in with the cover material so that core sections are positioned at points overlapping successive designs. Thus should the machine be started in such a manner that each set of core sections is not properly aligned with each design on the covering material, this phasing procedure will automatically effect proper coordination.

Figs. 3 through 14 show one embodiment of apparatus for carrying out the process and system for making book covers and cases as illustrated and described in connection with Figs. 1 and 2. In general the machine comprises a pair of longitudinal frame members 61 and 62 that are secured one to the other by a series of cross members such as the members 63 and other intervening supports as may be desired. This structure is supported in a generally horizontal position by suitable upright supporting members 64, 65 and 66 so that the top of the apparatus is in a convenient position for making the necessary adjustments and observing the machine while it is in operation. The roll of web or cover material 13 may be disposed in any suitable position beneath the machine and is fed between the rolls 14 and 14 with the printed side upwardly as illustrated. Between the pair of frame members 64 is a receptacle 67 containing a suitable glue or cement applied to the under or plain side of the web 13 by means of the transfer rolls 68, 69 and 14 respectively. The cover material with glue applied to the non-printed side thereof then passes upwardly and between the rollers -45 to -20 inclusive and 3636 as described in connection with Figs. 1 and 2. V t

The transporting rollers 1515' to 20-2tl' and 36-- 36 aresupported by the frame members 61 and 62 while the rollers 14-14, 68 and 69 are supported by the pair of frame members 64v and all are driven in synchronism one with the others. The remaining elements of the machine such as the feeding means 21, cutters 22, 23 and 27, cams 32-32' and 3333' and the rotary plates 34 and 42 are driven in unison and at a speed selected relative to the rollers.

Considering now the driving means, the main drive motor 49 is supported beneath the frame members 61.

and 62 by means of a suitable shelf 70 carried by the upright supports 65 and 66. Alongsidev the motor is the speed changing device 50 supported on the upright member 65 by means of a suitable'shelf or bracket 71. The input shaft 58 of the speed changer carriesa sprocket wheel 72 that is coupled by means of a chain 73 to a sprocket wheel 74 on the shaft of motor 49. The driving shaft 57 of the speed changer is coupled by means of a pair of beveled gears 75 and 76, a drive shaft 77 and beveled gears '78 and 79 to a transverse shaft 80 carrying a spur gear 81. This spur gear meshes with coopcrating gears carried by the shafts of rollers 14 and 14' to effect positive drive and coordination therebetween.

, The rollers 63 and 69 are idler rolls in pressure contact one with theother and with the driven roller 14' for transferring glue from the receptacle 67 to the underside of the core material 13. If desired, however, these rollers may be positively driven.

The rollers 15 and 15 are driven by a sprocket wheel 82 on shaft 80, a chain 83 and a sprocket wheel 84 carried by the shaft of roller 15. The rollers 16 and 16 are driven from the shaft 57 of the speed change mechanism 50 by means of a sprocket wheel 84' on the shaft 57, a chain 85 and a sprocket wheel 86 on the shaft of roller 16. In addition the rollers 17, 20 and 36 are driven from the shaft of roller 16 by means of a sprocket wheel 87, chain 88 and sprocket wheels 89, 90 and 91 carried by the shafts of .rollers 17, 20 and 36 respectively. The rollers ls and 19 are in turn driven from a sprocket wheel 92 on the back side of the machine, chain 93 and sprocket wheels 94 and 95. Spring loaded pressure adjusting devices 96 and 97 press on the roller 15 so that a predetermined pressure can be applied to firmly cement the core sections 10, 11 and 12 to the, cover material.

With the foregoing arrangement the cover material or web 13 is fed at a uniform rate of speed through the entire machine and the absolute speed is governed by the photocell 47 shown in Fig. 1. In Figs. 3 to 5, the photocell 47, together with the light source 45. lens 46 and other associated equipment, are shown in the form of an integral unit 98 which performs the same function as the elements diagrammatically shown in Fig. 1.

Having described the feeding and transporting means for the web 13 and the separated cover assemblies, the structure and operation of the feeding apparatus for the sets of core sections will now be described. This portion of the apparatus includes a suitable hopper 99 disposed at the lefthand end of the machine as viewed in the figures and means for feeding the two outer cover sections 10 and 11 sequentially from the underside thereof. These sections are stacked one upon the other and arranged in the same relative positions within the hop per 99 that they will assume when placed on the cover material 13. Thus the hopper is provided with two independent sections 169 and 101 having adjustable walls to accommodate core sections of different sizes as would be encountered in different sized books. Inasmuch as structures of this character are well-known in the art it is felt that further description is unnecessary.

The core sections iii and 12 are fed simultaneously from the hopper 99 by a reciprocable feeder 21 actuated by an elongated link 162 coupled to a suitable crank 1&3. The link 16?; is provided with an elongated slot lltld for adjustably connecting it with the feeder 21 so that different lengths of core sections can be readily accommodated. While only one feeder link 192 is illustrated it is apparent that a similar lever arrangement may be duplicated on the opposite side of the apparatus in order to effect more uniform operation. The feeder 21 is guided in its forward travel in a path substantially parallel with the travel of the core material through the machine and for this purpose suitable tracks or guides m5 may be employed.

In handling relatively thin core sections it is often ditficult to insure proper feeding of a single section at a time. In order to attain this end, two. suction cups 166 are provided on the under side of the hopper 99 for contact with each of the core sections. Each .of these section cups 1064s connected to a suction jtube sprocket wheel 1st through a chain 1::

107' and ispivoted at 1838 :so that just prior to the operation :of the feeder 21 the suction cups 1% will be pulled downwardly to permit their respective core sections to be fed between the rollers 15 and 15'. Actuation of these suction cups 1th: in this manner is accomplished by means of a rotary earn 1%? driven by a sprocket wheel 110, a chain 111 and a sprocket wheel carried on the end of a shaft 113 which carries the cutting blades 22.

' The central core section 12 is customarily of relatively thin material and is preferably provided in roll form as indicated at 114 in Fig. 3. This material is withdrawn from the roll 114 by a pair of positively driven rollers 115 and 116 coupled by gears 1'17 and Each roller has a flattened portion so that as they are rotated an intermittent drive will result. The strip 11 is then fed past the cutting station having a knife 11% carried by a rotary member 12 1 on shaft 121 and a fixed cooperating backing block 122. The bladc'or knife 119 is rotated by a gear 123 driven by cooperating wide e gear 124. Following the cutter 119, the severed strip passes between a second set of drive rollers 125 126 coupled by gears 127 and 128. The strip is then carried by a vacuum roller 129 and deposited on the web 13 along With the core sections and 11. The vacuum roller 1-29 is carried by a shaft 13%; that is driven from gear 124 by spur gears 131, 132 and The rollers 115 and 125 are driven from the gear 123 by means of intervening idlers 13 i and 135. By properly proportioning the distances between the feeding elements for the core section 12, sections of any predetermined length may be obtained and the space between successive lengths can be determined by the depth of the flattened portions on rollers 115 and 116.

As pointed out in connection with Figs. 1 and 2, the cutting blades 22, 23 and 27 and the rotary blade members 34 and 42 are driven at a uniform speed, one relative to the other. For the purpose of simplifying the description reference is now made to the cutter 27 which has an elongated blade 136 mounted in axial alignment on the roller 1.1". This roller is carried by the shaft 138 pivoted in the frame members 61 and at. One end extends through the frame member 61 and carlies a spur gear 139. This spur gear is driven directly by the motor 49 through spur gears 1 51i, 14 1 and 1A2. ,IRotary motion ofthe gear 139 which rotates the cutter 26 is transmitted through a series of idler gears 143 to 147 to a spur gear 148 carried on the end of a shaft 149. This shaft 14-9 extends between the ante members 61 and 62 and carries a pair of collars and 151, each carrying a cutting blade 23 as described in connectionwith Fig. 1. Thus we find that the cutters 23 operlate in absolute synchronisrn at all times with the elongated cutter 27. Similarly the spur gear is coupled throughthe gear 124 to the spur gear 1.31 on the shaft .113 which has a pair of, adjustable collars 153 and 154 carrying the blades 22. The collars d and ;on the shaft 149 and the collars 153 and 154 on the shaft 113 are adjustable transversely in order to ac- .commodate different widths of covering material that -may be employed.

Referring again to the spur gear 139' mounted on the shaft 13% which carries the cutter 27, a sprocket wheel 155 fixed to the end of this shaft 1&2 drives a which in turn :rotates the shaft 158 carrying the rotary plate member "34' functioning to fold the leading edge of the covering material over the core sections 159,11 and 12 as described.

It Will be observed that the bell crank which drives With the apparatus thus far'described, core sections 14 11 and 12 are fed in groups onto the continuous web 13 whereupon the two pairs of knives 22 and 23 function to remove V-shaped sections from the edges of the web disposed between the succesivc sets of core sections. The web then passes through the side guides 26 and 26 which function to fold the marginal edges .13 and 25 of the web over the adjoining core sections and Since the cement applied to the web from the container or is on the top side of the web the marginal'edges 28 and 2? when folded over wi l be firmly cemented to the core sections.

The small triangular portions or corners 3t 30, 31, 31 of the webs 28 and 29 must now be firmly pressed against the underlying portions of the web in order to effect a secure, neat corner for the book cover or case. his is attained by the earns 32, 32, and 3-3, 33' placed adjacent the side edges of the web.

These cams are driven from gear through a gear 161 and two branch gear trains, the gear train for cams 32, 32' including gears 162, 1152i and 16%, shaft 159, bevel gears 1% and res, and vertical shafts 165, the gear train for earns 33, 33 including shaft 17%, bevel gears 171, 173 and vertical shafts 172.

With specific reference to the cam the upper end of the vertical drive shaft M55 carries, as shown in Fi 6, a disc 167 fixedly mounted thereon and having a pin extending from the surface thereof. The cam 32 is pivoted at thecenter of the disc and is adapted for movement relative thereto. cam however is imparted by means of the pin iesdand a spring 169 normally holding the cam against the pin 168. The cam '32 is similarly arranged and like primed numerals have been used to designate corresponding elements.

Reference is now made to Figs. 6 through 16 showing the cooperation of cam 32 with the web 13 to crease or tuck the corner 3% of the marginal edge 28. It will be apparent that the cam 32 functions in an identical manner on the opposite side of the web. In Fig. 6 the can; 32 is shown mounted on the plate 17 with the spring 16* securing the cam against the pin 16%. It will be noted that the web is traveling to the right and that the cam 32 is moving in a clockwise direction. The cam is coordinated with the web so that as the outer end of the cam 32 when overlapping the web 12; actually engages it precisely at the leading edge of the core section 11 and rides over the overlapping portion 315. This precise position is illustrated in cross section in Fig. 9 which shows the cam 32 about to engage the sloping overiapping section 31 of the marginal edge 2?. 7

As the end of the cam 32engages the reading edge of the core section 11 the latter carries the cam away from the pin 158 against the action of the spring 1 69' as shown in Fig. 7. Thus the spring urges the end of the cam firmly in contact with the leading edge-of the core section 11 as shown in "Fig. l0 and this causes the overlapping portion 311 of the marginal edge 28 to liefiat against the underlying web 13. Fig. 8 shows the next step in the process wherein the cam 32 moves out of engagement with the leading edge of the core section 11 whereupon the pin 1&3 moves into contact with the cam 32 and proceeds to move it through its next cycle.

The cams 33 and 33 function somewhat similarly to the cams 32 and 32'. The cam 32 is mounted centraily of a plate or disc 1'74 driven by the shaft 172 in a crockwise direction and rotary motion is imparted to the cam by means of a pin 175 and a spring 176m much the same manner as to the cam 32. his to be noted howeverthat in thecase of the cam 33 the pin 175is onthe The operation of the. cam ,33 is: illustrated .in .greate'r Rotary movement of the 9 detail inFigs. 6 and 11 through 14. Fig. 6 shows the relative positions of the cams 32 and 33 when the cam 32 is about to engage the web 13. After the cam 32 has finished its operation on one core section, the cam 33 proceeds toe engage the adjoining overlapping section 31 of the marginal edge 28 as shown in Fig. 11. As engagement of cam 33 is attained the pin 175 moves away from the cam 33 and the latter is held in engagement with the trailing edge of the core section 11 by the action of the spring 176. As the web 13 moves to the right the cam 33 fully engages the overlapping section 31 as shown in Fig. 12 and firmly presses the marginal edge portion 31 down against the web 13 as shown in Fig. 14. It will be observed at this point that the pin 175 is still in advance of the cam 33. As the web 13 continues to move to the right as shown in these figures the cam 33 finally leaves the web and snaps into the dotted line position shown in Fig. 13, whereupon it is carried through a circular path for operation on the next successive overlapping marginal edge section 31. a

After leaving the cams 32 and 33, the successive cover assemblies are severed one from the other by the cutter 27 as previously described. The rollers and 20' then drive the severed book cover assembly against the lower edge 177 of the rotary plate member 34 constituting the first fold over station to fold the leading marginal edge section 35 over onto the core sections 10, 11 and 12. This rotary plate member has been described as being driven directly in synchronism with the cutters 22, 23 and 27. It may be desirable however to interpose a clutch between the sprocket wheel 156 and the drive shaft 158 and control the rotary speed of the plate member 34 so that it will have a linear speed at the moment the leading edge of a book cover assembly engages it that is slightly slower than the linear speed of such assembly. In this way a tighter fold will be obtained and the forward motion of the plate portion 177 will be attained, partially under the action of its drive shaft 158 and partially by reason of the force exerted by the cover assembly' in engagement therewith. The assembly then passes between the rollers 36 and 36' to firmly cement the leading edge 35 onto the adjoining edges of the core sections, whereupon it is moved into engagement with the spring loaded cushioning bar 37 at the second fold over station. Inasmuch as the length of the core assembly is slightly greater than the distance between the core. and the intersection of rollers 36 and 36 it will be forced to the right, as viewed in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, against the action of the compression springs 39. As soon as the trailing edge of the assembly leaves the rollers 36 and 36' a second rotary plate assembly or depresser 42 engages the top side of the assembly, forcing it over a shield 41 disposed about the periphery of the roller 43. This action moves the trailing marginal edge 40 upwardly to form a secure crease whereupon the bar 37 then moves to the left to force the leading edge of the core assembly between the rollers 36 and 43 to firmly cement the trailing marginal edge 40 to the core sections. The finished assembly is then discharged onto a suitable belt 178.

Rotation of the depresser assembly 42 is accomplished by means of a sprocket wheel 179 carried on the shaft 158 of the rotary plate assembly 34, a chain 181) and a second sprocket wheel 18] securely fastened to a shaft 182 for driving the pusher assembly 42.

It will be observed from the foregoing description of this apparatus that the cover assemblies are in continuous motion throughout the entire fabrication procedure.

Before discussing, in furher detail, the operation of the control mechanism for attaining precise coordination between the core sections and a printed web material it may be pointed out that the blade 136 of the transverse cuter 27, previously described. and which cooperates with an underlying stationary blade 136' is arranged at a slight angle relative to the frame members 61 and 62 in order to efiect an accuratetransverse ejit when severing.

one cover assembly from the next. It is of course also apparent that the cutters 22 and 23 function in connection with fixed blade members 22 and 23' positioned beneath their respective cutting blades. Moreover, since books are of varying sizes, the web 13 required for covering the core sections will of course vary in width. To accommodate for these variations the cutting blades 22 and 23 are adjustably mounted on their respective shafts so that they can be readily moved toward and away from one another. Similarly the guides 26 and 26' for folding the marginal edges 28 and 29 can be adjusted laterally of the apparatus. The earns 32, 32' and 33, 33' are also laterally adjustable to accommodate different web widths.

When accommodating different lengths of core sec.- tions it is merely necessary to readjust the relative speed of the web movement with the feeding means and other elements driven in synchronism therewith.

Referring now to the electronic controlling mechanism, it was pointed out that the photoelectric assembly 98 produces a series of pulses corresponding to the velocity marks 44 and possibly the additional openings 59 positioned on one edge of the web. This device is coupled in a suitable manner to the correlator 48. In addition, the photoelectric cell 55, light source 53 and lens 54 are housed within a suitable box denoted generally by the numeral 183 in Fig. 3. The output of this photoelectric cell is also connected to the correlator 48 as illustrated. The perforated disc 52 is shown for convenience in Fig. 3 as being carried by the shaft 58 of the speed reducer 56. In this way a correlation is obtained between the speed of the feeding and cutting elements versus the speed of the web and assembled cover sections as they are transported through the apparatus. While it is preferable to arrange the spacing between the successive marks 44 and the spacing between the holes 52 and the disc 52 so that under properoperation of the apparatus the frequencies generated by each photoelectric cell are equal, it is of course apparent to those skilled in the art that any suitable relationship may be employed. Through the utilization of a second set of timing means such as the holes 59 in the edge of the web and the enlarged holes 60 on the disc 52 it is possible to obtain precise phasing of the operation of the Web relative to the speed of the feeding means 21 in which case an increased number of marks 44 may be employed to attain more accurate coordination.

The illustrated embodiment of the invention has been shown as supplying a single piece of web material 13 for the fabrication of the book covers or cases. In many instances it may be desirable to use a two color cover, in which case .it would be possible to either print a two color web material or feed a. number of different color webs into the apparatus simultaneously in any manner desired. For instance, a central web section may be of a white material carrying such information as the book, title, author and publisher and a pair of side portions of black material which may or may not carry indicia or designs thereon.

In many instances the center core section 12 may be of a somewhat thinner material than the outer core sections 10 and 11, in which case it is important to provide means for securing it properly to the web material. This may be accomplished in a variety of ways, as for instance by the utilization of suitable resilient rollers adapted to aerogeeat II From the foregoing it is apparent that with this apparams accurate and precise alignment of the core sections and the designs printed on the covering material will be obtained at all times. Since the various steps in the process are accomplished while the web and cover assemblies move continuously through the apparatus, exceedingly high speeds of operation can be obtained, generally of the order of two or three times that heretofore obtainable with known apparatus. Moreover, since precise alignment is secured between the elements forming the cover, the covering material can be printed in the form of a roll and thus greatly expedite the printing process and materially reduce the cost of the final production. This saving, coupled with the vastly increased speeds of assembly, results in a considerable overall reduction in cost of manufacture.

While only one embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, it is apparent that modifications, changes and alterations may be made without dcparting from the true scope and spirit thereof.

What is claimed is:

1. Apparatus for making articles having at least one core section faced on at least one side with a covering material folded over the edges thereof comprising means for continuously feeding a Web of covering material into said apparatus, means for periodically feeding core sections on to said web in predetermined spaced relation ship, said core sections having a width narrower than the'width of said web to leave marginal edge portions of the web extending beyond the core sections, means for notching the edges of said web between successive core sections, longitudinal guides on each side of said web for engaging the side marginal edges and folding them over adjoining edges of said core sections, a rotary knife for severing each leading core section and the associated covering material from the web along a transverse line extending between opposite notches to leave leading and trailing marginal edges of covering material in advance of and behind each core section, a rotary plate member successively engaging the leading marginal edge of the second length of covering'material and folding it over the edge of the corresponding core section, a stop for successively engaging the leading edge of each core section, a pair of cooperating rollers spaced from said stop for successively engaging the trailing edge of the severed covering material, one of said rollers functioning to move the said trailing edge of each section downwardiy to the point of contact with the other of said rollers to bend the trailing marginal edge upwardly, and means for feeding said section between said rollers to complete the fold of said trailing'edge and discharge the finished article. I 1 a 2. Apparatus according to claim 1' wherein said web a of covering material bears on onesid'e a series'of repeated designs one for each length to be severed from said material, the designs having a substantially regular but indeterminate spacing greater than the minimum requisite,

and wherein said apparatus includes means for controlling the relative core feed speed and web speed for accurately aligning each core section with one of" said repeated designs. a Y i s 3. Apparatus according to claim Z wherein said controlling means is respon'siv'e'to the rate of 'movementof said designs past a predetermined point. A

4. Apparatus according. to claim 2 wherein said appa- 'ratus'includes means forsecuring the side marginal edge 7 portions extending beyond the associated core section firmly to the underlying portions of said web.

5. In apparatus for making covers having acore and a facing onat least one side folded about-theedgesof the core, means for folding the leading marginal edge of material comprising a rotary plate 'and means for feeding said core and cover material against said-platewhile it ls -inclined upwardly and away-from said leading-edge,

said feeding means-including means-tor continuously away from and out of the path of said core and cover to complete the fold.

6. In apparatus for making a cover assembly having a core and a facing on at least one side folded about the edges of the core, means for folding the trailing edge of material comprising a stop, a pair of rollers one below the other for feeding the leading edge of the core against said stop, a third roller below and cooperating with the lower roller, and means for moving the trailing edge of said core downwardly over the periphery of said lower roller and for folding the trailing edge of cover material over said core while it is between the two lower rollers so that the said cover moves therebetweento secure the trailing edge fold.

7. In apparatus for making a cover assembly having a core and a facing on at least one side folded about the edges of the core, means for folding the trailing edge of material comprising a stop, a pair of rollers one below the other for feeding the leading edge of the core against said stop, a third roller below and cooperating with the lower roller, and means for moving the trailing edge of said core downwardly over the periphery of said lower ro.ler and for folding the trailing edge of cover material over said core while it is between the two lower rollers so that the said cover moves therebetween to secure the trailing edge fold, said third roller being provided with a peripheral shield for engagement of the trailing edge of the cover assembly as the latter is moved downwardly and said apparatus further includes pusher means for moving said trailing edge downwardiy over said shield.

8. In apparatus for making a cover assembly having a core and a facing on at least one side folded about the edges of the core, means for folding the trailing edge of material comprising a stop, a pair of rollers one below the other for feeding the leading edge of the core against said stop, a third roller below and cooperating with th'e lower roLer, and means for moving the trailing edge of said core downwardly over the periphery of said lower roller and for folding the trailing edge of cover material over said core while it is between the two lower rollers so that the said cover moves therebetween to secure the trailing edge fold, said stop being resiliently mounted for movement. away from said rollers upon engagement by the leading edge of the cover assembly.

9. Apparatus for making book covers comprising means for feeding through alinear path a continuous web of covering material having an adhesive on one side thereof, feeding means for applying successive sets of 7 cores to said web in predetermined spaced relationship, .at least two pair of diagonally disposed knives for notching each edge of said web at points between successive core sets, a pair of longitudinal guidesfor folding the longitudinal edge of said web onto said cores, means in the form of at least one pair of cams for pressing'the portions of said folded marginal edges between successive cores downwardly into engagement with the underlying web portions, a transverse cutter blade for severing each core set and the associated web material fro'rnithe preceding core set to providea cover assembly, a'r'otatable plate member for engagement of the leadingmar- 'ginal edge of each successive assembly to folditupwardly and onto the associate core sections, a spring loaded stop, upper and lower cooperating rollers for moving the leading edge of each core section against said stop, a "shield disposed about a portion of the'periphe'ry of said lower roller, pusher means for engaging each cover assembly in engagement with the stop downwardly over said shield to fold'the trailing marginal edge upwardly, and a third roller cooperating'said lower roller, the third and theilower roller receiving the trailing edge of each cover assembly to complete the foldand I finishedassemblyfrom the apparatus. N a 7 l0. Apparatus accordlng togclaim 9;:havi' g electron means responsive to the-speed of 'operationbf'said feeddischarge the ing means and the movement of said web for placing said sets of core sections in predetermined positions on said web. 1

11. Apparatus for making articles from web covering material bearing a series of preprinted designs, one for each article, and a series of markers spaced the same as a group of said designs comprising means for feeding the web continuously, means for feeding successive sets of core sections onto and securing them to said Web, control means sensing the rate of movement of said markers and the speed of said core-feeding means to produce corresponding electric signals, means electrically comparing said signals to automatically modify the speed of said corefeeding means'for positioning said sets of core sections in predetermined positions on said web and means for severing said web between successive sets of core sections and folding the edges of the web over and onto said core sections.

12. Apparatus for making articles from web covering material bearing a series of preprinted designs, one for each article, and a series of markers spaced the same as a group of said designs and from a set of core sections comprising means for feeding the web continuously, means for feeding successive sets of core sections onto said web and control means responsive to the rate of movement of said markers and the speed of said corefeeding means to automatically effect alignment of each set of core sections with one of said preprinted designs, andmeans responsive to the relative speed between said Web and core-feeding means for positioning said sets of core sections in predetermined positions on said web, said speed-responsive means including a pair of detectors for producing two sets of electric pulses having a frequency difference corresponding to said relative speeds of the web and core-feeding means and a correlator for producing an output voltage proportional in direction and magnitude to said relative speed.

13. The method of making articles including at least one core section faced with a length of covering material folded about the edges thereof, said covering material being in the form of a web continuously carrying preprinted designs and nominally equally spaced marks along the edge thereof and coordinated with said designs, which comprises feeding successive core sections onto said continuously carrying web of material, developing electrical signals responsive to the movement of the web spaced marks and the movement of the core sections,

comparing the developed electrical signals to produce a correcting signal to electrically control the feeding rate of the spaced marks relative to the core sections to accurately align each section with a design, and then folding the leading edge of the same over the edge of the core section, severing the covering material to the rear of the core section and folding the trailing edge of the web on the trailing edge of the core section to complete the article.

14. In apparatus for making a cover assembly having a core and a facing on at least one side and folded about the edges of the core, means for folding the trailing edge of material comprising a stop, means for moving said cover assembly against said stop, means for moving the trailing edge of said assembly downwardly, means for engaging the web extending from the trailing edge of the core to displace it relative to the core during said down- Ward motion, and roller means for engaging the trailing edge of said cover assembly with the partially folded Web portion to move said assembly in a direction opposite to its movement against said stop and fold said web portion tightly about the core.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,807,867 Novick June 2, 1931 1,848,448 Weidner Mar. 8, 1932 1,884,468 Winkler et al Oct. 25, 1932 1,946,457 Donnelley et al. Feb. 6, 1934 2,015,202 Stokes Sept. 24, 1935 2,056,451 Haberstump Oct. 6, 1936 2,166,038 Chambon July 11, 1939 2,444,685 Waters July 6, 1948 2,556,787 Bach et al. June 12, 1951 2,638,147 Nebel May 12, 1953 2,663,352 Keller Dec. 22, 1953 2,674,311 Griswold Apr. 6, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 496,551 Great Britain Nov. 28, 1938

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Classifications
U.S. Classification156/202, 83/365, 156/477.1, 156/361, 156/351, 156/461, 156/216, 412/17, 493/382, 156/522
International ClassificationB42C7/00
Cooperative ClassificationB42C7/00
European ClassificationB42C7/00