US 2973593 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 7, 1961 F. L. ZELLNER EI'AL 2,973,593
AUTOMATIC CONTROLS FOR DIRT MOVING MACHINES 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Oct. 9, 1957 INVENTORS FLOYD L. ZELLNER HAROLD F.
GREEN ATTORNEYS March 7, 1961 F. L. ZELLNER EI'AL 2,973,593
AUTOMATIC CONTROLS FOR DIRT MOVING MACHINES Filed Oct. 9, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS FLOYD L. ZELLNER 32 HAROLD F. GREEN BY v ATTORNEYS March 7, 1961 F. L. ZELLNER ET AL AUTOMATIC CONTROLS FOR DIRT MOVING MACHINES Filed Oct. 9, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTORS ZELLNER F.
FLOYD L. HAROLD GREEN ATTORNEYS U ited states P efito AUTOMATIC CONTROLS FOR DIRT MOVING MACHINES Floyd L. Zellner, 16642 Inter-lake Ave., Seattle, Wash., and Harold F. Green, Rte. 1, Box 264, Austin, Tex.
Filed Oct. 9, 1957, Ser. No. 689,192
1 Claim. (Cl. 37144) This invention relates to automatic controls for dirt moving machines, and is particularly adapted to be used in connection with bulldozers, scrapers and the like.
The primary object of this invention is to provide means including a high frequency electro-magnetic wave for controlling the depth of cut of a dirt moving blade operated over an area of ground to be levelled. A further object of this invention is to provide a method of controlling the depth of cut of a blade by a high frequencyelectro-magnetic wave or the like to obtain a very accurate control automatically. In the operation of this device, the wave is revolved on a 360 degree horizontal circle-from a reference shelf or given point, at the rate of approximately one rotation every two seconds. By revolving the wave at this rate, it is possible to operate the control mechanism on the machine for raising or lowering the blade in the'levelling of the ground, without excessive operation of the controls.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a control of the class described above having means to broadcast a high frequency electro-magnetic wavehaving a relatively shallow depth, but with a relatively fan shaped broad wave area giving a time delay effect on the receiving equipment for a longer positive action on the controls.
One of the outstanding features of the method of con trolling the depth of a dirt moving blade is the hunting action of the receiving set in following the elevation of the wave in its rotation on a horizontal plane, giving an accuracy far beyond human ability. 1
Other objects and advantages will become apparent in the following specification when considered in the light of the attached drawings, in which:
Figure l is afront elevation of the sending device for broadcasting a high frequency electro-magnetic wave.
Figure 2 is a side elevational view of the device shown in Figure 1, shown partially broken away and in section for convenience of illustration.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary enlarged detail sectional view-of the collector ring assembly taken on line 3-3 of Figure 2 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Figure 4 is a horizontal section taken on line 4-4 of t Figure 3 looking in the direction of the arrows.
' Figure 5 is a front elevation of the receiving device which is located on the blade of the dirt moving machine. Figure 6 is a side'elevational view of the device illustrated in Figure 5 illustrating the working elements associated therewith. r
1 Figure 7 is a plan view of the sending device located on a reference shelf and the receiving unit located on the blade of the dirt moving machine. e Figure 8 is a side view of Figure 7, of both the sending and receiving device, illustrating the operation of the high frequency electromagnetic wave.
Figure 9 he fragmentary elevational detail view, illustrating how the receiving device is mounted to a bulldozer blade.
Figure 10,is a fragmentary enlarged sectionalview of Patented Mar. 7, 1961 7 to be controlled.
Figure 13 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken on line 1313 of Figure 6 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Figure 14 is a fragmentary horizontal section taken on line 14-14 of Figure 13 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Figure 15 is a diagrammatical sectional view, in symbol form, of the hydraulic control valve for raising and lowering the blade.
. Referring now to the drawings in detail wherein like reference characters indicate like parts throughout the several figures, the reference character S indicates generally a high frequency electro-magnetic wave sending device and a receiving device located on a dirt moving blade B is indicated by the letter R. The sending device S consists of abase 20. Vertically and rotatably mounted is of .the worm reduction type, driven bya motor 23.
' The upper end of the shaft 21 is journaled within the bearing 24 of the pedestal 25. Fixedly mounted to the upper end of the shaft 21, referring to Figure 10, is the wave sending reflector 26. A hollow casting 27 is fixedly secured to the shaft 21 and locked thereto by the set screw 28, while the reflector 26 is fixedly secured to the casting 27 at 29.
' Extending forwardly from the center of the reflector 26 is a bracket 30, having an upwardly offset terminal end 31 to hold dipole antennas 32. The bracket 30 is preferably made of an insulating material, such as plastic or the like. Electric wiring 33 leads from the dipole antennas 32, down through the pipe 21 and into an electric oscillating unit 34, referring to Figures 2 and 11'. This oscillator 34 is supported by a bracket 35. 1
.In order. to get electric energy into the oscillator 34, electric conducting brushes36 and 37 are fixedly mounted within an insulating plate 38 fixedlysecured to the hollow housing 39, which in turn is fixedly secured to the lower end of the shaft 21 by any suitable means.
.A contact 40 and collector ring 41 are embedded withina' base 42 formed of electrical insulation material. The base 42 is fixedly secured to a sub-base 45 of the base 20 of thesending unit S. As the motor 23 revolves the shaft 21,. a constant electric connection is maintained between the supply lines 44 and the oscillator 34.
The sender S emits waves 45 on a horizontal plane.- A plan'view of these waves 45 is indicated in Figure 7, showing the fan shape thereof. The waves 45 are heavily concentrated on or adjacent the horizontal center line 46, The waves 45, as shown in Figure 7, are caused to fan out by the shape of the shield 26 caused by cutting the sides 47 of the shield 26 back as indicated in Figure 1.
In the operation of the sending device S, it is desirable to rotate the wave 45 on a radial plane approximately one revolution in two seconds. The object of causing thewave 45 toqfanoutis'that it will give it sufiicienttime to effeca motor 52. The vertical shaft 49 is further supported by a bearing 53 located in the upper end of a pedestal 54.
Receivers 55 and 56 are mounted vertically of the shaft 49 by fittings 57. Transverse wave receivers 58 and 59 are fixedly secured to and supported on a transverse hollow cross bar 60 forming part of the vertical hollow shaft 49. The object of the hollow cross bar 60 is. to permit the passage of electric conductors therethrough from a brush assembly 61, which is fixedly secured to the lower end of the shaft 49 by its hub 62, referring particularly to Figure 13.
Brush assemblies 63, which contact the collector rings 64, are mounted within an insulated base 65 mounted on a sub-base 66 attached at 67 to the base 48.
The motor 52 revolves the vertical shaft 49 so as to direct the receiving units 55, 56, 58 and 59 toward the wave sending device S above described. A wave deflecting shield 68 is mounted forward of the receiving units 58 and 59 as seen in Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Referring to Figure 12, a bulldozer blade is indicated by the letter B and is pivotally mounted to a tractor T at 74. A hydraulic dozer blade actuator cylinder 69 is pivotally connected to the dozer blade B at 70 at its lower end and has its piston rod connected to the arch 71 forming part of the tractor T. Hydraulic leads 72 and 72 extend from the cylinder 69 to a control valve 73.
Referring to Figures 12 and 15, the operation of the hydraulic control valve 73 will now be described. The control valve 73 is shown in closed position, which will prevent the movement of the piston within the cylinder 69, holding the blade B in a definite fixed elevation.
The valve 73 receives its hydraulic fluid through the pipe 75 and delivers fluid to the upper end of the cylinder 69 through pipe line 72 and to the lower part of the cylinder 69 through pipe line 72', either end of the cylinder 69 being exhausted through a pipe line 76 back to the source of fluid supply.
The valve 73 is operated by an electromagnet 77 in the following manner.
The spiral or core 78 is revolved about its center by the lever 79. The lever 79 is held in the position illustrated in the drawings by the action of the centering springs 80, and is moved in either direction by the electromagnet 77 through a connecting link 81, which is pivotally connected to the end 82 of the lever 79.
The sending station S is located on a reference shelf adjacent or on the field to be levelled, the receiving unit R is manually rotated so that the receiving units 55 and 56 are directed in the general direction of the sending station S. This is first done by the operator manually revolving the vertical shaft 49, so that these units are in the proper position. From this point, the same will be directed to the sending units S automatically in the following manner. I
Referring to Figure 7, when the receiving units R are revolved to the position shown, the wave deflecting shield 68 will prevent the waves 45 from reaching the receiving units 58 and 59. When neither of the units 58 or 59 is receiving the wave 45, the reversing motor 52 will be at a standstill.
In the movement of the tractor T over the area being levelled, the receiving set R is revolved and the receiving units are shifted to either one side of the wave 45 or the other, the reflector 68 will permit the Waves 45 to enter either one of the receiving units 58 or 59, which will set up the following action. Referring to Figure 12, an in terlocking relay 83 is connected to the receiving units 58 and 59, and to the battery 84 and to the reversing motor 52.
The battery 84 supplies energy to the pivotally mounted contact bars 85 and 85. The bars 85 and 85' are pivotally mounted at 86 and are held together toward one another by a spring 87. Stationary contact bars 88 and 88 are connected to the relay magnets 89 and 89 by conductors 90 and 90'. The magnets 89 and 89 are in 4 turn connected to amplifiers 91 and 91' by conductors 92 and 92'.
The receiving units 58 and 59 are connected to the amplifiers 91 and 91 by the conductors 93 and 93'. The reversing motor 52 is connected to the contact bars 94 and 94 by conductors 95 and 95'. The contact bars 94 and 94 receive electric energy to operate the motor 52 through a conductor 96 from the battery 84.
The operation of the reversing motor 52 will now be described. When the waves 45 from the sending station S pass by the shield 68, it closes an electric circuit in one of the receiving units 58 or 59, depending on which has been uncovered by .the shield 68.
We will assume that the unit 58 has been uncovered and the waves 45 pass the shield 68 into contact with the unit 58. Electric energy will flow from the battery 84, through the conductor 96 into the pivotally mounted contact bar and due to the fact that a closed circuit has been made through the receiving unit 58, electric energy will flow from the contact bar 85 into the stationary contact bar 88, conductor 90, into the solenoid 89, through the conductor 92 and into the amplifier 91, completing a circuit through the conductors 93 into the receiving units .58.
The amplifier 91 will amplify the current from the receiving unit 58 caused by the wave 45, which will be suflicient to operate the solenoid 89 and move the pivotally mounted contact bar 85 into contact with the stationary contact bar 94, causing electric energy to flow from the battery 84, conductor 96, through the bar 85, contact bar 94, conductor into the motor 52 and back to the battery 84 by way of the ground. This will rotate the vertical shaft 49 so as to again align the receiving units above described in the general direction of the sending station S. When the same has aligned itself, the deflecting shield68 will break the above described electric circuits, stopping the motor 52.
In the event that it is desired to operate the motor 52 i in the opposite direction for correcting the position of the receiving units in regards to the sending station S, the receiver 59 will cause the motor 52 to run in the opposite direction by the action of the interlocking relay 83. The receiving set R is now in a position to raise or lower the blade B by means of the hydraulic cylinder 69 in the following manner.
As the wave 45 is rotated through the receiving units R, approximately once every two seconds, the center line 46 of the wave 45 will pass through the receiving units on a horizontal plane and it will operate either the receiving unit 55 or 56, which will either raise or lower the blade B in the following manner.
We will assume that the blade B is running too low and should be raised, the receiving units 55 will be caused to operate by the wave 45, the wave 45 being closer to this receiving unit while passing by the receiving station R. When the circuit is completed within the receiving units 55, energy will flow from the battery 84, through the conductor 97, into the pivotally mounted bar 98 of the interlocking relay 83', through the con doctor 99, solenoid 100, conductor 101, amplifier 102, conductor 103, through the dipole antennas 104 of the receiving unit 55.
By the energizing of the solenoid 100, the bar 98 will be moved to contact the stationary contact bar 105, which will deliver energy from the battery 84, conductor 97, contact bar 98, contact bar 105, conductor 106 into the winding 107 of the electromagnet 77. This will pull the core in the direction of the arrow, moving the lever 79 and valve 73, referring to Figures 12 and 15, so as to deliver fluid from the delivery pipe 75 through the port 108 of the valve 73 into the pipe 72' to the lower end of the cylinder 69, which will raise its piston, together with the blade B, until the receiving unit 55 is raised sufficiently high above the wave 45 to again allow its circuit to be opened, which will allow the centering should be lowered, the receiving unit 56 would be oper ated, which would operate the valve 73 in the opposite direction by the action of the winding 109 within the electro-magnet 77, which will move the core 78 in the opposite direction, causing fluid to flow through the pipe line 72 into the upper end of the cylinder 69, causing the blade B to be lowered.
By following out the electric circuit it will be seen that the pivotally mounted bar 98 would have been moved by the solenoid 110, being energized by the wave 45 closing a circuit through the receiving unit 56.
From the above description of the operation of this new and improved method of controlling the depth of dirt moving blades, in their operation by a high frequency electro-magnetic wave or the like, it can be readily seen that the wave 45 is operated on a predetermined horizontal plane and a receiving device R is mounted upon the blade B of the dirt moving machine, and the receiving device R always attempting to find the wave 45 in its operation, thereby raising or lowering the blade B.
- structural modifications and adaptations may be resorted to without departing claim. 2
What is claimed is: A remote control for a vertically adjustable dirt moving blade having power means for adjusting the blade from the scope of the appended vertically comprising a stationary sending device for transmitting a high frequency electro-magnetic wave, a shield on said sending device restricting said wave into a relatively thin horizontal form having a generally fan-shaped plan area, meansfor rotating said sending device to rotate saidwaves around said sending device, an upright shaft mounted on said dirt moving blade for rotation about a vertical axis, a motor connected to said shaft for rotating said shaft, a pair of horizontally spaced receivers mounted on said shaft and controlled by said wave controlling said motor for rotating said shaft and directing said receivers toward said stationary sending device, a pair of vertically spaced receivers mounted on said shaft and movable therewith, said vertically spaced receivers and said horizontally spaced receivers facing the same direction, a V- shaped deflector positioned forwardly of said horizontally spaced receivers, the arms of said deflector diverging outwardly from said shaft whereby said horizontally spaced receivers are shielded when said vertically spaced receivers are aligned to be energized by said wave, means connecting said vertically spaced receivers to said power means for adjusting the blade vertically whereby said blade is adjusted when one of said vertically spaced receivers is energized by said wave.
Stewart et a1. Dec. 15,