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Publication numberUS2971059 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 7, 1961
Filing dateSep 27, 1956
Priority dateOct 4, 1955
Publication numberUS 2971059 A, US 2971059A, US-A-2971059, US2971059 A, US2971059A
InventorsJohn Heaton-Armstrong Louis
Original AssigneeInt Standard Electric Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic frequency control arrangements for frequency shift telegraph receivers
US 2971059 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 7, 1961 L. J. HEATON-ARMSTRONG AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL ARRANGEMENTS FOR FREQUENCY SHIFT TELEGRAPH RECEIVERS Filed Sept. 27, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG-.3.

OSC

59 4 KCS OSC 69 8 46 42 3/ KCS OSC 702 43 KCS I 5 49 *SHAP Cl-MNB Inventor LJ.HEATONARMSTRONG Attorney Feb. 7, 1961 Filed Sept. 27, 1956 L. J. HEATONARMSTRONG AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL ARRANGEMENTS FOR FREQUENCY SHIFT TELEGRAPH RECEIVERS 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 TABLEZ gate/925R WAVE CO/VD/T/ON OF Q OL/AN/VELA CHANNELB. f/ f P SPACE SF24CE f2 f 200 CPS- SPACE M4RK f3 f 200 cps. MARK SPACE f4 f P MARK MARK TABLEZ K/LOCYCLES FROEA/C) PER. SEC.

f3 /oo2 TABLEE our ur OFZO FPEQUENCYOF/8 jg gfg vou's K/LOCYCLES PER $50 PER 35c '3 I/OOZ +6 70.2 f4 /OO-6I +45 70.

Inventor 1961 L. J. HEATON-ARMSTRONG ,971,059

AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL ARRANGEMENTS FOR FREQUENCY SHIFT TELEGRAPH RECEIVERS Filed Sept. 27, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 snow CHANNEL 5 F765 fl/SCE/M/A/A we 5/ wme/M/A/A r02 62 v FIRST (HAN/VEL A n amv r02 SHUT roe 22 #1: f2 f1? f2 DISL'E/M/NATOR A 1:; 6/1 TE SHUT/'02 6A 75 opmroe #4 14 I: (I? 1' H4 '1 iz fs f4 f1 f2 a f4 n -30 4: our. 8/ 52 /SCE/M/NATUR f2 .30 +15 0 A #3 GATE 0 6475 f1 -30 -15 -45 D/SCR/M/A/A TOE {'2 -30 +15 75 ,4 fa +30 -/5 +15 aurPz/r M ourpur +/5u( 4) Pea/w FROM 0/56. 5/ 0/56. 52 l 0 30M 611 TE OPE/l 301/. 0 6/! TE OPEN 030K GATE S/ll/TFOR r3 #4 30M 0 GATE SHUT F02 mom 0/56. 4 FROM 0/56. 4 r1 #2 F/6. 6A F76.

IN V EN TOR. L. 1 H621 7' 0/1/ ARMSTEflA/G Communication, March 1952.

'the kind in which each of two telegraph channels at any instant is indifour different frequencies, comprising means :ing the frequency of a received carrier wave, means controlled in response tothe result of the identification for settingup the corresponding marking or spacingcondi- Unite AUTOMATIC FRE UENCY CONTROL ARRANGE- ,MENTS FOR FREQUENCY snrnr TELEGRAPH RECEIVERS Louis John Heated-Armstrong, London, England, as-

signor to internationai Standard Electric Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporationof Delaware Filed Sept. 27, 1956, Ser. No. 612,475 Claims priority, application Great Britain: Oct. 4, 1955 7 Claims. (Cl. 178- 88) l The present invention relates to automatic "frequency mitter sends out at any instant a carrier wave having one of four given frequencies eachof which corresponds to'one of the four possible combinations of the conditions of the'two channels at the instant concerned. The.

receiver identifies the frequency of the carrier wave being transmitted and translates it into the corresponding con- "ditions in the receiving circuits of the two channels. One method of carrying out this translation is. given in the above-mentioned article, and a different method is described below.. Whatever the method used,however,

uncertainty of operation is liable to result from small variations in the carrier wave frequencies or in the fre- Jquencies of local oscillators used in the receiver.

.The principal objectof the invention, therefore, is to provide automatic frequency control. arrangements in the receiver suitable for the special. conditions of the twinplex system.

i This object is achieved according to the invention by providing a receiver for a twinplex telegraph system of the marking or spacing condition of catedby a carrier wavehaving a corresponding one of for identitytions in each of two channel output circuits, and means controlled by the conditions set up in the said output circuits for stabilising the frequency of the correspondfling received carrier wave. 1

States Patent The invention also provides a receiver for a twinplex telegraph system of the kind in which the marking or s pacing condition of, each of-two telegraph channels at any. instant is indicated by transmitting a carrier wave having a corresponding one of four different frequencies,

comprising a :first frequency changer for tra'ns'latingthe frequency of a received carrier wave to a corresponding one of four given intermediate frequencies, means controlledby the" intermediatefrequency wave for setting the said first frequency changer in response tothe manner that the frequencies of the intermediate frequency -waves are-substantially. independent of variations of the frequencies of the corresponding "received carrier waves.

"The invention will be described with reference to the flip the. corresponding marking or spacing condition in eachiof two channel output circuits, and means for controlling "cconditionsjsetup in the said outputcircuits in'such ice H Fig. 2 shows graphical diagrams used in explaining the operation of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 shows a scchematic circuit diagram of a modification of part of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 shows there tables used in the explanation of the invention;

Fig. 5 shows a chart used in explaining the operation of the inventionyand Figures 6A and 6B illustrate schematic circuit diagrams of gates shown as blocks 14 and 15 in Fig. 1.

In order that the invention may be clearly understood, it will be assumed that the frequencies of the carrier Wave sent out by the transmitter in response to marking or spacing conditions of the two channels A and B are given in Table I, Fig. 4, in which cps. stauds'for cycles per second. In Table 1 the frequency fcan have any convenient value and will be called the. mean carrier frequency. It will be understood that it is not essential that the frequency shifts should have the particular values given in Table I.

Since the invention is concerned with the receiver only, no details of the transmitter Will be given. It is only necessary to know what frequencies it sends out.

It will be assumed for clearness that in the marking condition of a channel, a positive potential is applied to the channel conductor, and in the spacing condition the potential is negative. This is however not essential; the opposite conditions could be used, or a single current arrangement.

One form of the receiver according to the invention is shown in Fig. 1. Particular frequencies will be specified for clearness, but it will be understood that other values could be used. The incoming carrier Waves are received by an antenna 1 connected to a radio frequency receiver 2 including conventional amplifiers and frequency changers designed to reduce the mean carrier frequency to a first mean intermediate frequency of 1.6 megacycles per second, for example. The receiver 2 is connected to a frequency changing modulator 3 to which is connected a local oscillator 4 designed to provide a frequency of 1.7 megacycles per second. The lower sideband is quencies fito f4 are given in Table Il, Fig. 4.

The carrier waves at the output of the modulator 3 are-supplied through an amplifier 5 to three parallel paths comprising three amplitude limiters 6, 7 and 8, and frequency discriminators 9, i0 and 11, which will be referred to as the A, B1 and B2 discriminators, re-

spectively. TheA discriminator 9 is connected through a direct current amplifier 12 and a pulse shaping circuit 13 to the output circuitof channel A. The B1 and B2 discriminatorsilll and 11 are connected through respectivegating circuits 14 and :15 and through a pulse shaping lfito the output circuit of channel B. The gating circuits 14 and 15 are controlled from the output of the amplifier 12, which should be designed to produce an output voltage which is double the input voltage.

Before describing the automatic frequency control arrangements according to the invention, the operation of the receiver circuit described so far will be explained.

The A discriminator 9 should be designed to produce a zero output voltage at the second mean intermediate carrier frequency f (100 kilocycles per second), and

positive and negative output voltage for frequencies respectively higher and lower than 1. It should further 5 be provided with outputamplifying and limiting circuits to'give it the substantially rectangular characteristic, taken atthe output of theamplifier 12, indicated by the graph A of Fig. 2. Such arrangementsare conventional and need not i be describedcin detail. For clearness it will similar to the A discriminator except that their charac- 'te ristic curves are given'respectively by graphs B1 and B2 in Fig. 2, in which zero voltage output occurs at frequencies (f1+f2)/2 and (f3+f4)/2, respectively; and in which the output voltage is +15 volts (V/2') at 2 and f4; respectively, and -15 volts at f1 and f3, re-

spectively, there being no amplifier corresponding to 12. Reference 'to Table I shows that when the received frequency is 'f3 or j4' a marking condition is indicated for channel A, and when the received frequency is f1 or f2 a spacing condition is indicated. Reference to graph A of Fig. 2 shows that the A discriminator 9- (-Fig. 1) produces a positive outp'ut'voltage' in the first case and a negative output voltage in the second case, and thus produces directly the proper conditions for channel Table I also shows that f2 or 4 indicates a marking condition for channel B and ft or f3 'a spacing condition. it It will be clear from'graph B1 of Fig. 2, that if the incoming frequency is fl or f2, the B1 discriminator 10 will produce the required condition on the output circuit of channel B provided that the gate 14 is open, but it will also produce a marking condition at frequency f3, which is incorrect. Therefore the amplified positive 'voltage produced by the A discriminator 9 at frequency f3 is applied to shut the gate 14 so that the B1 discriminator 10 is then disconnected from channel B. However when frequency 3 or f4 is received, the B2 discriminator 11 produces the desired conditions for channel B and so the amplified positive voltage produced by -'the A discriminator 9 at f3 of f4 is applied to open the gate 15. As the B2 discriminator produces the wrong condition at frequency f2, gate 15 is shut by theatnplified nega-tive potential produced by the A discriminator 9 at f2. Thus it will be seen thatfor frequencies ,fl and f2, gate 14 is open and gate 15 is shut, and for frequencies f3 and f4 gate 14is shut and gate 15 is open.

In further explanation of the operation of the receiver circuit described thus far, reference is made to the chart 'of Fig. 5 and to the gates shown'in Figs. 6A and 6B.

The first pair of blocks of the chart show in coordinate form the combinedoperation of the three discriminators A, B1 and B2 and gates 14 and 15. The frequencies f1, f2, f3 and f4 applied to discriminator A and the polarities of the pulse voltages. atthe discriminator output'h'ave been indicated as ordinates. Similar notations have been indicated as abscissaefor the same frequencies and the pulse voltage polarities for discriminator B1 and discriminator B2. Within the blocks representing gates -14and 15 spective gates are either'open or shut for any combination .of coordinate polarities. I i

' It is clear from Fig. 2 that the discriminator action of discriminator A'produces negative pulses from frequencies f1 and f2 and positive pulses from frequencies f3 'and"f4.=

Sitnilarly, discriminator Bl'produc'es a negative pulse from f1 and positive pulsesfrom f2, f3 and f4. "Discriminator B2 produces negative fl, f2 and f3 and a p'ositive'pulse from f4.

Assuming for the moment that the gates 14 and 15will ioperate as described above, attention'is directed to'the second pair of blocks. 1Voltage values have been 'assigned to various pulses in accordance with the values assumed iii-Fig. 2.. For gate '14, '30 volt pulses from discriminator -A Open the gate for 15 and +15 volt pulses fromdiscriminator B1 for 'frequencies fl'and 2 respectively. No pulses pass gate 14 for frequencies f3 and f4. Similarly for gate: 15, +30 volt pulses-from discriminator 'A open' the gate; for 15 and +15 volt pulses from discriminatorBZfor frequencies f3 and1f4 respectively and the'gatepasses no pulses for frequencies Lijl: and; f2. when 'eithersga'te passesno: pulses, fromdisare shown the frequencies for whichthe re-.

pulses from frequencies ,cycles per second, and the quency may be 20 or'30 megacyclespersecond, for

being received, The frequency control fated by an adding circuit 20-connected the 'shapers l3 and 16. The adding circuit 2 0 suPPlies to the frequency control circuitl9 a potential equal to or the potentials at ;the outputs of the shapers.

:quencies ii to f4, as indicated 7 t The frequency control circuit or device 19 may, for example; be a' conventional reactance valve circuit-connected to the oscillator that the frequencies. generated are those given in the ltively.

To the left of the block are indicated the voltage pulses appearing in channel A. The sum of the voltage pulses of channels A and B appear to the right of the block under the heading Add CKT Volts. These voltages are the same as those shown in the middle column of Table III in Fig. 4 provided the gates 14 and 15 operate as assumed and as described. That the gates do sowill now be demonstrated; f V

The two gates 14 and 15 of Figs..6A and 6B respectively are identical in all respects except that (with the diodes polarized as shown) gate 14 opens upon the application of a -30 v. control voltage, whereas gate 15 are said to be open as is well known. When the diodes are negatively biased'the gates are closed. With a 1:1

-ratio of turns on all transformers, the voltage value of the output pulses are substantially the same as those of the input pulses and as indicated in the figures.

The shaping circuits 13 and 16 are provided to produce a sharp change between the marking and spacing conditions, and for clearness it will be assumed that each is .designed so that the input and output voltages are substantially equal, though this is not essential. Y

It will beevident that proper operation of the receiver of Fig. 1- dependson the maintenance of the frequency relations-shown inFig. 2. The differences between the frequencies f1 to f4 'are generally only a few hundred radiated mean carrier freexample, so a very slight drift in the radiated carrier frequency is sufficient completely to upset the operation of the discriminators. Thus automatic frequency control arrangementsjare usually necessary. The fact that the received frequency is continually changing between four -values' makes the trol arrangements impracticable.

cording to the invention comprises modulator 17 connected to the output of the amplifier 5,. and supplied'from a local oscillator conventional automatic frequency con- The arrangement aca frequency changing 18, the frequency of which is determined by a frequency. control device or circuit 19 in such mannerthat the frequency of the output sideband from the modulator l7.is substantially the same whichever frequency of the series flv to f4 is circuit 19 is operto the outputs of proportional-to the algebraic sumof This algebraicsum' has a tofleach, of the, four frebyTableIlI, Fig. 4.,

different value corresponding 18, the arrangement being such third column "of Table III, for example. It will be seen that the frequency of the sideband produced by the mod ulator 17 will be 30 kilocycles per second in each c ase.

This frequency will be called the control frequency.

The output of themodulator 17 is connected to a conventional frequency discriminator 21 the characterise tic of which'is centered on the control frequencyf The output voltage from the discriminator gl; operates a; tre-v tively.

qu'en'cy control circuit 22 for the oscillator 4, the'arrangemen: beingsuch that any drift of the frequency of one ofthe incoming carrier waves (which wilbbhange the control frequency) causes the discriminator Zlito change the frequency of the oscillator 4 in such direction as to l othersuitable means for changing the frequency can be adopted.

Fig. 3 shows an arrangement which may be used instead of the elements 18, 19 and 2t) of Fig. 1 to obtain automatically the: proper frequency for the modulator 17. :Four separate single-frequency oscillators23, 24, 25 and 26 are provided which supply waves of frequencies 69.4, 69.8, 70.2 and 70.6 kilocycles per second, respec- These oscillators should preferably be stable crystal-controlled oscillators. By means of two sets of gating valves 27, 28, 29, 3t? and 31, 32, controlled by the potentials at the output of the shapers l3 and 16, the output of the appropriate one of the oscillators 23 to 26 is supplied to the output conductor 33 which is connected to the modulator 17, Fig. l. T

.The cathodes of all the valves are connected to the grounded negative terminal of the high tensionsource 34 forthe valves. connected to'the anodes of valves 27 and 29 through a The positive terminal of the sourceis load resistor 35; to the anodes of valves 28 and Slitbrorigh a load resistor 36; and to the anodes of valves 31 and 32 through a load resistor 37.

The oscillators 23 to 26 are respectively connected through corresponding blocking capacitors 38 to 41 to the control grids of the valves 27 to 30; the anodes of the valves 27 and 29 are connected through a blocking capacitor 42 to the control grid of the valve 31', and the anodes of the valves 28 and 3d are connected through a blocking capacitor 43 to the control grid of the valve 32. The anodes of the valves 31 and 32 are connected to conductor 33 through a blocking capacitor 44.

The control grids of the valves 27, 28 and 31 are connected through respective leak resistors 45, 46 and 47, and through an inverter circuit 48, to the channel B output conductor 49 from the shaper 16. The control grid of the valve 32 is connected directly to this output conductor through a leak resistor 50. The control grids of the valves 29 and 34 are connected through respective leak resistors 51 and 52 to the channel A output conductor 53 from the shaper 13.

The inverter circuit 48 is a conventional circuit which produces at its output a potential of sign opposite to the potential applied to its input.

From Table I (Fig. 4), it will be seen that when the frequency fl is sent out by the transmitter, both channels are in the spacing condition, so a negative potential is applied to both conductors 49 and 53. Thus valves 29, 30 and 32 are all blocked, but valves 2'7, 28 and 31 are all unblocked, since the inverter circuit 48 applies a positive potential to the control grids. Hence only the oscillator 23 has connection to the output conductor 33 through the unblocked valves 27 and 31.

Thus the frequency supplied to the modulator 17 (Fig. l) is that indicated in the first line of Table III.

If the conditions set up in Fig. 3 corresponding to the transmitted frequencies f2, f3 and f4 be followed, it will be seen that in each case, the frequency supplied to the output conductor 33 is in accordance with Table Hi.

It will be understood that the voltages produced at the outputs of the shapers l3 and 16 may be given suitable values for controllingthe valves 27 to 32: in particular the two shapers should preferablyproduce equal voltages in this case, so the amplifier 12 in Fig. 1 may be omitted. Also, if necessary, conventional means (not shown) may be provided for appropriately biasing the cathodes of all the valves.

The principal advantage of the arrangement of Fig. 3 is that the four frequencies generated will be very constant if crystal controlled oscillators are used. When, as in Fig. 1, the frequency of a single oscillator is varied, the arrangement is inherently less stable.

The stability of the automatic frequency control arrangement of Fig. 1 can also be improved by reducing the output sideband frequency from the modulator 17 to 11 kilocycles per second, for example. The characteristic of the discriminator 21 will of course be modified accordingly, and the frequencies in the third column of Table III and in Fig. 3 will then be changed to 88.4, 88.8, 89.2 and 89.6 kilocycles per second. it will be understood, however, that any other convenient series of frequencies may be used in the arrangements of Figs. 1 and 3.

It will be evident to those skilled in the art that the automatic frequency control arrangements according to the invention may be easily applied to twinplex receivers of the kinddescribed in the article by Christopher Bufi referred to above, in which groups of filters are used instead of discriminators for translating the received fre quencies into the corresponding conditions of the two channels.

While the principles of the invention have been described above in connection with specific embodiments,

'and particular modifications thereof, it is to be clearly understood that this description is made only by way of example and notasa limitation on the scope of the invention.

What we claim is:

l. A receiver for a twinplex telegraph system in which signals, represented by the marking orspacing pulses of a first and a second telegraph channel, are simul' taneously indicated by one of four received carrier waves each having different frequencies comprising: frequency changing means to change said carrier frequency waves to waves of lower frequencies having the same frequency separations as do the frequencies of said carrier waves; a first discriminator for recovering from said lower frequency Waves the marking and spacing pulses representing the signals of said first channel; a second and a third 7 discriminator for recovering marking and spacing pulses of said second channel; a first and second gating means connected to the outputs of said second and third discriminators respectively; control means connecting the output of said first discriminator to said second and third gating means for selecting the marking and spacing pulses representative of signals of said second channel; and means for combining said last named marking and spacing pulses to reproduce the signals of said second channel.

2. A receiver for a twinplex telegraph system according to claim 1 in which said control means gates said first gating means with .controlvoltages of one polarity and gates said second gating means with voltages of the opposite polarity.

3. A receiver for a twinplex telegraph system in which signals, represented by the marking or spacing pulses of a first and a second telegraph channel, are simultaneously indicated by one of four received carrier waves each having different frequencies comprising: frequency changing means to change said carrier frequency waves to waves of lower frequencies having the same frequency separations as do the frequencies of said carrier waves; separate output circuits for said first and second channels; means for converting said waves of lower frequencies into pulses representing the signals of said first and second channels; means for directing said signal pulses into their' corresponding output circuits; control 'means comprises a first amplitude modulator, a first heterodyne oscillator connected thereto and means for controlling the frequency of said oscillator and wherein said control means comprises the combination of a second amplitude modulator and a second heterodyne oscillator connected 'thereto, means connecting said waves of lower frequency to said second amplitude modulator, means connected to said output circuits for combining the voltages of said signal pulses to produce a summation voltage, means controlled by said summation voltage and connected to said second heterodyne oscillator whereby the control frequency wave is maintained substantially constant, and means for applying said control frequency wave to said means for controlling the frequency of the first heterodyne oscillator.

5. A receiver for a twinplex telegraph system in which signals, represented by the marking or spacing pulses of a first and a second telegraph channel, are simultaneously indicated by one of four received carrier waves each having different frequencies comprising; frequency changing means to change said carrier frequency waves to waves of lower frequencies having 'the same frequency separations as do the frequencies of said carrier waves; separate output circuits for said first and second channels;

means for converting said waves of lower frequencies into pulses representing the signals of said first and second channels; means for directing said signal pulses into their corresponding output circuits, means connected to said output circuits for combining the voltages of said signal pulses to produce a summation'voltage;andmeans controlled by said summation voltage 'to-maintain, the frequencies of said lower frequency waves substantially independent of variations in the frequencies of the received carrier waves.

6. A receiver for a twinplex telegraph system according to claim 3 wherein said frequency changing means to change said carrier frequency waves to waves of lower frequencies comprises an amplitude modulator and a heterodyne oscillator and wherin said control means comprises a source of four heterodyning waves'of predetermined frequency, and selecting means connected between said output circuits and said source for connecting one at a time the heterodyning waves to said heterodyne'oscillator to stabilize the frequencies of said waves of'lower frequencies. r

7. A receiver for a twinplex telegraph system according to claim 6 wherein the selecting means comprises a plurality of gating circuits, means for deriving from said output cir uits'a control voltage having one of four different values and means to apply said voltage to said gating circuits to select one of said waves of predetermined frequency.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,752,344 Kelly Apr; 1, 1930 2,275,40l Norgaard Mar. 3, 1942 2,341,649 Peterson Feb. 15, 1944 2,629,776 Terry et al. Feb. 24, 1953 2,676,203 Phelps Apr.'20, 1954 7 2,701,276 Pletscher Feb. 1, 1955 2,736,021 Sunstein Feb. 2 1956

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1752344 *Nov 26, 1928Apr 1, 1930American Telephone & TelegraphReduction of atmospheric interference
US2275401 *May 18, 1940Mar 3, 1942Gen ElectricAmplifier
US2341649 *May 23, 1941Feb 15, 1944Rca CorpFrequency control
US2629776 *Mar 14, 1952Feb 24, 1953Int Standard Electric CorpTelegraph receiver
US2676203 *Sep 1, 1950Apr 20, 1954Bell Telephone Labor IncFrequency spacing in two-tone carrier system
US2701276 *Jun 6, 1952Feb 1, 1955Int Standard Electric CorpTwinplex telegraph signal receiver
US2736021 *Dec 24, 1953Feb 21, 1956 Signal integrating system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5051993 *Mar 30, 1989Sep 24, 1991Motorola, Inc.Mixed modulation level communication system
WO1990011675A2 *Mar 19, 1990Oct 18, 1990Motorola IncMixed modulation level communication system
Classifications
U.S. Classification370/297, 370/477, 370/298
International ClassificationH04L27/10, H04L27/16, H03J7/04, H03J7/02
Cooperative ClassificationH03J7/04, H04L27/16
European ClassificationH03J7/04, H04L27/16