US 2978860 A
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United States Patent C WIRE ROPES Robert Edward Campbell, Doncaster, England, assignor to British Ropes Limited, Doncaster, England riginal application Sept. 10, 1954, Ser. No. 455,300. gnvided and this application Apr. 21, 1958, Ser. No. `29,673
Claims priority, application Great Britain Nov. 18, 19,53 6 Claims. (Cl. 57-148) This invention relates to steel wire ropes, strands, steel cores and/or finished or partly finished rope, irrespective of the type of core used or whether the ropes are stranded or locked coil, and is a divisional application of application Serial No. 455,300, tiled September 10, 1954.
The invention is more especially, but not solely, ap-
plicable to `steel wires which have been isothermally quenched (bringing them into the condition known as patented) and then cold drawn. It is also applicable to constructions in which, say, filler wires which have not been isothermally quenched, are incorporated into a rope `or core, the other wires of which have been isothermally quenched.
The invention consists of a multi-layered, steel-wire rope or core characterized in that the king wire is faceted according to the number of wires in the first layer over it and the wires of the intermediate layer or of each successive intermediate layer are individually of polygonal section, the section of the wires of the outer layer being that of a keystone with an arcuate head, this arc being a segment of the ropes or cores curved outer circumference and adjacent wire sections being in close contact with one another over their straight edges, whereby the Wires are prevented from rolling in relation to each other. These steel wire `ropes or cores are preferably made by imparting thereto a controlled degree of plastic ow with a uniform pressure all around as described and claimed in application Serial No. 455,300, of which this application is a division.
The invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is a cross-section of a 9/9/1 rope according to the invention with a corresponding round wire rope indicated in phantom;
Fig. 2 is a cross-section of a 12/6/1 rope; and
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of a 12/6/1 rope with filler wires.
In manufacturing wire ropes according to this invention, the preferred method utilizes the application of the combined resultant reactive force arising from plastic iiow under compression, coupled with predetermined elongation of the strand, while passing the rope through a suitable die capable of providing a drawing action thereon.
Back tension is applied to the longitudinal axis of the strand as it passes into the die, of suicient magnitude to initiate plastic ow prior to the strand entering the die, while not exceeding the limit of proportionality of the strand (that is, the point on a stress-strain curve at which the strain ceases to be proportional to the stress).
After this treatment, the originally round wires making up the rope will have been individually reformed to a geometric pattern in which the king wire has become faceted according to the number of wires laid over it, the point of contact of the next layer of overlying wires forming the base of a pentagon on each facet of the king wire, the next layer being of reversed pentagons and so on.
In Fig. 1, the king wire 1 is faceted with a plurality of sides 2 according to the number of Wires 3 laid over it. The contact surface of the layer of Wires 3 overlying the king wire forms, in cross-section the base of a pentagon on each side or facet 2 of the king wire, and the next layer of wires 4 forms reversed pentagons, and so on, producing an interpenetrating relationship between successive layers. A steel rope or core embodying this invention is materially smaller in external diameter than is a similar stranded rope or core formed of conventional round wire, Iindicated at 5, Fig. 1, where both contain the same total cross-section of metal. This results in a very considerable increase in the tensile strength of a rope of any given size, due to the increased crosssection of steel, which is proportional to the diminution of the air space within the rope, the small percentage of non-metallic material in the improved rope being occupied by internal lubricant. It has also been found that a rope or core made according to lthis invention has a markedly superior resistance to kinking, thus making its handling by unskilled labor much easier.
In the steel rope or core illustrated in Fig. l, the
two successive layers around the king wire are both formed of the same number of individual wires. In such a construction the outer layer of wires necessarily must have a cross-sectional area considerably larger than the next successive inner layer or the outer layer will result in a relatively thin flat-sectioned wire.
In some instances it may be found desirable and more practical to form the rope or core of individual wires having substantially the same cross-sectional area. Such a substantially uniform-sectioned multi-layered rope may have several combinations of shapes depending to a cer tain extent upon the number of wires in each layer and upon the utilization of substantially all of the cross-sectional area of the rope by the wires of uniform crosssection or by filling in some of the space in the rope by so-called filler wires.
The lirst type of construction is illustrated in crosssection in Fig. 2. As can readily be seen, in this arrangement six wires 6 are arranged around a hexagonal king wire 7, and twelve wires 8 are arranged in the layer surrounding the six-wire layer. In this construction the layer of wires 6 immediately adjacent to the king wire 7 are formed with pentagonal cross-sections, and the outer layer of wires 8, which contacts the outer periphery of the pentagonal wire layer, have a substantially quadrangular cross-section. In this construction, as in the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 1, the outer layer of wires is formed with the outer side 9 thereof as a segment of the circumference of the rope formed on a radius corresponding to the radius of the stranded rope. This results in a cross-section of the wires in the outer layer of a keystone configuration with an arcuate head, the arc of the head being that of the curved outer circumference of the rope. As can readily be seen, substantially all of the cross-sectional area of the rope is occupied by metal of the various wires forming the rope, so that all of the advantages obtainable by a construction such as that shown in Fig. 1 also inherently are obtained in this construction. In both of these arrangements an appreciable increase in the fatigue resistance of the rope or core is obtained. Various factors contribute to this greatly increased resistance to fatigue. Prominent among these factors, is the geometric shape of the wires forming the rope including the at multi-sided configurations which prevent rolling of the wires on each other, as well as preventing relative rolling between layers of wires constituting the rope by the interpenetrating relationship of the successive layers. i The plastically flowed surface film on the working or contact area of each Wire also gives'added fatigue resistancel A In addition, it' liasbeen found that rope made in accordance with this invention is not subject to premature failure of individual wires until the full expecta. tion of fatigue life is obtained. At this latter stage, progressive failureA of individual wires ensuesY in the normal manner with the' outerwires failing by squareendedI fatigue andthe innerwires failing underA pure tension: This has an added advantage in that, when it does occur, the failure takes place externally and not internally of'` the rope, thus giving adequate warning of the inability of the rope to sustain a given load. This advantage also resultsfrom the increased bearing surface of thewires-and'the inability of the wires to roll upon each other and of the rope to become distorted. This latter ,is-generally. the product of the geometrical wedge configuration ofthe wires-forming the rope, especially in a' construction shown in Fig. 2, which'give the rope highV resistance to compression and distortion, thus insuring'thatdifferential working of the individual wires is minimized with consequent elimination of premature fatigue in individual 'wir-es.
In certain instances it may be found desirable to include'fill'er wires more completely to eliminate air space between wires forming successivelayers around the king wire of a rope, andY thereby more elfectively to utilize all of thel cross-sectional areal of the rope for loadcarrying'metal elements. Such a construction isl illustrated in cross-section in Fig. 3. The filler-wires in such a construction normally have a substantially quadrangular diamond-shaped cross-section and are usually arranged-y between the outer adjacent edges of the at sides" of adjacent wires in one Ylayer andthe inner edges of the wires in the successive layer;
In Fig. 3 the Awire *ropev includes-a hexagonal king wire lll'surrounded by six/wires 11 of' substantially the same cross-sectional area as the king wire' 10, with an outer layer of'wiresVV 12 arrangedj around the intermediate layer ofwi-res 11; T his rope has substantially the same configurationY as that shown` in Fig.- 2 and, in addition, is provided with relatively small quadrangular diamondshaped filler wiresv 13 in the space between the outer edges of adjacent wires 11 in the intermediate layer of wires and theV adjacent surfaces of the outer layer' of wires `152'. As can beseen, these filler wires 13 also have r substantially at sides and result in two additional sides 14v on each of theintermediate layer wires 11 and one additional flat side 15 on each wire 12in the outer layer' of wires; Obviously, other arrangements off-filler wires can beutilized'l'netween any of the wires and-between any layers of wires. In this'construction the wire ropeis especially'free'of# airV gaps. The outer periphery 16 of the outer wires 12 also is formedas a'segment of a circleA corresponding to the outer circumference of the rope, as in the Yother constructionsiillustratedlin Figs. 1` and 2.
Iny allv ofthe ropes made in accordance with this invention, thel even bedding` oflthevstrands to the core produces aftighter spun and lessA lively rope whichl results in improved exibility, andthe strands themselves have been'found to exhibit substantially micro-interstices of uniformv consistency: In addition," the substantial elimination of air spaceswithin the'rope and the presence of1 internal lubricant on' adjacent-surfaces of the at sides of the-wires forming the rope, provide for maximumV anticorrosion properties; This isV particularly true Vsince such stranded rope is-highly water Vrepellent' andr affords aV minimum capacity for `the retention of-v water i between the v`wires comprising 'theropes While particular embodiments ofthis invention have' be'enillustratedI and' described; modifications thereof willoccurY to thosefskilledin'the art.v It: is tobe understood, therefore, that' this invention is notltobe limited-1to1 the particularA arrangements disclosed, and it is intended: in thefappended claims .tocoven all modifications within the:A
spirit landt scope of i this. invention. Ifclaiint-y 1. A multi-layered steel wreropecomprising-.acentral 4 king wire and having at least one intermediate layer of wires and an outer layer of wires arranged around the king wire, said king wire being of polygonal cross-section and faceted corresponding tothe number of wires in the first layer of wires surrounding it, the wires in the intermediate layers being individuallybf at faced polygonal cross-section, andthe cross-section of the wires of the outer layer being that of a keystone with an arcuate head, the arc ofl said head being that ofthe curved'outerV engaging-flush` against'the said faces of the nextl inwardr layer, .the faces of the individual wires in the rope being..
firmly engaged ush against the complementary llat'faces of adjacent wires and, whereby successive layers of wire are disposed inV interpenetrating relationship: andthe wires and the layers' of wire arel retained against rolling rela,-y tivei toeach other.
2. A multi-layered steel wire-rope comprising a centralking wire, at least one intermediate layer of wiressur rounding the kingv wire,` and` an outer layerof Wires: arranged around the intermediate layer, the kingwire beingof polygonalcross-section and faceted corresponding toy the number of wires inthe intermediate layer, each wire inthe intermediate layer being ofpentagonal cross-section pointing radially outwardly, the cross-sectionofV each wire inthe outer layer being quadrangular inshape! with the radially outer side being curved' to forni a-segment of the curved outer circumference ofA said rope, each wire at the faces thereof engagingush against the respective faces ofadjacentwires wherebyV the' king wire and the intermediate layer ofwires and the said' intermediate and'outer layersof wire are in interpenetrating relationshipy and thereby prevented from' rolling-.in-relation to each other.
3'.r `A multi-layered steel wire rope comprising a central king wire, at` least oneintermediate layer of wiresi surrounding the king wire, an outer layer of'wire'sr arranged around the intermediate -layer and llerwiresbetween successive layers, the king wire beingof polygonalcrosssec tion and faceted corresponding'to` the number of Wires in the first layer ofwi'res surroundingit, theriwires of the intermediate layers being in cross-,section individualinterfitting hat-faced polygons, the fillerwiresf beingif diamondshapediin crossbsection, andthe wires `ofthe outer layer havingflatside faces and flat inner faces in contactlwith adjacent' wires and' eachliaving a'cur-ved outer surface forming a segment of the curved outer circumference of lthe rope; thefouterY faces of '-theiwires ofeachintermediate layerf-offwires comprising disposed at an `inclination toone another` with each wire in ther respectivelayer deningatleast one of saidfaces,vthe inner faces of the wires of the next outwardI layer'comprising complementary at. faces engaging flush against `faces of-v the next inward layer, the faces of the individual wires in the rope-firmly engaging flush against` the complementary at faces of adjacent wires, whereby"Y to each other.
side faces of `adjacent wires ofthe same layer, the-outer" surfaces offthewiresrof each intermediate layer of'wires havingfalfernatingfgfat facesrdisposed` at an inclinationthe respective' layer to one: anotherI withI `eachL wire? in of the defining at least of said faces, the inner surfaces alternating.- flat' faces!` the layers of wiresAV wires of individual wires of the next outward layer having complementary flat faces engaging with the said faces of the next nward layer, the faces of the individual wires of the rope being iirmly engaged flush against complementary at faces of adjacent wires, whereby the successive layers are in close interpenetrating relationship and the wires and the layers of wire are retained against rolling relative to each other.
5. A multi-layered steel wire rope comprising a central king wire and having at least one intermediate layer of wires and an outer layer of wires arranged around the king wire, said king wire being of polygonal crosssection and faceted corresponding to the number of wires in the first layer of wires surrounding it, the wires in the intermediate layers being individually of polygonal crosssection, the cross-section of the wires of the outer layer being that of a keystone with an arcuate head, the arc of each head being that of the curved outer circumference 1 of said rope, each of the wires in each layer being of the same cross-section, the wires in the first layer of wires surrounding said 'king wire each having one face coextensive with and engaging flush against a respective face of said king Wire, the Wires in each layer of wires having side faces extending radially of the axis of said king wire and coextensive with and engaging ush against the side faces of the wires adjacent thereto in the respective layer, the outer surface of each wire of each intermediate layer of wires having at least two faces disposed at an inclination to one another and the inner surfaces of the wires of the next outward layer having complementary faces coextensive with and engaging liush against the said faces of the next inward layer, whereby the individual wires are firmly engaged Hush against adjacent wires on all faces other than said radiussed heads, the successive layers of wire are disposed in interpenetrating relationship and the rope is substantially solid metal in cross-section.
6. A multi-layered steel wire rope as set forth in claim l, wherein the wires in the layers of wire are individually of pentagonal cross-section and the wires in successive layers of wires alternately point in opposite directions radially in relation to the axis of the rope whereby the successive layers are in interpenetrating relationship.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,943,086 McKnight Ian. 9, 1934 1,943,087 Potter et al. Ian. 9, 1934 2,050,298 Everett Aug. 11, 1936 2,156,652 Harris May 2, 1939