|Publication number||US2973293 A|
|Publication date||Feb 28, 1961|
|Filing date||Nov 9, 1956|
|Priority date||Nov 16, 1955|
|Publication number||US 2973293 A, US 2973293A, US-A-2973293, US2973293 A, US2973293A|
|Inventors||Schofield Philip John|
|Original Assignee||Ici Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (26), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 28, i961 P. J. scHoFlELD 2,973,293
LIQUID FUEL CONTAINERS Filed Nov. 9. 1956 FIG. I,
INV ENTOR BYJWWMW ATTORNEYS LIQ FUEL CONT RS Philip John Schofield, Wolverhampton, England, assigner to Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, London, England, a corporation of Great Britain This invention is concerned with liquid containers and is more specifically concerned with lightweight fuel containers particularly for use in aircraft.
Hitherto, ultra-lightweight fuel containers have generally been composed of layers of textile fabric and of fuel-impervious polymeric substances,` for example `Synthetic rubber-like compositions, the said layers being firmly bonded together to produce a finished construction having the desired degree of flexibility, mechanical strength and permanence of properties when in contact with the fuel. In addition, when the fuel container is to be used in aircraft the materials employed in the construction thereof are required to maintain their properties over the range of temperature and other conditions to which the aircraft will be subjected.
The present invention is addressed to the problem of producing a lightweight fuel tank which will exhibit the above-mentioned and other desirable properties to a high degree.
According to the present invention a liquid container is made from material having a structure comprising a layer of a nylon or a modified nylon, and a layer of fuel-resistant rubber-like material which is bonded thereto and which is reinforced by a textile fabric layer of close-weave or knitted construction composed of yarns impregnated with a fuel-resistant rubber-like material. Preferably the nylon or modified nylon layer is itself reinforced additionally to the reinforcement provided by the close-weave fabric.
The reinforcement of the nylon or modified nylon layer may be achieved by means of a textile fabric layer of open Weave or knitted construction impregnated with a fuel-resistant rubber-like material and bonded to the surface of the nylon or modified nylon layer opposite to that joined to the layer of rubber-like material.
The liquid container is constructed from the material according to the .desired shape and in such a way that the nylon or modied nylon layer is disposed on the inner or liquid side of the container, thereby acting as the main fuel barrier.
One important advantage of the constructional material of the invention is that the nylon or modified nylon layer is separated from the reinforcing fabric of close- Weave or knitted construction by means of the intermediate layer of the rubbery material. There results a considerable improve-ment in the resistance of the material to damage upon bending as compared, for example, with those constructional materials in which the nylon or like material is allowed to extend into the interstices of a fabric of close and relatively rigid construction. rhe ability of the material to iiex without damage is further enhanced by the presence of the rubbery substrate for the nylon or modified nylon layer which has a cushioning effect thereon. These features also contribute to the very good low temperature performance of fuel containers made from the material.
The essence of the invention may be understood from a consideration of the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a section of the material which is reinforced internally by an open-weave fabric. In this Figure i, on the inner or liquid side, is the open-weave fabric, and the layers 2, 3 and d are respectively nylon or modified nylon, rubber-like substance, and close-weave fabric.
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a liquid fuel container 5 of simple form, having a portion of a Wall removed to illustrate the construction thereof.
The nylons or modified nylons used accordingr to this invention are, respectively, those polyamides which are readily soluble or which have been so modified chemically as to become readily soluble in common organic solvents e.g. alcohol or aqueous alcohol and which have good film forming properties and resistance towards hydrocarbon liquids and vapours. Suitable examples of modified nylons are the alkoxy-alkyl polyamides, particularly the alkoxy-methyl polyamides described in British Patent No. 573,482, N-methoxy-methyl-polyhexamethylene-adipamide being especially useful.
The material used for the intermediate layer between the main fuel barrier and the reinforcing fabric of close construction is a fuel-resistant rubber-like substance. Suitable examples of such material are those compositions having a basis of polychloroprene or copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile and containing suitable plasticizers and other additives. Especially outstanding are those compositions having a basis of the butadieneacrylonitrile copolymers which are available commercially under the name Hycar OR 15 or Hycar OR 25.
The word Hycar is a registered trademark. The fuel-resistant rubbery polyesters or polyester-amides may also be used as the intermediate layer.
The textile fabrics used according to the present invention are those composed of fibers appreciably resistant to the solvents used in depositing the various polymeric substances thereon. They may be those containing fibres of synthetic linear polyamides such as, for example, nylon and Perlen or fibers of aromatic polyesters such as are formed from terephthalic acid and glycols, e.g. polyethylene terephthalic. Of particular suitability are those fabrics formed from Terylene polyester fibre. The word Terylene is a registered trademark. Fabrics composed of fibres of polyacrylonitrile, glass fibres or fibres of regenerated cellulose may also be used. Fabrics containing natural fibres having the requisite properties are also useful, for example those containing silk fibres or cellulosic fibres.
The open construction fabric used according to this invention is of sufficiently open weave or stitch to permit the bonding of the said fabric to the rest of the material to be effected by the passage of the bonding solution through the said fabric. Furthermore, being of such open construction, it is capable of fiexure along with any bonding material remaining in its interstices and so does not give rise to embrittlement of the material in this region. ln the case of woven fabrics, a leno weave has been found to be very suitable for this purpose while at the same time providing sufficient reinforcement of the modified nylon layer. Open construction fabrics of nylon or Terylene polyester fibre having a weight per square yard of the order of 1.5 ozs. are especially suitable.
The fabric having a close-weave or knitted construction is particularly intended to contribute to the mechanical strength of the material and its resistance to abrasion and may be, for example, a plain woven fabric. Fabrics having very good puncture and tear resistance are preferred. Good results are obtained with plain woven nylon or Terylene fabrics having a weight per square yard of about 4 ozs.
The weight per unit 4area of the fabrics used for the n Y 3 u respective layers in the material is chosen in accordance with the functional requirements described while being compatible with production of fuel tanks of very low Weight. The numerical values given are, therefore, not limitingnor is it excluded from the invention to produce a tank from material having local variations as to the fabrics used where such variations are advantageous.
In order to prevent leakage of the fuel in the container by the passage thereof along the yarns of the reinforcing fabrics, such phenomenon being termed Wicking, the said fabrics are impregnated, before incorporation in the material, with a fuel-resistant rubbery material so as to fill the spaces between the component filaments in the yarns but, especially in the case of the open fabric, leaving the spaces between individual yarns unfilled.
This fuel-resistant rubbery material may conveniently be of the same type as that used in the intermediate layer of fuel-resistant rubber-like substance.
'In the manufacture of the constructional material, the
Particularly good results are obtained with the product sold commercially as Vulcafor VCC (registered trademark). The fabric is thus impregnated with an organic solvent solution of the anchoring agent, preferably containing some of the synthetic rubber. Alternatively the anchoring agent and the synthetic rubber may be deposited in the fabric successively in that order from separate solutions. After evaporation of the solvent the main rubbery layer is built up by coating the treated fabric several times on one side with a concentrated solution of the rubber, drying after each coating application. The modified nylon layer is then deposited over the main rubber layer by a series of coatings with a solution, for example, an aqueous alcoholic solution, of the modified nylon the first few coating solutions containing a suitable bonding agent to facilitate adhesion between the rubber and the nylon.
Again, the solvent is removed by evaporation after each coat has been applied. The nylon or modified nylon layer may be very efficiently bonded to the rubbery material by means of the bonding agents described and claimed in British Patent No. 654,331 and employed in the manner described therein. Examples of such bonding agents are the N:Nbis(acetoacetyl), N:N'bis(carbethoxyaceto acetyl)-, N:N'-bis(or:a-dicarbethoxyacetyl), N:N'bis- (diacetoacetyl), N:N bis (carbethoxyacetobutyryl)-, N :N'-bis (a wdicarbethoxybutyryl) N Nbis (carbethoxyacetyl), and N:Nbis(oc-benzoylacetoacetyl)-hexamethylene diamines or -cyclohexyl diamines or -toluylene diamines and similar NzN:N"-tris-substituted-toluylene triamines.
The fabric-polymer assembly obtained at this stage is then doubled on to the open-weave or knitted fabric with the modified nylon layer in contact with the said fabric, the latter having been previously impregnated with a solution of the anchoring agent containing some of the synthetic rubber as described above for the close-Weave or knitted fabric. The open-Weave or knitted fabric may advantageously be a leno weave Terylene fabric in which case Vulcafor VCC may be used as the anchoring agent.
The components doubled together are then bonded by the application through the open Weave or knitted fabric of a solution of modified nylon, for example, in aqueous alcohol, and containing the bonding agent. Final coatings may then be applied from a solution of the modified 4 nylon alone. The drying out of the coatings at all stages described is effected under mild conditions of temperature, for example up to about C. The curing of the rubbery material is carried out at temperatures of the order of 125 C. after fabrication of the container from the material.
One embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example in which a Woven nylon fabric is used as the close-weave component forming the outer fabric ply and a woven Terylene fabric is used as the inner or fuel side fabric ply of the tank material. Compositions are given in terms of percentage by weight based on the weight of the mixture or solution.
Example A plain woven nylon cloth having a weight of 4 ozs. per square yard is impregnated with mixture A, a composition consisting of 84.9% of methyl ethyl ketone, 3.5% of Vulcafor VCC and 11.6% of a curable composition containing Hycar OR 25, dibutyl phthalate and conventional additives, so as to give, after evaporation of the solvent, an increase in Weight of 2.9 lbs. per square yards of fabric.
The main rubbery coating is then Iapplied on oney side from mixture B, a composition containing 58% of methyl ethyl ketone and 42% of the above mentioned curable Hycar composition, until an increase in weight (dry) of 23.5 lbs. per 100 square yards of fabric is obtained.
The modified nylon layer comprising the main fuel barrier is then deposited on the main Hycar coating, bonding being obtained by a layer deposited from solution A, containing 57.2% of ethanol, 9.8% of water, 12.3% of methyl ethyl ketone, 4.6% of N:Nbis(carbethoxy acetoacetyl)-cyclohexyl-diamine and 16.1% of N-meth- Oxy-methyl-polyhexamethylene adipamide, a dry Weight increase of 1.7 lbs. per 100 square yards of fabric being obtained. The remaining portion of the main nylon layer is deposited by successive applications of solution B, containing 58.4% of ethanol, 10% of water, 12.6% of methyl ethyl ketone and 19.0% of N-methoxy-methylpolyhexamethylene adipamide, the weight increase at this stage ybeing 12.5 lbs. per 100 square yards of fabric.
A Terylene leno fabric having a weight of 1.5 ozs. per square yard is impregnated with mixture A, described above, until the increase in weight (dry) is 0.6 lb. per 100 square yards of fabric. The treated leno fabric is then doubled to the modified nylon face of the treated nylon cloth and bonded thereto by the application of solution A, described above. The application of solution A takes place through the open weave of the Terylene fabric. Dry Weight increase at this stage is 2.5 lbs. per 100 square yards of Terylene fabric.
A further coating is then applied with solution B, giving an increase in weight (dry) of 3.0 lbs. per 100 square yards of fabric.
In one method of constructing a tank according to the present invention the material is cut to the desired shape using 1 inch overlap seams and tailoring with notches Where necessary to form double curvature. The material is advantageously bonded at the overlap by means of adhesives based on elastomeric polymers such as polyesters, polyester-amides or polyamides (cross linked with poly-isocyanates), butadiene/ acrylonitrile or polychloroprene with or without modifying resins such as, for example, phenol/formaldehyde or terpene/phenolic products.
Where tailoring has occurred, the cut edges are painted with the adhesive and then with nylon solution to secure the fibre ends. The area around the cut is coated with a fast curing Hycar cement, and a Hycar coated nylon fabric, e.g. one having a weight of 1.8 ozs. per square yard, is applied over the area. The fast curing Hycar cement may be one based on Hycar OR 15 plasticized With dibutyl phthalate and containing zinc isopropyl xanthate and diethylammonium diethyl dithiocarbamate as accelerators, and other additives.
The external surface of the Hycar coated nylon fabric applied to the area around the cut is then coated with a slow curing Hycar cement followed by coatings with modified nylon solution and linally coated with an adhesive of the type described above for the bonding of the overlap. The slow curing'Hycar cement may be one based on Hycar OR 25 and comprising dibutyl phthalate, a vulcanisation retarding agent and conventional additives. The outer surface of the seamed areas are then treated with the slow curing cement and `a layer of the Hycar coated nylon fabric is applied to the treated areas using the above mentioned adhesive.
The completed tank is dried in an oven at 60 C. for 16 hours and then cured for 2 hours at 125 C.
While the liquid containers of the present invention have been described with particular `reference to their use for containing fuel, their use is not so limited. The containers are equally suitable for containing a variety of oily and hydrocarbon materials, for example edible oils and some solvent type liquids, such as methanol.
What I claim is:
1. A laminated structure comprising a closely constructed textile fabric, a layer of curable elastomeric material bonded to said fabric, a layer of fuel resistant polyamide material bonded to said elastomeric material layer, and a layer of loosely constructed textile fabric bonded to said polyamide material layer.
2, A laminated structure as defined in claim 1, in which said polyamide material is an alkoxyalkyl polyamide.
3. A laminated structure as defined in claim 1, in which said elastomeric material comprises butadieneacrylonitrile copolymers.
4. A laminated structure as defined in claim 1, in
which each of said textile fabrics comprises bers of synthetic linear polymeric material selected from the group consisting of nylon and polyethylene terephthalate.
5. A liquid container comprising .a closely constructed textile fabric layer, a layer of fuel resistant elastomeric material bonded to the inside of said fabric layer, a layer of fuel resistant polyamide material bonded to the inside of said elastomeric material layer, and a reinforcing layer of loosely constructed textile fabric bonded to the inside of said polyamide material layer, said reinforcing layer constituting the innermost layer of said container.
6. A liquid container as defined in claim 5, wherein said inner textile fabric comprises fibers of synthetic linear polymeric material selected from the group consisting of nylon and polyethylene terephthalate, and is a leno weave fabric having a weight per square yard of the order of 1.5 oz.
7. A liquid container as deined in claim 5, wherein said closely constructed textile fabric comprises bers of synthetic linear polymeric material selected from the group consisting of nylon and polyethylene terephthalate, and is a plain weave fabric having a weight per square yard of the order of four ounces.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,616,116 De Salamanca Feb. 1, 1927 2,440,965 Merrill et al. May 4, 1948 2,594,235 Taylor Apr. 22, 1952 2,672,902 Prager Mar. 23, 1954 2,786,792 Mikiska Mar. 26, 1957 2,802,763 Freedlander Aug. 13, 1957 2,816,055 Semegen et al Dec. 10, 1957
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|U.S. Classification||428/340, 442/243, 428/475.8, 428/476.3, 428/480, 220/905, 280/830, 442/38, 428/500, 222/106, 428/475.2, 428/341|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S220/905, B64D2700/62324, B64D37/02|