US 2977434 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 28, 1961 w. sHANAHAN r 2,977,434
DECODING Filed April 5, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 .S 5 R 2 0 n Mr W m m n 4 WA 0 W E n 2 H T a! m m MW M 5F s J. 0 I. Mr: N MM a u 0 A 7 UM m 0 w C m R I F Y B L COLJ MAY 2| 7:30PM
MAY 22 9:00PM
MOVIE: CEILING ZERO MAY 20 8:00PM
@MUSIG! SYMPHONY March 28, 1961 w. J. SHANAHAN ETAL 2,977,434
DECODING Filed April 5, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 I Q2 35;: mozmm; N Q9 8 NN\ BN3 W: V n m I n r 1 1 I I lIL V ATTORNEYS March 28, 1961 w, H N H N rAL 2,977,434
DECODING 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed April 5, 1955 WM WH V4 m H 5 J M m L n W R/UHARD E VETTER TTORNEYS United sates Patent DECODING William J. Shanahan, Long Island City, and Richard F.
Vetter, St. Albans, N.Y., assignors to Skiatron Electronics & Television Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Apr. 5, 1955, Ser. No. 499,462
14 Claims. (Cl. 200-46) This invention relates to scrambled television and particularly to decoding apparatus and cards therefor.
In the co-pending applications of William J. Shanahan, Serial No. 255,555, filed November 9, 1951, Serial No. 316,485, filed October 23, 1952, and Serial No. 481,423, filed January 12, 1955, and co-pending applications of William J. Shanahan et al., Serial No. 418,642, filed March 25, 1954, and Serial No. 481,425, filed January 12, 1955, there are generally described televising and receiving systems wherein an unauthorized receiver displays a scrambled picture unless a proper decoder is used with the receiver. Exemplary circuitry is shown in the abovementioned co-pending applications for accomplishing the scrambling of the televised signal in two or more modes, and receiver circuits for unscrambling the televised signal are also illustrated and described therein.
In each of these systems one method of unscrambling a televised signal is by use of a business or record card having circuits thereon, such as printed circuits. The card is inserted in a decoding unit and the printed circuits complete the necessary circuits of a switching matrix. Along the edge or elsewhere on the card are discrete conductive areas which may be interconnected by conductive lines drawn from one to another across the top thereof. The number of conductive areas required for a card of this type is large since the conductive printed circuits cannot be physically crossed over other conductive printed circuits.
The present invention provides means for obviating the necessity of crossing conductive lines on decoder record cards and has for its main object the provision of a record card which may provide a large number of conductive areas.
Another object of this invention is to provide means for permitting a record card to be utilized for a great number of programs.
Another object of this invention is to provide a record card for a plurality of programs and a corresponding number of sets of conductive areas interconnected by conductive lines.
Another object of this invention in conjunction with the preceding object is division of said sets of conductive areas into groups so that at least one group of each set is common to two sets of conductive areas.
Another object of this invention is the provision of means to position a multiple program record card in a decoder accurately.
Another object of this invention is to provide a record card with means to sense mutilation of the card and particularly of undesirable circuits thereon.
Another object of this invention in conjunction with any of the above objects is to provide means to receive and hold the record card and means to contact the card at conductive areas related in position to the programs being viewed.
Further objects and the entire scope of the invention will be part expressed and in part obvious from the ice following detailed description of illustrative embodiments of the invention and from the appended claims.
The illustrative embodiments of the invention to be described may best be understood with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein: A
Figure 1 illustrates decoding apparatus employing a record card;
Figures 2A and 2B show one embodiment of a partial record card utilizing both faces of the card according to this invention;
Figure 3 shows a partial view of decoding apparatus similar to that in Figure 1;
Figures 4A and 4B show another embodiment "of a partial record card utilizing both faces of the card;
Figures 5A and 5B illustrate exemplary contacts for use with a record card as in Figure 4B;
Figure 6 shows exemplary circuitry for employ-ing a record card and contacts as in Figures 4B and 5B, respectively;
Figure 7 illustrates card mutilation means;
Figure 8 is an expanded view of a part of Figure 53 further including mutilation sensing means;
Figures 9, 10, 11 and 12 each show means to cause proper positioning of a record card in a decoder.
Referring now to Figure 1, there is shown an exemplary decoding apparatus. The decoder 20 may have narrow apertures 22 and 24 on opposite sides for the passage'therethrough of a record card 26. Upon inserting the card into aperture 22 the card eventually comes into contact with rubber wheels 28, which hold the card against the upper surface of the decoder 20 and prevent its furthermovement towards the outgoing aperture 24. However, the rubber wheels 28 are interconnected by axle 30 which may extend outwardly of the decoder 20 and have a thumb wheel 32 connected thereto. For further insertion of the card, the operator need only turn thumb wheel 32 to advance the card to the position desired. On the front or upper side 26A of the card 26 there may be located in different sections (e.g. sections 1, 2, '3, of Figure 2A) the readable matter such as the different types of programs, dates and times thereof as shown in Figure 2A. Window 34 (Fig. 1) is provided for the operators convenience in seeing the printing on the card concerning the televised programs. On the rear or underside 268 (Fig. 2B) of the card, a set 27 of electrically conductive areas 29 may be placed relative to the position of each section of readable matter on the upper side 26A of the card. The electrically conductive areas 29 and lines 31 (interconnecting areas 29 in accordance with a predetermined code for each set of areas 27 as more fully explained hereinafter) are preferably printed on the card but no limitation thereto is intended. Neither is any limitation intended by the showing of a narrow window 34 in Figure 1, since it is apparent that the general window area may be as large or larger than the card itself as long as there remains an indicator by which the operator may see that the card is positioned to the desired section of readable matter. With a narrow window, the indicator is the window itself assuming the lengthwise edges thereof are separated approximately the distance equaling the height of the readable matter in any one section thereof. It will also be apparent that the sets of conductive areas need not be located directly opposite the respective sections of readable matter or even on opposite faces of the cards, but each set of areas should be uniformly related in position to its respective section of readable matter as every other set of conductive areas is so related. This is necessarybecause for each conductive area 29 comprising one set of areas 27 there is provided within the decoder 20 spring contact means (not shown in Figure 1, but see Figure 3 for example) which makes' electrical contact with each area '29 within one set of areas 27 when the card is positioned properly in the window 34. The spring contact means also connect to the decoding circuitry and will be fully described hereinbelow. v
Referring back to Figure 1, a .push button 36 is shown for the purpose of punching the cards and causing mutilation thereof so that the subscriber may not seek a re. fund when he has used' the'card for a. particular program. As explained in the above copending applications, the subscriber can only energize the circuitry within the decoder 2% by depressing push button 36, since attached thereto is a switch (see Fig. 7) for 'ener'gization of the decoding circuitry.
In order to provide a larger number of programs for each card, the conductive areas 29 are arranged in rows transverse to the longitudinal axis of the card. This is in contradistinction to the cards exhibited in the previously mentioned co -pending applications where the conductive areas were arranged along one or more edges of the card.
Business cards of the type normally used in computing devices are divided into a plurality of columns extending transverse to the longitudinal axis of the card. These columns are usually very narrow being of the order of of an inch, but assuming (without limitation intended the assumption being for illustrative purposes only) the maximum necessary height for proper viewing of the that the window 34. encompasses the printing .of a program title, etc., within one section on the front or upper program printing to be one column width, it appears desirable to have the conductive areas 29 nearly twice that height to. allow a sufficient tolerance of error in positioning the card in a decoder. In other words, as shown in Figure 2A, column 1 may consist of the space between dash lines 40 and 42, while column 2 consists of the space between dash lines 42 and dash lines 44, and the program printing may then be centrally located between dash lines 40 and 44 to the extent of one column width in height. The total space between dash lines 40 and 44 (column 1 plus column 2) is termed a section for readable matter. The conductive areas 29 may also extend between dash lines 40 and 44 and in this embodiment one row of areas 29 is one set 27 of areas. Since the next set of areas comprising two columns, column 3 and column 4, also have similar conductive areas 29, these areas in successive rows should not touch each other or even the theoretical dividing lines (such as line 44) between the areas. In order to make a decoding system operative, the conductive areas 29 must be interconnected in the proper manner. However, the interconnecting lines should not be printed too thin or narrow, since if r they are, they will tend to break and/or their resistance I becomes too high. Also the necessary accuracy for dies to print extremely thin lines becomes 'high and increases the cost. Therefore, the printed lines should be of reasonable thickness to assure permanence and absolute continuity thereof. When the conductive areas 29 are made as near as possible to be two column widths in height, insuflicient space remains between successive rows or sets 27 of. conductive areas 29 to print reasonable size conductive ink lines above and/ or below the conductive areas. It is, therefore, necessary to provide a sufiicient duplication of the conductive areas so that only adjacent contact segments need to be connected as by lines 31.
The interconnection between adjacent areas 29 may vary may be utilized to maintain spring contacts 50 inf'positiqn andwhen card 26 is inserted into the decoder20 positioned with 'the aidof'thei'ubber wheels 28 so side 26A of the card, the spring contacts 50 are touching each one of the conductive areas 29 related in position to the program title readable through the window. It will be understood that "there is one spring contact 50 for each of the conductive areas 29 in one set 27 covering, for example, column 1 and column 2 as shown in Figure-2B. Successive rows ofconductive areas 29 may have diiferent interconnectionsiil for different programs to provide the'proper decoding of the scrambled signal.
Another embodiment of the present invention permits a more efficient-use of a decoding record card and a more secretive result. A decoding card as shown in Figures 2A and "2B'permits'on1y a limited use of possible decoding printed circuit combinations, since to ailow the subscriber a tolerance of error in positioning the card, the conductive areas 29 are made a'pproximately two columnsin width and there is no room on the card .left for printing connections between the conductive areas 29 except between adjacent areas. In Figures 4A and 4B there is shown an exemplary card 60 having a front or upper side 60A and a back or underside 6013. The front side 60A is again utilized for program titles and the height of the printing-is preferably one column although again no limitation is intended to this particular construction. The rear side 60B is divided into two :sections'62 and 64. The conductive areas 66 are still nearly two columns wide in height but section '64 has no conductive areas 66 in columns 1 and 2, while section 62 has a plunality of conductive areas 66 in columns 1 and 2. In'
each set of conductive areas is comprised of two groups I of areas arranged in stair-step form and it will become apparent that each group is utilized for two successive programs. With the conductive areas 66 arranged 'in this manner, printed conductive ink lines 68 maybe placed both above and below the conductive areas 66 without the possibility of shorting adjacent rows of con ductive areas 66.
'The spring contact means used with a card of this type is shown in Figures 5A and 5B. The upper spring contact 70 is connected 'in parallel by conductor 72 with the lower spring contact 74, two such spring contacts comprising one set of contact means and extending the width of two rows (four columns). Each set of spring contacts. instead of comprising two individual spning contacts could as well be one integral piece having two con tact points similar to contact points 76. For .eachconductive area 66 in two adjacent rows across the rear side 60B of a card, there is one set of spring contact means arranged so that the upper spring contact .70 of each set of spring contacts is always in contact with. the .conductive areas 66 in one or the other of sections 62 or 64, while the lower spring contact of each set of spring contacts is always in contact with the conductive areas 66 in the opposite section 64 or 62, as the case maybe. This is. perhaps better shown in Figure 5B where the actual upper and lower contact points 76 of the springs in Figure 5A are shown as dots 76'. It will be apparent from the above that whileconductive areas 66 in section 62 'for columns 1 and '2 thereof are in contact, respectively, with the upper contact points of spring contacts grouped under the number 78, conductive areas '66; in columns-3 and 4 of Figure 43 may be in contacgre spectivly, with thelower contact .points of spring con; tacts grouped under the number 80'. However, upon moving the card up to the point where program title 2 of Figure 4A is visible through the window, the conductive areas 66 in columns 5 and 6 of Figure 4B come into contact with the lower contact points of spring contacts of group 78, while the conductive areas 66 of columns 3 and 4 (Figure 4B) are again utilized since they remain in contact with the spring contacts in group 80 of Figure 5B, but now at the upper contact points thereof. As the card is advanced two column widths, the spring contacts continue to contact the conductive areas of the card but shift from upper to lower contact points (or vice versa) for each two column advancement of the card. In this manner, there is no waste of space on the rear side of the card. It should be mentioned here that, although the program titles, etc., on the front of the card have been shown in Figure 4A as being directly in alignment with at least one of the rows of printed contact segments 66 in Figure 413, no limitation is thereby intended. That is, the set of conductive areas for a particular program may be moved up or down relative to the location of the program printing as long as the spring contact sets for the conductive areas and the program viewing alignment indicator in the decoder have the same relative displacement as the conductive areas and program titles, etc., respectively.
For reasons of keeping the printed circuit connections, such as lines 68, secret from the subscriber, these connections may be covered with opaque material such as masking tape. The subscriber could of course remove, or partially remove, the covering to learn the coding for a particular program and make the proper internal decoder connections without the aid of the card. However, in accordance with the copending application of William J. Shanahan, Serial No. 479,811, filed January 4, 1955, the masking tape may be of the type which when removed, destroys wholly or partially the conductive ink lines and makes it practically impossible for the subscriber to re-ink the lines or reglue the tape without leaving tell-tale indications of some sort. If a subscriber attempts illicit use of a card in this manner, the mutilation of the ink lines will be detected upon a return of the card and no refund will be allowed. In addition, the opaque covering material should have insulative properties so that no point of any spring contact can touch the printed ink lines. This will prevent a shorting connection from a conductive area and a contact spring when not so intended. For example, it might be possible for a subscriber to see the program printing in the window but still have the card so positioned that, even though the proper contacts are made between the contact springs in the decoder and the conductive areas on the card, a portion of one or more contact springs might be in contact with the conductive ink lines running above or below the conductive areas if the connecting lines are not insulatively covered.
Although Figure 4B illustrates a decoding card divided into two longitudinal sections 62 and 64, this invention has within its purview the use of three or more such sections with each section being a group having a plurality of conductive areas for each set of areas as do sections 62 and 64. A corresponding number of spring contacts would then be provided each with a corresponding number of contact points if the groups of conductive areas are arranged in stair-step form from section to section. However, the groups of areas could also be arranged in zigzag form from section to section and would then cover no more longitudinal card area than the conductive areas 66 shown in Figure 4B.
Each of the spring contacts in groups 78 and 80 of Figure 5B may lead to circuits as shown in Figure 6 which represents exemplary receiver circuitry and apparatus similar to that described in the above mentioned copending applications. In the particular instance described herein it is assumed that the transmitted video signal has been delayed sporadically, or periodically in 3 two or more modes. However, no limitation is intended thereto since it will be apparent that the present invention concerning a record card may be utilized in any of the embodiments of the aforementioned oo-pending applications. As described particularly in copending application, Serial No. 418,642, the mode of the delayed video is in accordance with particular combinations of oscillations of ditferent frequencies which may be inserted between the equalizing pulses or the vertical pulses in the vertical blanking period for transmission and which provide a code combination signal the reception of which provides information for compensating for the transmitted delayed video. In Figure 6 only two of such oscillations are utilized, it being understood that three or more may be used; These oscillations are obtained on line from the synchronization and video separator 102 after being received in receiver circuits 104. Band pass filters 106 and 108 pass, respectively, only the frequency of oscillation of the oscillations generated at the transmitter. Within dash line 110 are shown the spring contacts referred to in Figure 5B. These spring contacts are individually designated in the same sequence as those of Figure 5B. The oscillations or tones issuing from both band pass filters 106 and 108 are connected to spring contacts designated B and A respectively, while spring contact V is connected to the vertical synchronizing pulses separated from the horizontal pulses in the separator 112. Spring contacts I I I I.,, are connected respectively to the four inputs of two flips-flop circuits 114 and 116. When signals on spring contacts A, B, and/or V are connected to any one or more of the spring contacts I I I I through a decoding card such as the one shown in Figure 4B, the flip-flops 114 and 116 will assume a particular condition. (In the conventional manner, each flip-flop has two output lines which may assume relatively high and low potentials according to which of their two inputs receives a signal. For example, an input on line 118 will provide a relatively high output on line 120 while the output on line 122 will move to or remian at a relatively lower potential. Conversely, an input on line 124 will cause line 122 to move to the relatively high potential while line 120 drops to the relatively lower potential.) The output lines of each flip-flop 114 and 116 are connected to spring contacts 0 O O 0 respectively, there being two sets of these contacts connected in parallel so that a more complex coding system may be utilized at the transmitter. Spring contacts 6,, G and G are connected to gates 130, 132 and 134, respectively, at the enabling inputs thereof. Consequently, when any of the outputs of the flip-flops 114 and 116 are connected through the decoding card of Figure 4B to any one of the spring contacts G G or G one of the gates 130, 132 or 134 may be enabled to pass the video signal presented thereto. From separator 102 the video signal issues on line 136 and is presented directly to gate 130. In accordance with copending application Serial No. 418,642, the video signal may have two or more delay modes and is represented in Figure 6 as being delayed an amount corresponding or complementary to the delay of the video signal at the transmitter. Delay. 138 delays the video signal the proper amount and presents it to gate 132, while delay 140 allows presentation of a longer delayed video signal to gate 134. At any one time only one of the gates 130, 132 or 134 is enabled so their outputs may be connected to a common line 142 over which the video signal may be presented to the display tube 144 in the proper mode. In Figure 4B there is shown a continuous longitudinal column 146 which has conductive properties. In Figure 5B there is shown a set of contact terminals 148 which are not connected together as are the similar spring contacts of Figure 5B. The purpose of the longitudinal column 146 is to make contact between the .terminals 148. These terminals may lead toany circuit within the receiver system; and,
7 as'aniexample, they are-shown inFigure 6 as connecting theaudio signals for further'audio purposes. No limitation'is intended thereto, and it will be'apparent that such terminals'may be dispensed with or may be utilized to actuateother functions of the decoder.
Referring back to Figure 4B, it will be seen that conductive area 150 is connected by line 152 to conductive area 154. Relating this connection to the corresponding spring contacts and I in Figure 6, it will be apparent thatthe input of flip-flop 116 is shorted to the output of flip-flop 114. Referring back to Figure 4B again, it will be seen that conductive area 156 is connectedby line 158 to conductive area 160. Relating these connections to the spring contacts 0 and I of Figure 6, it'will be apparent that the input and output of flip-flop 114 is shorted. Under either one of these shorting conditions, improper circuit connections are made and, it becomes necessary to sever these connections in order to viewan unscrambled picture.
Figure 7 shows exemplary apparatus for mutilating the card with a punchedhole and severing the printed circuit lines 152 or 158, and the like, of Figure 4B. When the button 170. is depressed the U-shaped structure 172 is pivoted as at point 174 and the arm 176 moves upward to cut an aperture through the card 178. An indentation :oraperture 180 in the decoder box 182 may provide 'a diehole for arm7176. Upon proper alignment the punching apparatus shown in Figure 7 maybe made to destroy the continuity of the printed circuit lines 152 or 158 by punching an aperture 184 therethrough. This will, of course, also show mutilation of the card amd prevent improper refunds to the subscriber.
Automatic machinery may be employed to sense the apertures punched in the printed circuit lines when the 7 card is returned for refund for programs not viewed, but the punched holes in-that case need to be accurately spaced on the card; Since the subscriber has a certain amount of leewayin positioning his card for operation of the set, sensing of the punched "holes may present a difficult problem. To obviate the problem, so-called mark sensing may be used. In this respect, Figure 8 illustrates a. modification and enlargement of a portion of Figure 4B showing several rows of conductive areas 66 divided into two sections 62 and 64 as in Figure 4B. Shorting lines 152 and 158 interconnecting the groups of conductive areas between the sections are provided with printed mark sensing or mutilating sensing regions 186, there being a connection from each shorting line 152, 158, and the like, to a set of two such regions, onebeing connected andpreferably located on each side of the general area or place where the mutilation of the card and shorting connection would normally occur. Since these mark sensing regions 186 may be printed accurately in position relative to the columns of the card, a more accurate sensing of mutilation of the printed'lines 152 and 158 and the like may be made. Instruments well known to those skilled in the art can automatically measure the resistance between the two mark sensing rectangles of a set of rectangles 186. Although this embodimenthas been described as utilizing printed sensing regions 186, no limitation thereto is intended since those skilled in the art will recognize that conductive material maybe bonded to the card to'formsimilar functioning regions.
If it is not desired to use marksensing, .but to check card mutilation by sensing the punched holes, there are numerous ways, a few of which are described hereinbelow, toassure that the operator punches the card :in the proper place. Of course, these may be used. in conjunction withthe mark sensing technique ifdesired.
Automaticmeans may be provided to require 'the'subscriber. to position the'e-ard in the decoderproperly before :the decoder may be operated. In Figure :9- there is shown a card 2001having aseries of prepunched aper tures 202 evenly spaced apart. .A pinion 204 may-be provided so thatits teeth extend through the apertures 202 and may be rotatable so as to advance the card 202 only 'insteps .of two column widths. In the alternative a tray 210 asshown in Figure 10 may be provided for car-ryingthe card through the decoder. Tray dimensions or stops (not shown) within the-tray should be such that the cardcannot be orientated .askew within'the tray. On the bottom .of the tray 210 maybe provided a rack and pinion arrangement 212 which may advance the tray, and consequently the card, two columns per step.
Another modification for permitting the subscriberto know definitely when he has the card properly positioned is shown in Figure 11. Along one edge of the card 214 may be provided a continuous electrically conductive strip or column 216 (preferably printed) having a plurality of electrically conductive offshoots 218 spaced two columnsapart. Within the decoderis provided a terminal or spring contact 220positioned to contact the continuous strip 216, and a second terminal 'or spring 'contact 222 positioned to contact only the offshoots 218. Connected to spring contact 220 is a source of voltage 224, and connected to spring contact 222 is a neon bulb 226, the other'side of which is grounded. Whenever the subscriber has the card positioned accurately, the spring contacts 220 and 222 will be interconnected by the printed circuit on. the card 214 and the neon bulb will light. The bulb may be placed on the outside of the decoder box to act 'as a pilotlight or may be placed'in-the window o'f'thedecoderto light the program titlefor the subscribe'rs viewing.
in Figure 12 there is shown still another'modification which prevents the subscriber from utilizing the decoding card unless the card'is accurately positioned. 'By modif ying the-card punching apparatus of Figure 7, 'and providing'apertures 23.0 spaced longitudinally along the'card at.v two columnwidths similar to the apertures202 of Figure 9-,-the subscriber may not puncture the card 232 (Figure 12) unlessitheapertures 'arein a'position such that guide pin 234 may fall therethrough. When the punching key 236 is in its upward position the guide pin 234 is prevented from falling downwardly by a plate 238 spring biased'to the right by spring 240. The plate 238 is prevented from moving to the right, however, when the punching key 236 is in the upper position by the cam surface 242. When the key 236 is depressed, the first portion of the downward movement of the-key allows the plate 238 to move to the right and the aperture 244 in plate 238 aligns with the guide ,pin234. When there is a perforation 230 in the card232 directly below the guide pin 234, the ,guide pin falls further down and prevents movement of the plate 246 to'the right since stub 248 is-thenin physicalrcontactwith the guide pin 234. Further movement of the key 236 downwardly pivots arm 2 50 aboutpoint 252- to push the cuttingarm 254- through aperture 256 and through card 232 into the die hole 258. The punching key 236 may be biasedupwardly (not shown) and upon removal of the operators hand, cam surface .242 pushes plate 238 to the left. Aperture 244 rides against cam surface 260 of the guide pin -234 and pushes theguide pin 234 upwardlyeven-though theyguide pin 234 is spring biased downwardlytby compression spring 262. If-there'had been no aperture 230 inthe card .232 directly .below guide ,pin :234, full depressionof the punching key 236 would have moved plate 246 to the :right due to cam surface .264 and prevented alignment of cutting arm 254 with the.ap erture 256. Therefore, with this system the subscriber may not mutilate and .use'the card unless the card is accurately'positioned within the decoder.
Other modifications of the decoding card. and 'decoding apparatus will become apparent to those skilled in theart, but the illustrations and descriptions herein are intended to beexemplary .only,:the. scope'of the invention being defined .bytheappended claims.
What is claimed. is: I
,1. gAirecord card foruse in decoding apparatus comprising a card divided into a plurality of separate 'sections extending substantially parallel in a first direction on the card, a plurality of groups of discrete electrically conductive areas disposed on the card, each group extending in a second direction substantially perpendicular to said first direction and being in one but not another of said sections with each of said sections having a plurality of said groups, all groups being non-aligned with one another in said second direction, conductive lines on the card interconnecting certain non-adjacent areas in each of at least some of said groups, and other conductive lines on the card electrically interconnecting at least some of the most adjacent groups which are in different ones of said sections.
2. A record for use in decoding apparatus comprising a card having at least two longitudinally extending sections, a plurality of uniformly longitudinally displaced rows of discrete electrically conductive areas disposed on the card transversely of said sections with immediately successive rows being fully in difierent ones of said sections, there being a plurality of said rows in each said section with the areas in different rows in any one of said sections being in substantial longitudinal alignment, and a plurality of conductive lines on the card connecting respectively an area of each of said rows to an area in the respective immediately successive row.
3. A card as in claim 2 including other conductive lines interconnecting at least non-adjacent areas in each of at least some of said rows.
4. A card as in claim 3 and further including means on the card for obscuring the first mentioned conductive lines and said other conductive lines from view at least to the extent of preventing a person from seeing what areas are interconnected by any one of such lines.
5. A card as in claim 4 wherein said means is electrical insulation.
6. A card as in claim 3 wherein said areas and all said conductive lines are printed on the card.
7. A card as in claim 2 wherein immediately successive rows are longitudinally separated from one another.
8. A card as in claim 2 and further including a conductive strip extending substantially the length of said sections along one side of the card.
9. A card as in claim 8 wherein said strip has connected to it a plurality of uniformly spaced transversely disposed conductive oflshoots, one for each of said area rows.
10. A card as in claim 2 and further including a plurality of pairs of electrically conductive sensing regions, each pair being connected to a difierent one of said conductive lines with the two regions in each pair being connected to spaced points along their respective conductive line, for respectively determining the continuity of said conductive lines between their respective spaced points.
11. Decoding apparatus comprising the record card of claim 2, a plurality of discrete contacts arranged in at least two rows having an equal number of said contacts and extending transversely substantially across said sections in contact with said card, said contact rows being displaced from each other in the card longitudinal direction the same distance as the longitudinal displace ment of immediately successive area rows on the card, said contacts being in substantial alignment in said longitudinal direction with the so aligned contacts being electrically connected together to form a plurality of contact pairs, and means for holding said card in any one of a plurality of positions in each of which one and only one of the contacts in each of said contact pairs makes contact with one of said conductive areas, some of the contact pairs being thereby in contact with respective said areas in only one row of areas, which as aforesaid is in only one of saidcard sections, and others of the contact pairs being thereby in contact with respective said areas only in the immediately successive row of areas, which are aforesaid is fully in another of said card sections.
12. Apparatus as in claim 11 wherein said card has other conductive lines interconnecting at least nonadjacent areas in each of at least some of said rows, and electrically insulating means at least partially covering all said lines for permanently preventing visual determination of what areas are inconnected by any one of said lines and for preventing contact between any of said lines and any of said contacts.
13. Apparatus as in claim 11 including means for causing one of said lines to be broken only if the immediately successive rows of areas connected by that line are in contact with said contact pairs as aforesaid.
14. Apparatus as in claim 13 wherein the record card further includes a plurality of pairs of electrically conductive sensing regions for respectively determining the continuity of said lines as between respective pairs of spaced points thereon, and wherein the last mentioned means breaks any of said lines between its respective pair of spaced points.
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