US 2974723 A
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March 14, 1961 R. w. BLANCHARD EVAPORATING NOZZLE FOR A LIQUID FUEL BURNING TORCH Filed Dec. 2'7, 1955 INVENTOR ROSWELL W. BLANCHARD 4 #1 I K i ATTORNEY United States Patent EVAPORATING NOZZLE FOR A LIQUID FUEL BURNING TORCH Roswell W. Blanchard, Fitchburg, Mass, assignor to Worcester Taper Pin Co., Worcester, Mass.,'a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Dec. 21, 1955, Ser. No. 555,508
a Claim. or. 158-214 This inventionirelates to a new and improved liquid fuel burning torch, and the principal object of the invention resides in the provision of a greatly simplified and I much more eflicient evaporation means for liquid fuel such as gasoline, kerosene, etc. in the nozzle of the torch. It has been proposed in the prior art to provide various mechanical means in an attempt to increase the degree of ev-aporization of "liquid fuels by providing sinuous and tortuous passages in the nozzle in order .to increase the evaporating surface therein. The, present evaporation surface in any torch of the class described.
A further object of the invention resides in the provision of a new and improved nozzle for a liquid fuel burning torch as above described, said nozzle comprising a solid body of porous sintered metallic finely divided material forcing a combined gas such as oxygen and a liquid fuel such as gasoline or kerosene to traverse the 3 solid porous nozzle in order to arrive at the burning orifices, whereby the liquid fuel iscompletely'evaporated and provides the best possible burning flame whether the torch is to be used for cutting or welding.
Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. l is a section through the hand and nozzle of a torch according to the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a section on line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Figs. 3 and 4 are enlarged sections on the respective lines in Fig. l; and
Figs. 5 and 6 are sectional views illustrating modifications.
Only so much of the torch is illustrated herein as is necessary for an understanding of the present invention. As is well known in this art, there are many examples of liquid fuelburning torches, of which examples are Browning PatenLQNo. 1,879,789 and Miller et 'al. No. 2,362,213.
Referring now to Fig. 1, the reference numeral 10 indicates the head of the torch in which is arranged a passage 12 for the combined liquid fuel and a low-pressure gas such as for instance oxygen. There is also a Other objects and advantages of the invention will appassage as at 14 for a high-pressure gas such as oxygen.
2,974,723 Patented Mar. 14, 1961 "ice The tip 16 is in the form of a cylinder or bullet-shaped hollow member which is provided with corresponding passages aligning with that at 12 and 14. The nozzle 16 has a flange 20 by which it is secured to head 10 by a cooperating flanged nut 22. Interposed between the head and nozzle tip is a block 23 which may be separate or integral with the base of the nozzle.
In order to provide the greatest possible evaporating surfaces for the liquid fuel within the nozzle, this invention contemplates the provision of a solid porous member completely filling the evaporation chamber which comprises the hollow within the nozzle or tip 16. This solid material is indicated generally at 24 in Fig. l, and it comprises a sintered metallic core or body, individual particles of which are extremely fine and are preferably made of bronze or the like to prevent rust. Any other metal would be advantageous also in the evaporation of the liquid fuel. This core is represented in the drawings on an exaggerated scale since the metallic particles are so small that the core 24 upon examination by the unaided eye appears almost to be nonporous as well as solid; but by reason of the fact that the small metallic particles are spherical, it will be seen that upon sintering they become brazed to each other as is best illustrated in Fig. 3. Wherever the metallic balls or like elements touch each other, they become brazed together, and this leaves an enormous numberof small minute passages which extend tortuously from end-to-end, and also of course laterally, of the solid body 24.
In turn, this means that the largest possible evaporation surf-ace is provided for receiving the flow of the liquid fuel as at the entrance passage 26 in block 23, and this in turn means that at the orifices 18, the liquid fuel will be very highly evaporated or gasified and will be in such an extremelyfinely divided state as to burn with a maximum. of efliciency, so that there is substantially no vided with an annular passage 28 surrounding the base of the solid core 24 and thus equalizing the entrance pressure of the liquid'fuel and low-pressure gas evenly about the entire base of the solid core 24. i
. The high-pressure gas in passage. 14 passes directly through the core by reason of the provision of a centrally elongated tube 30 which provides the central pas sage therefor. However, this central passage could be a cored hole without the sleeve 30 as is indicated at 32 in Fig. 5 without departing from the invention, and the high-pressure gas will still exit through its own orifice 34in the tip of 'the nozzle.
In the event that it is desired to cut by means of the flame, the high-pressure oxygen is used, but Where Welding or brazing is to be done, the high-pressure oxygen is cut off as by means of the conventional valve provided therefor and not herein shown. However, if it is desired to provide a special nozzle tip merely for welding or brazing, the sintered solid porous core may emit the central passage provided by sleeve 30 and cored hole 32, and thus it may be solid from side-to-side thereof as shown at 36 in Fig. 6. In this case, the low-pressure gas and liquid fuel enter as before at passage 26 but the highpressure fuel is completely cut off and is not utilized at all. v
This inventionprovides the maximum evaporation surface that is possible for a torch of the class described and thereby the liquid fuel is extremely efficiently vaporized and issues from the orifices 18 in a gaseous state, providing for complete burning of the fuel with no unburned particles or soot being formed. The liquid fuel and low-pressure gas are of course intimately mixed by reason of the. extremely great number and irregularities of the passages from end-mend of the core as deamass scribed above, and this together with the maximum vaporization surface created by the large number of individual metal balls provides the optimum inburning efficiency of the liquid fuel, and eliminates flash baclg. I
Having thus described my invention and the advantages thereof, I do not wish to be limited to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than as set forth in the claims, but what I claim is:
1. Apparatus for spraying a liquid in substantially gaseous form comprising a shell-like nozzle tip having separated entrance and exit orificm, a source of liquid and gas under pressure, means conducting the liquid and gas to the nozzle tip through the entrance orifice, and a finely divided porous material substantially filling the nozzle tip, the porous material being composed of a plurality of relatively small metallic sintered ball-like elements.
2. Apparatus for vaporizing a liquid comprising a hollow nozzle tip, a source of gas under pressure, a source of liquid, means conducting the gas and liquid to the nozzle tip, and a relatively finely divided porous solid material substantially filling the nozzle tip, the latter having an exit orifice, and the liquid and gas entrance to the nozzle tip being located at a point remote from the orifice so that the liquid and gas traverse the material to reach the orifice, said material comprising a relatively large number of small ball-like sintered metallic elements fixed together and providing many small sinu ous passages therethrough.
3. Apparatus for vaporizing a liquid comprising a nozzle tip, a source of gas underpressure, a source of liquid, means conducting the gas and liquid to the nozzle tip, and a relatively finely divided porous solid material substantially filling the nozzle tip, the latter having an exit orifice, and 'the'liq'uid and .gas entrance to the-nozzle tip being located at apoint remote from the orificeso that the liquid and gas traverse the material to reach the orifice, said material comprising a relatively large number of small ball-like elements fused together into a fixed mass.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 including an unimpeded passage through the porous material leading to the exit orifice for additional fluid at the orifice. 1
5. Apparatus of the class described comprising an elongated "hollow nozzle tip, a source of gas under'pr'ssure, a source of fluid, means conducting the gas and fluid to the nozzle tip at one end thereof, a relatively finely divided porous solid material substantially filling the nozzle tip, the latter having an exit orifice, and the fluid and gas entrance to the nozzle tip being located at a point remote from the orifice 'so that the'fluid and gas traverse the material to reach the orifice, said material comprising a number of small metallic elements sintered into asolid mass. v g
6. The apparatus of claim 5 including an unimpeded central gas passage through the porous solid mass, and a separate g'as entrance and orifice for said gas passage.
7. The apparatus of claim 5 including an unimpeded central gas passage through the porous solid mass, and a separate gas entrance and orifice for said gas passage, said fluid and gas entrance including an annular groove about the gas entrance end of the tip.
8. Apparatus for vaporizing a liquid for a liquid burning torch comprising a hollow tip, sources of gas and liquid, means conducting the same to the nozzle, a vaporiz-ing member in the nozzle, said vaporizing member comprising a body of solid material, said body being provided with a plurality of tortuous relatively small irregular passages extending continuously from end to end thereof, said passages being adapted to conduct combined gas and fluid the length of the nozzle, said body of solid material comprising sintered metal powder.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 188,322 Watkins Mar. 13, 1877 664,762 Kit'son Dec. 25, 1900 1,197,503 Land Sept. 5, 1916 Oct. 24, 1,269,282 Howard June 11, 1918 1,991,638 Suuderman Feb. 19, 1935 2,352,213 Miller et a1. Nov. 7, 1944 2,551,114 Goddard May 1, i951 FOREIGN PATENTS 116,259 Great Britain Jan. 27, 1919 339,307 Great Britain Dec. 4, 1930