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Publication numberUS2972975 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 28, 1961
Filing dateAug 25, 1958
Priority dateAug 25, 1958
Publication numberUS 2972975 A, US 2972975A, US-A-2972975, US2972975 A, US2972975A
InventorsWhite Effie E
Original AssigneeWhite Effie E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shipboard accommodations for mechanically refrigerated semi-trailers
US 2972975 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 28, 1961 SHIPBOARD ACCOMMO Filed Aug. 25,y 1958 E. WHITE REFRIGERATED SEMI-TRAILERS l @wvcey DATIONS FOR MECHANICAIQLY 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Feb. 28, 1961 REFRIGERATED SEMI-TRAILERS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug* 25, 1958 \NN NNN @uw NNN NNN WN NSN l Ck QfI/z W7 e er. Mas

Q www/zeg Feb. 28, 1961 E. E. wHl-r 2,972,975


Filed Aug. 2s, 195s, ser. Nn. 756,896

1 claim. (ci. 114-72) The present invention relates to a novel system of transportation for mechanically refrigerated semi-trailers of the tractor-trailer combination type wherein such semitrailers may be transported between widely separated geographical points by a combination of rail, truck and ship transpor-tation while maintaining the refrigeration v apparatus associated with such trailers in effective operation during the entire time that the trailers are in transit, p 4whether the same be mobile on the highway or immobile on arailway flatcar or on shipboard. The invention is specifically concerned with shipboard accommodations ,for such mechanically refrigerated semi-trailers whereby a vlarge number of such trailers may be loaded on the ldeck of a navigable vessel such as a freight carrying ship or freighter and transported on navigable waters with the refrigeration systems thereof functioning during the entire time that the trailers are on the departure or destination docks, or on deck both prior to sailing time and after ship arrival.

The total refrigerated cargo-carrying space available ,on any navigable vessel is necessarily limited inasmuch vas the entire space, whether whole or subdivided, must be completely enclosed, usually below deck. This fact, coupled with handlingcosts incident to the transportation of comestibles Vand other perishables to the loading dock in a refrigerated condition, the maintenance of refrigeradling cost incident to loading and unloading operations l is the cost of hoisting the fully loaded refrigerated Senli- .trailers and placing them on deck or removing them from the deck. Additionally, the maintenance of re- Vfrigerating facilities at the docks is limited merely to the accommodation of such perishables as are to be stowed in the ships refrigerated compartments. Still further, the shipboard accommodations afforded by the present `invention makes available refrigeration facilities on freight-carrying ships which otherwise have no refrigeration facilities whatsoever, as well as very materially increasing the refrigeration facilities of normally refrigerated cargo ships.

The present invention is designed to extend the range and usefulness of the system of refrigerated cargo transportation described in my copending application Serial No. 756,349, filed on August 2l, 1958 and entitled Traction Drive for Railroad-Transported Refrigeration Trailers (now Patent No. 2,926,505, dated March l,

.1960), `which system, itself, is designed to extend the fusefulness of freight transportation currently prevalent 'and known'as "piggy-back freight transportation. Such system involves Vscheduled operation whereby the railroad ICC will deliver a trailer to a shipper who, Iafter loading the trailer, engages a local contract hauler to transport the loaded trailer to the railroad freight terminal, utilizing a tractor or truck to haul the loaded trailer on the highway in the usual manner. By means of a special ramp, the railroad loads the trailer bodily with its contents on a railroad atcar with similarly loaded trailers, secures the trailer in position on the flatcar by special fastening devices, and transports the atcar by rail to the destination terminal. At this latter terminal, the trailer is removed bodily from the flatcar and transported on the highway by a second local contract hauler tothe consignees shipping room dock for unloading purposes. By such a system, the goods undergoing shipping remain in the same vehicle enclosure from the time of loading thereof to the time of unloading so that intermediate handling charges are completely eliminated. The system described in my copending application, above referred to, provides a means whereby -a source of power -for operating a mechanical refrigeration unit associated with a trailer may be made available during the time that trailer is mobile on a highway, thus making feasible the piggy-back transportation of comestibles or other perishable goods which require refrigeration in the same manner that non-perishable goods are transported in flatear-borne trailers. The system of the present invention makes available on board a navigable freightl carrying vessel such a source of power for the refrigeration units of mechanically refrigerated semi-trailers so that scheduled freight operation may be extended overseas or 'over navigable waters or, in other words, on a world-wide basis, while at the same time the advantages of increased cargo refrigerated space, elimination of individual cargo handling at the docks, and the elimination of refrigeration facilities at the docks for cargo which is awaiting stowing or loading as briefly outlined 4above are obtained.

The attainment of these advantages being among the principal objects of the present invention, numerous other objects and advantages, not at this time enumerated, will become readily apparent -as the following description ensues.

In the accompanying three sheets of drawings forming la part of this specification, one exemplary vform of the invention has been shown.

ln these drawings:

Fig. 1 is a fragmentary plan view of the forward or bow portion of a cargo ship embodying the principles of the present invention and having associated therewith accommodations for the maintenance of a plurality of mechanically refrigerated semi-trailers during ship movements between ports;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

. Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially along the line 33 of Fig. l;

Fig. 4 is a sectional View taken substantially along the line 4-4 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially along the line 5 5 of Fig. 2; and

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary plan View of a winch construction and certain power take-olf connections therefor employed in connection with the invention.

Referring now to the drawings in detail and in particular to Fig. l, the forward or bow portion of a cargo sh-ip has been designated in its entirety at 10 and includes a substantially flat deck 12 having conventional hatches 14 and 16 disposed substantially on the ship centerline. Disposed on opposite sides of the hatches 14 and 16 are a plurality of mechanically refrigerated trailers 18 o f the Vtion Apparatus.

vconnecting chain 66.

`wardly of the forwardhatch 14. This winch is, according to the present invention, employed in a manner subsequently to be described for supplying mechanical power for the opera-tion of certain refrigeration equipment associated with the various trailers 18. yEach trailer 18 is in the form of a conventional trailer vehicle which has been modified only to the extent that it embodies an internal refrigeration enclosure or compartment 19 within which comestibles or other perishables are adapted to be loaded.

vconstitutes -a bottom wall of the refrigeration enclosure `19. The trailer is provided with an underneath journal support 34 in which there is rotatably journalled the live axle 22, together with a dead axle 36, the live axle carrying wheels 38 and the dead axle carrying wheels 40. The various wheels have mounted thereon the usual pneumatic tires 42.

The component units 20 and 21 ofthe refrigeration apparatus have :been illustrated in Fig. 3 in schematic fashion, it being understood that this apparatus is of conventional construction, which is to say that it is of the condenser-evaporator-compressor type. The unit 20 includes 'the evaporator heat exchange device 44 and its associated impeller or fan 46, while the unit 21 includes a condenser 48 and compressor 50. An electric motor 52 is embodied in the unit 21 and has a motor shaft 54 operatively connected through a suitable clutch mechanism 55 by a belt land pulley arrangement 56 to the drive shaft 58 of the compressor 50. The motor 52 is adapted to be energized from an available source of electric current when the trailer is immobile at a terminal, railroad siding, garage, filling station, or other intermediate point in its itinerary. When the electric motor is not in use, lthe motor shaft 54 constitutes a power input shaft for the unit v21 from which the compressor shaft 60 may be driven through the previously mentioned belt and pulley arrangement 6 with the motor armature idling ineffeotively.

Itwill `be understood that various types of refrigeration apparatus may be employed for refrigerating the enclosure 19 and that the apparatus illustrated herein is purely exi empltary of one -form of 'apparatus which may be employed. For a more detailed illustration and description of the herein .schematically disclosed refrigeration apparatus, yreference may be had to a copending application of *Eldon F. Miller, Serial No. 449,120, filed on August 11,

1954 and entitled Motor Driven Vehicles With Refrigera- It is deemed suicient for purposes of disclosure herein to state that regardless of the specific form of refrigeration apparatus employed for refrigerating the enclosure 19, such apparatus will invariably be provided with an input shaft corresponding to the shaft 54 and by means of which shaft the compressor of the system will be driven, either directly or through a suitable power train.

Referring now additionally to Figs. 2 and 4, the live axle 22 is operatively connected in driving relationship to the input `shaft 54 of the refrigeration apparatus by means "of a chain and sprocket assembly including sprockets 62 and 64 on the shaft 54 and axle 22, respectively, and a lt will be seen from the above description that during travel of the trailer in transit on `a highway, the friotionally or tractionally driven wheels 38 on the live axle 22 will impart rotational motion to the axle which, in turn, will effect rotation of the refrigeration input shaft 54 through the medium of the chain and sprocket mechanism 62, 64, 66. By such an arrangement,

4 the refrigeration system may be maintained in eifective operation and the enclosure 19 refrigerated solely under the influence of forward motion of the trailer and entirely independent of any driving connection with the motivating vehicle or tractor.

In order that the refrigeration system of each off the trailers 18 may be operated while the same are positioned on the deck 12 of the ship 10 as shown in Fig. l, means are provided whereby the live axle 22 may be powerdriven by equipment on shipboard. Where dock facilities make available a suitable source of energizing current for the electric motor 52 of the refrigeration unit 21, the motor -may be energized from such source by means of a. suitable extension cord 68 which may extend to an electrical outlet `either on the dock alongside the moored ship or on board the ship when the latter has electrical facilities powered by shore installations. In such instances, the live axle 22 may either be disconnected from the power input shaft 54 or it may be allowed to idle in a manner that will be made clear presently. After the ship has left the dock and is in transit, the live axle 22 may then be positively driven by ships equipment.

Accordingly, the various trailers 18 are adapted to be belayed to the ships deck by means of chain and turnbuckle assemblies 70 fastened to the ends of the trailer decks and to the ships deck while at the same time the wheels 38 associated with the live axles 22 are tractionally supported in respective roller-cradle assemblies 72. When the refrigeration apparatus associated with the -various trailers 18 are electrically driven, the rollercradle assemblies 72 are adapted to idle to permit the wheels 38 to turn freely. However, when the ship is underway and current is no longer available for electrical operation of the refrigeration systems, means are provided for positively driving one or more of the rollers associated with the various cradle assemblies. More specifically, each roller-cradle assembly 72 involves in its general organization a pair of base castings 102 of identical construction which may be secured by anchoring screws 106 to the ships deck 12 and which is provided with inner and outer integral spaced parallel side flanges 108 and 110, respectively. The side flanges constitute journal supports for a series of three elongated, parallel, horizontally extending, drivingly interconnected traction rollers 112, 114 and 116 (see also Fig. 4). Each roller is in the form of a shaft having reduced ends 118 rotatably journalled in roller bearings 120 mounted in the outside anges and having reduced medial portions 122 rotatably journalled in roller bearings 124 mounted in the inside flanges 108. The various bear- I ings y and 124 are removably mounted in position on their respective supporting anges 108 and 110 by means of cap members 126 (Fig. 5) removably secured to the flanges 108 and 110 by means of cap screws 128. One end of the roller 112 projects outwardly as at 129 beyond the adjacent side of the base casting 102' for power coupling purposes, as will be described subsequently.

To provide a cradle effect, the axes of the three rollers 112, 114 and 116 extend in parallelism on centers which are arranged in arcuate fashion circumferentally on an arc having a radius of curvature approximately equal to the overall radius of the trailer wheels includ- 'ing the tires 48 thereon when the latter are inated.

The distance between the side anges 108 and 110 of each base casting 104 is somewhat greater than the overall width of the dual-wheel assemblies embodying the wheels 318 and 36 so that the trailer 10 maybe supported on the deck 12 with the Ifour wheels 38 cradled so to speak, tractionally on the three rollers 112, 114 and 116 and with the treads of the various tires 42 making tangential contact with all three rollers as best seen in Fig. 4. In order to enhance the frictional or tractional engagement between the tire treads and rollers, each roller may be provided with an encompassing sleeve or sheathe in vertical register with each wheel 38.

The three rollers 112, 114 and 116 are drivingly interconnected. "Accordingly, a first chain and sprocket assembly 132 extends ybetween the rollers 112 and 116 and includessprockets connected'by a chain. A sec ond chain andisprocket assembly 134 extends between the rollers 112. and 114 and includes sprockets connectedby a chain. The projecting ends 129 of the various rollers are adapted to be selectively coupled to a pair of line shafts 154 and 156 which extend longitudinally of the deck 12 on opposite sides of the hatches 14 and 16 and which are capable of being driven from the power-driven winch installation 17 in a manner that will now be described in detail.

The winch installation 17 which, as previously described, is adapted to supply mechanical power for operating the refrigeration equipment associated with the various trailers 18, may be of any suitable construction and in the form in which it is somewhat schematically illustrated in Fig. 1, it comprises a winding shaft 160 rotatably journalled in spaced bearing cage supports 162 bolted as at 164 to the ships deck 12. The shaft 160 carries a winch drum 165 medially thereof. 'I'he opposite ends of the shaft 160 are coupled through suitable clutch devices 166 with shaft extensions 168 rotatably journalled in the bearing cage supports 162 and each shaft extension has mounted thereon a bevel gear 170 which meshes with a smaller bevel gear 172 mounted on one end of a short idler shaft 174 rotatably mounted in a bearing support 176 secured as at 178 to the deck 12. Ihe other end of the idler shaft 174 is operatively connected through a chain and sprocket assembly 180 with the forward end of one of the line shafts 154 or 156, as the case may be. The winding shaft 160 is adapted to be driven by steam or diesel power derived from a suitable engine or motor positioned on or below deck with the power being transmitted to the shaft 160 through a worm and worm wheel assembly including a worm 182l mounted on a drive shaft 184 extending through the deck 12 and a worm wheel 186 carried by the shaft 160.

The two line shafts 154 and 156 are supported for rotation about respective longitudinally extending axes a slight distance above deck level and each line shaft is rotatably carried in spaced bearing supports 190 lixedly secured to the deck 12 by clamping screws 192. The particular extent of the line shafts 154 and 156 may vary for different installations, depending upon the number of semi-trailers 18 to be served thereby. In the present instance, the starboard and port line shafts are each designed to accommodate the servicing of two of the trailers 18.

Slidably disposed on each'line shaft between adjacent bearing supports 190 is a bevel gear 194 (Fig. 2) which meshes with a similar bevel gear 198 mounted on a transverse shaft 200 rotatably mounted in a bearing support 201 secured tothe deck 12. The inner end of the shaft 200 is operatively connected by means of a coupling device 202 to the projecting end 129 of the roller 112 as- 'Sociated with one of the rollercradle assemblies 72.

The various bevel gears are adapted to be secured in an axially adjusted position by means of set screws 203.

As shown in Fig. 3, each trailer 18 is provided with a hoist chain 204 carrying a hoist ring 206 in the bight portion thereof and by means of which the entire trailer and its refrigerated contents may be lowered onto or removed from the ships deck 12, utilizing a suitable hook 208 associated with a crane or other hoisting device. When not in use, the chain may be stored within the trailer or secured to the outside of the trailer body in any suitable manner. Immediately after a given trailer 18 has been lowered into operative position on the deck 12 with the four wheels 38 associated with the live axle 22 in position within one of the cradle assemblies 72 and with the tires 42 in tractional engagement with the three rollers 112, 114 and 116, a temporary securing of the trailer may be effected by passing a pair of securing chains 210 over the live and dead axle 22 and 36 and anchoring the ends of the chains to suitable lugs 212 on the base castings 102. This securing means may remain effective while the ship is at the dock and before the ysame Sails. At ship departure time, the chains 210 may be removed and the chains 70 secured in position Kas previously described. A magnetic wheel block assembly including electromagnetic blocks 214 and an armature 216 may likewise be employed to assist in anchoring the trailer in position up until departure time. A conventional jack 218 serves to support the forward end of the trailer 18 at al1 times while the latter is on the deck 12. To still further stabilize the trailer body, as well as to prevent free rotation of the floating wheels 40, clamping devices 220 in the form of rim clamps having block portions 222 and c-ap portions 224 are secured by clamping screws 226 to the base portion 104 of the base casting 102.

During operation of the refrigeration system, when any given trailer 18 in the series is being serviced under the influence of current supplied to the electric motor 52 through the line extension 68, the wheels 38 on the live axle 22 may be allowed to run free within the cradle assemblies 72 by disconnecting the adjacent mating gears 194 and 198 and removing the clamping chains 210. For driving the live axle 22 of any given base casting 102 to effect tractional driving of the wheels 38 of the associated trailer 18, the adjacent mating gears are brought into register by sliding the gear 194 into meshing engagement with the gear 198 and locking the gear 194 in position on the line shaft by means of the set screw 203. Thereafter, the corresponding clutch device 166 may be engaged and a driving train will extend from the winding shaft of the winch assembly 17 through the clutch 166, shaft 168, gears 170, 172, shaft 174, chain and sprocket assembly 180, shaft 154 or 156, as the case may be, and gears 194 and 198 to the driven roller 124 of the roller-cradle assembly 72.

While the invention has been described in terms of certain preferred embodiments which it may assume in practice, it is not intended that the -same shall be limited to the specific construction of the embodiment shown nor otherwise than by the terms of the claim herein appended.

Having thus described the invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

In a navigable vessel having an exposed deck provided with -a deck winch having a rotary winding shaft, the axis of which extends horizontally and transversely of the ship centerline, means for rotating said winding shaft, a line shaft mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis above the level of said deck, a plurality of power take-off devices positioned along said line shaft, a power train operatively connecting said winch winding shaft and line shaft in driving relationship, a clutch device interposed in said power train, a plurality of motor vehicle trailers supported on said deck, each trailer having a traction wheel operable upon rotation thereof to eifect rotation of the power shaft of a refrigeration unit associated with the trailer, a pair of spaced bearing supports, one for each trailer, mounted on said deck, a roller cradle extending between said bearing supports and including three spaced parallel horizontally extending traction rollers each having its ends rotatably journalled in said bearing supports respectively, said three rollers including a medial roller disposed at a relatively low elevation and a pair of end rollers disposed at elevations higher than said low elevation, said rollers, in effect, providing a wheel-receiving trough therebetween in which a traction wheel of one of the trailers is adapted to seat whereby rotational movement of said one traction roller will effect rotation of said traction wheel, said rollers having. their respective axes arranged in circumferential fashion about a central axis which is spaced from saidA .roller axes a distance substantially equal to the diameter ofV the traction wheel, and anchoring means for xedly supporting said trailer in position on said supp0rt ing deck against shifting movement in any direction thereon with the traction Wheel thereof in frictional Contact with each of said traction rollers.

References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Brush Aug. 13, 1940 Kaloshin Nov. 23, 1943 Lovfald Nov.'28, 1944 Miller Dec. 24, 1944 Tiiany Feb, 5, 1952 White Mar. 1, 1960

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2210896 *Oct 5, 1934Aug 13, 1940Manvel Brush GrahamRailroad car refrigeration
US2334932 *Nov 1, 1941Nov 23, 1943Andreievich Kaloshin DmitriBoat
US2363797 *Oct 16, 1940Nov 28, 1944Peer LovfaldUnit loading cargo vessel
US2365830 *Sep 27, 1943Dec 26, 1944Miller Otto HBoat operated by motive vehicle
US2584242 *Jan 7, 1948Feb 5, 1952Tiffany Daniel WarrenRefrigerating system for trailers
US2926505 *Aug 21, 1958Mar 1, 1960Effie E WhiteTraction drive for railroad-transported refrigerator trailers
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3964418 *Mar 6, 1974Jun 22, 1976Karnik Stanley DFloating campground
US6601976 *Aug 9, 2000Aug 5, 2003Thin-Lite CorporationSnap assembled light fixture apparatus
EP0018661A1 *May 5, 1980Nov 12, 1980G + H MONTAGE GmbHCargo ship provided with decks and refrigeration system, and trailers therefor
WO2006045124A1 *Oct 20, 2005Apr 27, 2006Rooyen Morne Inus VanA towed vehicle
U.S. Classification114/72, 62/240, 290/1.00R, 290/4.00R, 62/239, 62/242
International ClassificationB63J2/00, B63J2/12
Cooperative ClassificationB63J2/12
European ClassificationB63J2/12