US 2977271 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 28, 1961 w. J. LUTWACK 2,977,271
METHOD OF MAKING LAMINATED PROTECTIVE BOOK COVER Filed Dec. 51, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 March 28, 1961 w. J. LUTWACK 2,977,271
METHOD OF MAKING LAMINATED PROTECTIVE BOOK COVER Filed D60. 31, 1956 v 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 jiizang ATTOR VEYQ such protective vbook cove United States Patent METHOD OF MAKING LAMINATED PROTECTIVE BOOK COVER Wilton J. Lntwack, 701 Seneca St., Bulfalo, N.Y.
Filed Dec. 31, 1956, S21. N0. 631,520
2 Claims. (Cl; 154-118) strength and is highly resistive to moisture, seufling and p abrasion, and another layer or lamina of high quality paper having high tear and burst strength and minimum hygroscopicity and on which can be printed school or fraternal insignia and advertisements as well as the guide lines for facilitating the application of the cover to'different size books. The present method is also particularly directed to such a protective coverin'which the back binding of the book is clearly visible through the protective cover, the protective cover having a central trans parency or window for this purpose and which window is reinforced by another inside layer of transparent sheet material 7 t This application is a continuation in part of my copending application for Book Cover, Serial No. 423,704, filed April 16, 1954, now abandoned.
One of'the principal objects of the present invention is to provide such process in which' the resulting product is of high quality, strength and durability and in particular is adequately reinforced at the points particularly subject to: wear in 'a book cover of thischaractu. i
Another object is to provide such a method of making ;Another object of the invention'is to. feed the various materials in such manner as 'to insure proper register 'with one another and thereafter to'rearrange the parts to provide thecent'ral transparency or window. K i
Another object is to provide su chi a process by which rs withwindows can be produced at low cost.
m nimu m- Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and drawings in which: I
Fig, 1 is a diagrammatic vertical section through apparatusf designed to carry out the process forming the subject of the present invention.
Fig; 2 is a fragmentary top plan view of the'apparatus r viewed from line 22, Fig, 1,
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary vertical section taken generally' Fig 4 is an enlarged plan view of the outside or obverse faceflofa strip of uncutJbook covers made in accordance with the present invention, a part of the outer transw parent layer or lamina being adhesive coated, side;
Fig; 5 a" similar view of the reverse sidethereof,
I binding ofthebook;'- are; their other two edges spaced 2,977,271 Patented Mar. 28, 1 901 ICC , 2 -a part of the inner transparent layer or reinforcing strip being turned'back to exposeits adhesively coated side.
Fig. 6 is a vertical transversesection through the book cover as shown in Figs. 1 and '3, this section being taken on lines 5-5,' Figs. 1 and 3.
The product of the present invention is a laminated or multi-ply foldable and creasable book cover in the form of a sheet cut from a composite strip 8 along lines 9, 10 to produce the finishedproduct which has a rectangular outer layer or lamina 11 which is clearly transparent and which extends as a single layer to cover the back binding and front and rear covers of a book (not shown) as well .as to fold around the rim portions of the front and rear covers. In the laminated book cover shown this transparent layer 11 is stopped short of the right and left hand extremities of the laminated cover so as to leave an extension 12 of the intermediate paper layer or lamina 13 exposed at each right and left hand extremity of the laminated cover to permitof ready. writing on a paper exposure. These extensions 12 also provide a better grip of the laminated .cover on the book. The outer lamina 'or layer. 11 in addition to the quality'of clear transparency also preferably provides a smooth and glossy exterior surface which is highly resistive to the effects of moisture including perspiration as well as rain andis also highly This outer layer or lamina 11 is united by a layer; of
adhesive 14' to the layer 0f paperj13 The paper layer '13-is composed of two rectangular sections 13a and 13b "spaced from each other, as indicated at 15, along that portion of the book cover which overlays the back bind- 'ing of' the book. The clear transparent central portion or window 15 of the laminated book cover preferably extends from the upper edge 9 of the laminated book cover to the lower edge 10 as shown. The intermediate'paper layer 'or lamina 13 is preferably a high finish, tub-sized,
sixty-five'pound moderate'soft, bleached, white sulphate .ands ulphite paper in the order of .005 inch thick.
"Each of the paper sections 13 a and 13b of the laminated book cover has imprinted thereon guide lines for facilitating the application of the laminated book'cover 'to books of different sizes, these printed guide lines being provided by applying printing to the paper sheets. 13.
These guidelines comprise an upper series 16a of parallel Ilmesspaced from and parallel with the upper edge9. of
the book cover, a lower series 16b of parallel lines close to and parallel with the lower edge 10 of the book cover;
another series 18a of parallel'lines close to and parallel with the left band edge of the book cover; and another series of parallel lines I8biclose to and parallel with the right handedge of the book cover. ,At the crossovers of the lines l'6 a and'16b'withthe lines 1811 and 18b these lines can be formed into squares, as shown, each side=of which squares forms a continuation of a corresponding guide line. Particularly for appearance additional lines 19a, 19b are provided parallel with the window 15 at the sides thereof. p.
The paper parts 13a and 13b of the laminated book cover are each shown as having two edges 9,. 10 in register with the corresponding upper and lower edges of the-outer transparent layer 11; two edges spacedfromleach -other to provide the transparency or window 15 acrossthe 'b:a ck
ferably, of course, clearly transparent. strip can also be made of cellulose acetate but can be of shown).
'beyond the corresponding edges of the outer transparent layer 11 so as to provide the writable spaces 12.
The book cover also includes a transparent reinforcing .strip v20 applied as the innermost lamina or layer of the book cover, an important feature of the product being that this innermost lamina or layer is applied to the adhesive 14 of the outer transparent layer 11-and also to the inner faces of the two paper sections 13a and 13b along the, opposing or adjacent edges of these paper parts thicker or thinner gage, say .001 inch thick to impart to the laminated cover, in combination with the outer layer 11, the requisite strength and resistance to tearing at the back binding of the book, particularly at the hinges for the covers of the book. Since transparency is not a factor, any suitable adhesive can be used as the ad- .hesive layers or stripes 21.
The adhesive 14 is applied to one face of the outer transparent layer 11 while this outer layer is still in the form of a long sheet or strip. This-outer layer or strip,
for the carrying out'of the present process, is supplied in the'form of an unwind roll 11a on a shaft 25 which can be rotatably mounted in any suitable manner (not The width of the strip 11 on this unwind roll "11a is equal to the width, from right to left, of the fin- Iislied book covers less the paper extensions 12 thereof and from this unwind roll the strip 11 is fed under a holddown roll 26 and over the upper surface of a glue roll 28 and thence under another holddown roll 29, these rolls rotating with the strip 11 passing among them. The glue roll 28 dips into a body 30 of adhesive shown as contained within a tank 31. The adhesive used is, of
course, transparent in its final state and can be a polyvinyl acetate modified with either alkyd resins or plasticizers such as esters of phthalic acid or both. The glue ,roll 28. picks up a layer of this adhesive and applies it to the understide of the strip llof transparent cellulose .acetate passing over and in contact with this glue roll.
From the holddown roll 29 the continuous strip of 4 43 and so that the edges 9, 10 of these sheets of paper 13 are-in abutting relation to each other.
The belts 43 are shown as travelling around end rollers 46, 48 and the belts 43 are shown as being four in number and spaced to provide a relatively wide space 49 at the center of the four belts.
After being so fed onto the upper stretches 43a of the endless belts 43 toprovide a moving row of paper sheets the first step in the separation of each paper sheet 13 into its sections 13a and 13b. This can be effected in any suitable manner as by the rapidly rotating circular blade 50 shown which is. arranged with its edge projecting downwardly into the center of the relatively wide central space 49 between the central pair of belts 43. This blade is shown as being mounted on a bracket 51 depending from the lower end head of an electric motor 52 which drives the blade 50 and this motor is shown as being fixed to a cross bar 53 which bridges the conveyor The ends of the cross bar 53 can be supported belts 43. by vertical angles 54 suitably secured to the frame or bed 55 of the conveyor belts 43.
After the successive cutting of each sheet 13 of paper into its sections 13a and 13b these sections are then separated from each other the distance required to provide the proper width of the transparency or window 15 in the finished book cover. This is shown as accomplished by a wedge-shaped stationary blade or plow 56 which is suspended from a pair of cross bars 58 which bridge the conveyor belts 43 and which have the-ends supported on the bed 55 in any suitable manner. This plow 56 has its pointed end 59 directed toward the rotary cutter blade 50and the horizontalwidth of this plow is equal to the desired width of the transparency or window 15 of the finished book cover.
The narrow intermost reinforcing strip 20 of cellulose acetate is preferably also supplied in the form ofa large unwind roll 20a on a horizontal shaft 60 which is rotatably mounted. From the unwind roll 20a this strip 20 transparent cellulose acetate 11 is shown as passing upwardly and over a roll 33 which feeds this strip 11 horizontally into a drying tunnel. 34. This drying tunnel is shown as being in the form of a. horizontally elongated .rectangularenclosure. having an inlet opening 35 at the .end thereof adjacent the feed roller 33 and having an opposite outlet opening 36. The enclosure 34 is provided with an air inlet 39 at one end andv an air outlet 40 atv its opposite end. The air supplied to the drying tunnel 34 through the inlet 39 is preferably heated to a temperature of from 180 to 200 F. and the length of travel through the tunnel 34 is sufiicient to properly condition the adhesive for heat application to the paper 13. This paper is supplied in the form of printed sheets 13 :v/it'hi'ts side sections 1311 and 13b'joine'd together, that a is, the paper sheet of each book'cover is in the form of a single printed sheet of paper. These sheets of paper "113 are s-hown as being arranged with their obverse or printed side face up in a stack 41 mounted on a plat-- form 42' which'can be moved vertically so that the uppermost sheet 13 of the stack 41 is always in line with the upper stretches 43a of a group of endless conveyor belts 4-3. Any suitable means can be provided for feeding'a succession of paper sheets 13 on to the upper :stretches 43a, a frictional pushing device 45' being shown forthis purpose, this pushing device being reciprocated horizontally and elevated from the paper stack on its return stroke and being synchronized to, feed the paper.
sheets 13*successively ontothe upper stretches of the belts tank 64 in any suitable. manner.
The width of each of the glue wheels 62 is preferably equal to the width of the stripes of adhesive 21 applied to the strip 20 as shown at the turned back part of the strip, Fig. 5. The spacing of these glue wheels 62 is equal to the spacing 22 between the stripes of adhesive 21. It will therefore be seen that the spaced glue wheels apply a pair of stripes of the adhesive 21 to one face of the reinforcing strip 20 as best shown in Fig. 3.
The numeral 70 represents an internally heated metal drying roll having its bottom. part arranged generally in line with the upper stretch 43a of the endless conveyor 43 at the discharge end thereof. This roll is heated to a temperature of'from about to 200 F. The numeral 71 represents a resilient pressure roller pref erably of rubber or the like arranged directly below the heating roll 70 and parallel therewith. These rolls 70, 71 are rotated at the same peripheral speed as the rate of 'travel of the transparent strips 11 and 20 and the sheets 13 of paper.
The strip 11 of transparent cellulose acetate from the outlet roll 38 is shown as moving downwardly around the heated upper roll 70 with its non-adhesive-coated face coming into contact with the periphery of this heated roll. The strip 20 leaving the holddown roll 65 is shown as travelling upwardly and with its non-adhesive-coated face coming in contact with the resilient pressure roll 71.
The two rows of sections 13a and. 13b of paper are fed into the bite of the rolls 70,.71 and are so positioned by the plow 56 that the opposing edges of. the paper sections 13a and 13b come into register with. the opposing edges of the stripes, of glue 21. In' passing between the rolls 70, 71'these paper sections 13a, 13b are pressed into contact with the adhesives 14, 21 of the transparent strips 11, 20 so as to be reliably adhered thereto. The printed or obverse face of each paper section 13a, 13b is adhered to the full transverse area of the strip 11 except for the space which provides the window 15 at the back of the book cover and this space is bridged by the central portion 22 of the back strip 20 which portion is unprovided with adhesive 21. It will accordingly be seen that in passing between the rolls 70, 71 the central portion 22 of the. back strip 20 is adhered directly to the other strip 11 of cellulose acetate by that portion of its adhesive 14 which is intermediate the rows ofpaper sections 13a, 13b, and it will further be seen that this backing strip 20 is further adhered to the reverse or back sides of the rows of paper 13a and 13b by the stripes of adhesive 21.
From the rolls 70, 71 the composite strip so formed passes between a pair of resilient pressure rolls 73, 74 and thence the composite strip is rolled up into a windup roll 75 supported by a rotating axle 76. The composite strip is permitted to normalize or cure for a period of about twenty-four hours to permit the parts to obtain dimensional stability. Following such aging the windup roll 75 can be unrolled and cut along lines 9, to provide the finished book covers.
Operation In carrying out the invention the unwind roll 11a of strip cellulose acetate of a width preferably somewhat less than the overall width of the book covers is fed over the glue roll 28 which applies a layer of adhesive, such as the modified polyvinyl acetate described, to one face of the strip 11 following which the strip passes through the drying tunnel 34 where the adhesive is modified for pressure and heat application to paper. The paper is fed to the adhesivecoated side of the strip 11 in the bite 72 between the heated roll 70 and the pressure roll 71. This paper is supplied in the form of a stack 41 of the sheets 13 from which a succession of sheets are fed in'a row in edge-to-edge relation onto the upper stretches 43a of the endless conveyor belts 43 by the feeding device 45. It will particularly be noted that these sheets 13 from the stack 41 are fed with their obverse or printed sides up and that each sheet 13 is in one piece, that is, not divided into the separate sections 13a and 13b as.in the final product. It will further be noted that these sheets 13 are fed sidewise onto the upper stretch 43a and in centered relation thereto. Accordingly when the row of sheets 13 successively encounter the cutting blade 50 they are divided into the two rows of sections 13a and 13b as best shown in Fig. 2. i i
The two rows of sections 13a, 13b then encounter the point 59 of the stationary plow 56, this point 59 entering the slit or cut just produced by the rotary cutter blade 50. Accordingly the row of sections 13a is separated from the row of sections 13b the exact distance required to provide a window of the desired width, this being the width of the plow 56. The two rows of paper section 13a and 13b continue with the endless conveyor until they reach the bite 72 where their printed faces are brought into contact with the adhesive -14 on the cellulose acetate strip 11. In passing between the heated roll 70 and the pressure roll 71 a uniform and bubble free union is obtained between the paper sections 13a, 13b and the transparent strip 11 except, of course, at the space 15 which separates these sections 13a from the sections 13b.
To bridge this space and greatly increase the overall strength of the protective cover at the hinged joints for the book, the narrow strip of cellulose acetate being unwound from the unwind roll 20a has two stripes 21 enters the bite 72 with these two stripes in register with the underfacesof the rows of paper sections 13a, 13b
. 6 and with its unglued space 22 in register with the space between these two rows of paper sections 13a and 13b. Accordingly the stripes 21 of adhesive are pressed into firm contact with the reverse faces of the paper sections 13a, 13b whereas the central portion 22 is pressed into firm contact with the adhesive coated portion of the front cellulose acetate strip 11.
In this condition the composite strip is passed between the pair of pressure rolls, 73, 74 following which it'is wound up on the windup roll 75. The composite strip is maintained in the form of the windup roll 75 for a suflicient length'of time to enable the strip to normalize and obtain dimensional stabilization of they components. On being unwound the composite strip is cut transversely along the lines 9, 10 to provide the completed book cover.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the present invention provides a very simple and trouble-free process for producing a very strong, high quality, high strength, scuff resistant protective book cover having a central transparency or window registering with the back of the book to which it is applied.
I claim: I
1. The method of making laminated protective book covers adapted to fold around the back and covers of a book and having transparent centers through which the back of the book is visible, which comprises arranging a succession of individual disconnected rectangular paper sheets in centered relation in a row with their advancing and trailing edges in edge-to-edge abutting relation with one another, moving said row longitudinally, cutting the sheets in said moving row along a line extending lengthwise of said row to provide two moving rows of sections of said individual disconnected paper sheets, separating said two moving rows of sections bodily apart to provide a space therebetween of predetermined width and bounded by opposing edges of said two rows, applying a transparent adhesive to substantially the entire surface of one face of a relatively wide first strip of transparent sheet material, moving said first strip longitudinally along with and in face-to-face contact of its said one face with said two rows of sections and with the longitudinal central portion of said first strip bridging said space and being provided with said adhesive on its said one face, moving a second relatively narrow strip of transparent material longitudinally along with and in face-to-face contact with said one face of said first strip along said longitudinal central portion thereof to provide a double thickness of transparent material at said space, and transversely cutting both of said transparent strips along the advancing and trailing edges of said sections of said paper sheets.
2. The method of making laminated protective book covers adapted to fold around the back and covers of a book and having transparent centers through which the backs of the book is visible, which comprises arranging a succession of individual disconnected rectangular paper sheets in centered relation in a row with their advancing and trailing edges in edge-to-edge abutting relation with one another, moving said row longitudinally, cutting the sheets in said moving row along a line extending lengthwise of said row to provide two moving rows of sections of said row to provide two moving rows of sections of said individual disconnected paper sheets, separating said two moving rows of sections bodily apart to provide a space therebetween of predetermined width and bounded by opposing edges of said two rows, applying a transparent adhesive to substantially the entire surface of one face of a relatively wide first strip of transparent sheet material, moving said first strip longitudinally along with and in face-to-facecontact of its said one face with said' two rows of sections and with the longitudinal central width than said' spacelongitudinally along with audio o face-to-face contact with said-one face of said first strip along said longitudinal central portion thereof to provide a-double thickness of transparent material at said space with the longitudinal sides of said second'strip projecting beyond said space into face-to-face contact with said two rows of sections of paper sheets, applying two lines of adhesive to the faces of said longitudinal sides of said second strip before being brought into contact with said two rows of sections of said paper sheets to adhere said second strip of said sections of said paper sheets and transversely cutting both of said transparent strips along the advancing and trailing edges of said sections of said paper sheets.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Allen. Dec. 17, 1929 wSussman Dec. '8, 1942 'Russell Apr. 18, 19.44 ,Bergstein Mar. 4, 1952 Brody June 9, 1953 Hoag Dec.,13,,1955 Ware Dec. 4, 1956 Magnuson Dec. 4, 1956 Carver Apr. 9, 1957