US 2978998 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1961 s. D. FRANKLAND 2,978,998
INCINERATOR Filed June 1?, 1958 United States Patent INCINERATOR Samuel D. Frankland, 1235 107th Ave., Oakland, Calif., assignor of one-half to Maynard E. Hill, Alameda,
Filed June 17, 1958, Ser. No. 742,514
2 Claims. (Cl. 110-18) The present invention relates to an improvement in exhaust systems for burning devices such as incinerators and to a process of smoke elimination.
With the ever increasing concentration of population and industrialization there has been produced more and more smoke from factories, automobiles and trash fires which pollutes the air over cities and thereby cause a health hazard. In an effort to reduce the smoke concentration there have been developed elaborate smoke eliminators suitable for factory smokestaclcs but not readily adapted to smaller installations such as backyard incinerators.
The present invention provides an improved smoke elimination process and a burning apparatus with smoke eliminator which is ideally suited for individual use inasmuch as it is compact and inexpensive. With a simple structure there is provided an incinerator having a much longer life than conventional devices of this type and yet at the same time producing substantially no smoke or odor that may escape into the atmosphere.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved smoke eliminator for an incinerator or the like.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an improved incinerator of inexpensive construction wherein smoke egress is materially inhibited.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide an incinerator of extended longevity and including a simple inexpensive smoke eliminator.
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide an improved and simplified process for smoke elimination.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth in the following description of the preferred form of the invention which is illustrated in the drawing accompanying and forming part of the specification. It is to be understood, however, that variations in the showing made by the said drawing and description may be adopted within the scope of the invention as set forth in the claims.
The apparatus of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing wherein:
Figure 1 is an elevational view in section taken in a central plane through an incinerator" constructed in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 2 is a partial plan'view of the incinerator of I Figure 1 with portionstbrok en away as indicated.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of a moditied form of part 'of the apparatus.
-Considering first the improved smoke elimination or.
combustion gas purifier process of this invention it is herein contemplated that there shall be established in an exhaustv area through which smoke and the like normally'pass, a plurality of contiguous miniature'water- .falls or -riffies substantially entirely masking the smoke egress area. These riflles are formed of thin' sheets orv substantiallycontinuous 'streams of falling water m -cylinder 34 to serve as a SP "ice through which the smoke tends to pass only to become absorbed in the water. The water drop in each riflle is kept small and a steady even water flow is maintained so that each curtain of water falls without substantial discontinuities to maximize the smoke entrapment.
The process includes the direction of gaseous combustion products into a thin water curtain formed of a plurality of adjacent riffies or miniature waterfalls wherein smoke and other combustion products are absorbed in' the water' as combustion gas escape is limited to a traverse through the water curtain. Obviously the aforementioned rifiies may be established in a variety of manners and with a multitude of differing devices. For example, a plurality of troughs may be continuously fed water to uniformly overflow into adjacent drains for establishing small Waterfalls between the troughs and drains while the device herein illustrated is also readily adapted to carry out the process.
Considering now the structural details of the illustrated embodiment of the present invention and referring to the drawings there will be seen to be provided a central cylinder or inner jacket 11 defining therein a firebox or combustion chamber 12. A grate 14 is secured across the bottom of the firebox and a housing 16 is aflixed to the bottom of the cylinder 11 to define beneath the grate 14 an ash pit 17. An outer jacket 18 is disposed about the central cylinder 11 to define a vertically elongated annular chamber 19 thereabout and this outer jacket 18 has a sealed bottom 21 spaced below the housing 16 to define a reservoir 22. The housing 16 and central cylinder 11 atop same is mounted by vertical supports 23 fixed between the bottom of the outer jacket and the bottom of the housing. Suitable radial bracing may also be provided between the central cylinder and the outer jacket while a plurality of legs 24 extend downward from the bottom 21 of the outer jacket 18 to form a firm footing and support for the incinerator.
Access to the ash pit 17 is afiiorded by an enclosed radial extension or chute 26 from the housing 16 sealingly engaging the outer jacket 18 at an opening therein and closed by a pivotally mounted door 27. A conventional damper 28 is mounted in the door 27 to control the draft through the incinerator firebox communicating with the ash pit through the grate 14- therebetween. This radial extension or chute 2.6 is disposed in part within the reservoir 22 but is however sealingly connected to the outer jacket 18 and the housing 16 so that water in the reservoir cannot enter the ash pit or chute therefrom. Further to the reservoir 22, there is provided an overflow outlet 29 extending through the outer jacket 18 above the bottom of the ash pit 1'7 and a conical filter element 33 including a hollow 'depend-' ing stub cylinder 34 adapted to removably slide into the top of the inner jacket 11 a short distance. A screen 36 is secured entirely across the top of the combustion chamber 12, as by connection across the end of the stub annular plates orfgdiscs 37 are disposed atop the stub cylinder 34 in vertical offset relation with the bottom plate being larger than the next plate and each next upper plate being smaller than the one below it. These plates 31 are mounted upon a plurality of'stepped supports 38 extending upwards from'and' radially inward 'of'the stub cylinder 34 although the. lower ends of-the Apluralit'y of V f supports are radially outward of the stub cylinder. The plates are dimensioned so that they overlap and are formed inclined downward radially outward thereof to define circular openings or slits 39 therebetween directed slightly downward radially outward of the plates. ,As' may be seen in Figure 1 of the drawings the stepped supports are joined together at the apex of the cone defined by the annular plates mounted thereon and an upright pin 41 is contained by this junction.
The entire above described filter structure 33 is adapted for removable assembly with the inner jacket 11 and within the outer jacket 18 which extends vertically upwards beyond the inner jacket. Filtering is herein by dispersing contaminants therein. The water from the filter 33 is'directed by the vane 44 to flow down the outside of the inner jacket 11 into the reservoir 22 so as to cool the inner jacket and prevent burnout thereof. Likewise the water in the reservoir 22 cools the housing 16 defining the ash pit 17 so as to avoid overheating of same.
by the damper 28 and the ash pit is easily cleaned accomplished by water or other suitable liquid'flowing over the filter plates 37 and this flow is provided from a flexible hose 42, adapted for attachment to a water supply through an inverted funnel 43 suitably mounted upon the pin 41 as by internal funnel braces to direct Water evenly over the entire conical filter surface. The funnel 43 and attached hose 42 removably engage the filter upon the upwardly pointed end of the pin 41 whereby water flow is provided as desired in an even flow distribution over the surface of the conical filter 33. As an additional element of the apparatus there is provided an annular dished vane 44 secured about the inside of the outer jacket 18 immediately below the lowest plate 37 of the filter with an opening about the inner jacket 11 for directing water from the filter onto the outside of the inner jacket to run down same into the reservoir 22. I
Operation of the above described incinerator is quite simple in that with the filter 33 and hose 42 removed, trash or other combustibles may be placed within the combustion chamber 12 upon the grate 14 and ignited. The filter is then disposed atop the inner jacket 11 by sliding the filter stub cylinder into the inner jacket and slipping the funnel 43 onto the filter pin 41. With water supplied to the hose 42 a steady flow of water is maintained over the filter pin and thence-uniformly over the filter plates 37. Between offset filter plates 37 the water, falls in a thin sheet or film or in a substantially continuous stream to provide the filteringimedium. Smoke and' combustion gases rising from the combustion chamber 12 through the spark arrester screen 36 can only escape by passing through the filter, slots 39 which are closed by the thin water film and thus the gases pass through the thin film of water or riflies between the plates. In. passing through the riffies or water film the gas sufiers severe depletion of contituents which are absorbed in the water., Thus emerging exhaust gas rising from the filter is well cleansed and does not pollute the atmosphere through the chute 26 with the door 27 open.
If desired, as shown in Figure 3, the annular plates 37, except the uppermost one, may be formed with perforations 51 so that a more eifective distribution and 'release of the burnt gases may beatforded through the point, a plurality of annular plates disposed upon the steps of said supports and inclined inwardly and upwardly with each plate overhanging a substantial portion of the nextlower plate to define annular gas egress slots therebetween, and water inlet means removablyengaging the point of said supports for directing a uniform flow of water over the plates whereby substantially continuous streams of water pass across said slots and gas egressing therethrough is purified.
2. An incinerator as claim 1 further defined by an annular dished vane secured to said outer jacket directly beneath the lowermost of said plates and defining an opening about the top of said inner jacket whereby water from said plates flows downward along the outside of said inner jacket to cool same.
' References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED sTATEs PATENTS The degree of combustion is readily controlled