US 2980370 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 18, 1961 mms 2,980,370-
FLYING BODY FOP. SUPERSONIC SPEED Filed Oct- 18, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 i 16 11 12 11 a f FIG. 1. FIG 2 INVENTOR. FRANCISCO TAKACS April 18, 1961 F. TAKACS 80 FLYING BODY FOR SUPERSONIC SPEED Filed Oct. 18, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
FRANCISCO TAKACS Fig. 6.
United States PatentO 2,980,370 FLYING BODY FOR SUPERSONIC SPEED Francisco Takacs, Apt. 5388-Este, Caracas, Venezuela Filed Oct. 18, 1957, Ser. No. 691,009 Claims priority, application Switzerland July 9, 1957 1 Claim. (Cl. 244130) The present invention relates to a flying body for supersonic speed, for example a rocket, a remote-controlled missile, a jet airplane, etc.
The flying body according to the invention is principally characterized by a nose which is symmetrical with respect to its longitudinal axis, whose cross-sectional dimension steadily increases from front to rear, and that directly behind the nose the sectional dimension of theflying body is reduced step-like.
Other features of the invention will appear to those skilled in the art as the following detailed description proceeds, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, wherein there are shown by way of example some forms .of embodiment incorporating the invention.
In said annexed drawing:
Fig. 1 is a side view of the front part of a flying body with tapered nose;
Fig. 2 is the similar representation of the front part of the flying body, whose nose has concave surface lines;
Fig. 3 shows, also in side view, the front part of aflying body having a ribbed nose with straight surface lines;
Fig. 4 is the front view of the flying body according to Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 shows the side view of the front portion of a flying body having a ribbed nose with concave surface lines;
Fig. 6 shows the side view'of a remote-controlled missile designed as rocket, and diagramatically the air currents forming round the same at supersonic speed;
Fig. 7 is the similar representation of a flying body with jet engine, the air currents forming at supersonic speed being likewise diagrammatically indicated.
With reference to Fig. l, the portion of a flying body as shown includes a nose 1-1 which has the outline of a cone and is symmetrically disposed with respect to the longitudinal axis thereof. The sectional dimensions of the nose 11 thus steadily increase from front to rear. "Directly behind the nose 11 there is a step 12, behind which the sectional dimension of the flying body is considerably reduced. The step behind the nose 11 has adjacent to it a cylindrical neck 13 by means of which the nose 11 is connected to the trunk or body 14 of the flying body. At the transition between step 12 and neck 13 there is provided a conical part 15 which, however, could be easily omitted. The chain-dotted lines show how at the rear portion of the nose 11, guide surfaces or vanes or control surfaces 16 could be'arranged to-stabilize the body during its flight and, if necessary, also to guide the flying body, provided the control surfacesare adjustable. If the described flying body is'a weapon, the point of the nose 11 could be provided with a detonator. At least the nose 11 consists of a material resistant to heat and vibrations in order to withstand the stresses set up at supersonic speed. The nose has a polished smooth surface. The apex angle A of the nose 11 and the axial length thereof have in any case to be chosen according to diameter and length of the rest of the flying body. The advantages and the manner of behavior of the described flying body are disclosed below with reference to The form of embodiment according to Fig. 2 differs principally from the one described in that the nose 11a has concave surface lines instead ofstraight ones, being however for the rest still conicall shaped. The surface k zssasm Patented Apr. 15, 1961 "ice of the nose is likewise polished smooth. A further distinctiou consists in that the interposed conical part 15 shown in Figure 1 is omitted at the transition from the step 12 to the neck of the flying body. The interposed part 15 might, however, also be provided in this case asindicated in chain-dotted lines. For the action of the flying body the interposed part 15 has no significance; it may, however, often be desired for reasons of strength or otherwise.
The nose 11b of the front part of the flying body, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, has substantially also the outline of a cone which, however, in contrast to Fig. 1 has at its periphery preferably uniformly distributed ribs 17, each extending in a plane which contains the longitudinal axis of the flying body. Toward the front end of the nose 11b the cross-sectional dimensions of the ribs 17 steadily decrease. The outer surfaces of the ribs 17 are polished. The other design of the flying body is identical with that described with reference to Fig. 2. The ribs 17 give the flying body a greater stability during its flight and enlarge the surface of the nose 11b, thus making it possible to shorten the length of the nose with respect to the form according to Fig. 1, without thereby appreciably altering the flying properties of the flying body. 7
Obviously, the cross-sectional shape of the ribs 17 and the intermediate grooves may differ from the triangular tends in a plane containing the longitudinal axis of the flying body. Also inthis case the cross-sectional dimensions of the ribs 17 steadily decrease towards the front end of the nose.
All forms as described hereinbefore will behave at supersonic speed substantially as disclosed in detail hereinafterfor the flying body according to Fig. 6..
The front part of the flying body which is a remotecontrolled missile, agrees with the design described with reference to Fig. 1. The neck 13is in its longitudinal direction adjustably connected to the trunk 14 and coaxially arranged with the longitudinal axis thereof. The neck 13 is mounted relative to the trunk 14 to permit automatic adjustment of the length of the neck during the flight in response to varying pressures resulting from varying speeds of the flying body. The trunk 14 has at its rear end the usual steadying surfaces 18 and includes, in addition to an explosive charge, a rocket engine which produces a jet stream 19 and blows out of an exhaust nozzle 20 at the rear end of the flying body.
If the described flying body moves at a speed which is greater than the speed of sound or amounts to a'multiple thereof, compressed waves 21 will be produced at the nose 11 in the gas, especially air, surrounding the flying body, which waves will diverge outwards in the direction of the generating surface of the nose and steeper, as diagrammatically indicated in Fig. 6 by broken lines. At the edge between the generating surface of the nose 11 and the step 12 the waves will leavetheflyirig body owing to the step-like reduction of its diameter, to propagate further outwards in the same direction to which they were previously forced by the generating surface of the nose 11.' Due to the gradually. decreasing intensity of the waves 21, these will eventually be bentor reflected at the outer undisturbed or slightly disturbed air layers 22 and thrown back toward the axis of the flying'body, as indicated in Fig. 6 by broken lines 23. By properly choosing the apex angle A and the lengthof the nose 11 and neck 13, it may be achieved that the deflected waves 3 i not touch the flying body. Since the Waves upon passage of the point of intersection will again diverge, the described actions will repeat several times periodically,
.whereby, however, owing to decreasing intensity of -the waves and the mixing process with the propulsion jet 19 the phenomenon dies downsoon. For the behaviorof the flying body, however, only the first period as shown in Fig. 6 is of significance.
'By the described and represented course of the com pressed waves 21 and 23 in the first period, the following advantages will result: 1
The waves sweeping over the flying body, only at the comparatively small surface of the nose 11,.at the renose 11, will depend on the speed of the flying body.
maining surface of the 'flying body neither frictional forces nor turbulences will set up which would produce a braking of the flying body together with heating and vibration of the material. The part ofthe flying body located behindthe nose 11 is protected by the waves 21 and 23 against influences of the medium surrounding the flying body. Decisive for the resistance to flight is essentially only the shape of the nose 11 which, owing to its comparative smallness, may be suited to the requirements Without economically unreasonable cost being thereby incurred.
As a further result of the compressed Waves .21 and 23, the flying body will be surrounded by an envelope of highly compressed gas which, because of its powerful dynamic impetus, is capable of protecting the flying Thus other bodies, such body from external influences. as missiles, will not be able to get close nor bring it down, because it will be warded ofi its course by the action of the potential current that continuously generates round the flying body. Since further the opposition offered by substances to the passage through it of rays'is the greater, the denser the substance will be, the compressed shock waves 21 and 23 surrounding. the flying body will moreover ensure an effective protection of the flying body against the influences of cosmic rays,
'X-rays, luminous, calorific and ultraviolet rays, waves sent out by radar, particles of mesons, mesotrons, micrometeorites, etc. Such waves or corpuscular rays will be either reflected on the shock Waves 21 and23 or be deprived of their energy.
Because of the shock waves 23 reflected toward the longitudinal axis of the flying body, impinging at an acute angle on the propulsion jet 19 near the point of intersection 24, shortly after the same has left the exhaust nozzle 20, as a result of the collision of said potential currents there will be a remarkable improvement of the static thrust on the flying body. Moreover, by the. meeting together of two or several potential currents of diiferent directions, the detonation otherwise usual when breaking through the sonic barrier will be diminished or practically eliminated.
If the flying body designed as rocket moves in the interstellar space, i.e. beyond the earths atmosphere, in
principle the same action and the same advantages will however be observed that the rudders 16 act inversely as compared with the classic form of the rudders fitted on the tail of a flying body.
In a modified form, the rudders 16 could, however, be replaced by such rudders which are arranged in the region of the exhaust nozzle 20 of the propulsion jet, ize.
within the nozzle 20 or at a short distance behind it,\to deviate the jet stream 19. This design of thecontrol system involves the advantage that ice cannot form on the control rudders and that the flying body can be kept with ease and great stability'in the intended path. of
flight or bebrought into another course. i j
obviously. thaens sy. or the waves at sa har este If it is desired that the point of intersection, at different flying speeds, should lie at the same distance behind the flying body, the distance of the nose 11 from the rear end thereof has to be altered in dependence on the flying speed, which maybebrought about by adjusting the length of the neck 13, Le. by pushing the neck 13 out of the trunk 14 to. a greater or less extent. With de creasing speed the nose 11 must be pushed farther forward, while with increasing. speed the nose can be retracted toward the trunk 14. The cylindric body forming the neck 13 must therefore be adequately long and be guided well supported in the trunk 14. The adjustment of the nose 11 may also be effected automatically by a servo-mechanism in dependence on the momentary flying speed.
The flying body as shown in Fig. 7 is distinguished from that according to Fig. 6 by a differentoutline of the trunk 14a. which, without interposition of a thinner neck, joins direct to the step 12 behind the nose 11d. Instead of a rocket engine, the trunk 14a includes a jet reaction engine which compresses and heats the air sucked-in at the front end of the flying body and ejects it at high speed to the rear through the exhaust nozzle 20 so as to produce a jet stream 19 also in this case. The inlet 25 for the air sucked-in is positioned at the front of the nose 11d Whichhas thus the outline of a truncated cone. Also in this case the nose 11d is fitted with rudders 16 as shown upon Figure 1, the edges of which extend in the direction of the waves 21 as in the form accordingto Fig. 6. The manner of behavior of the flying body at supersonic speed is the same as described hereinbefore with reference to Fig. 6 A distinction .only exists in that the flying body according to Fig.7, because of itspropulsion engine, can practically only fly in the atmosphere.
In @a modified form not shown) the tip of the nose 11a (Fig. 2) of the flying body could be cut OE and be provided with an air inlet for the jet reaction engine. The nose would then havethe outline of a truncated coneilike body with concave surface lines.
Finally, as an alternative, it would be possible to cut off the tip of the noses 11b and He shown in Figs. 3 through 5 and to provide them with an' air admission openmg.
I wish to be understood that I do not desire to be limit-- ed to the exact details ofconstruction shown and described, for obvious modifications will occur to those skilled in the art.
In the claim, the term radial section means a cross section cut by any plane through the longitudinal axis of the missile.
What I claim is: p p
In a missile for flight at supersonic speeds, an elongated body having a longitudinal axis of symmetry and a nose cone fixed coaxially with the forward end of said body, the surface of said cone being ribbed along regularlyspaced elements of the cone, each rib decreasing in height from base to apex of the cone, said ribs being arcuately concaye'in'radial section, and control vanes mounted on said cone at the base thereof.
References Cited inthe file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES National Advisoryicommittee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 3287,,September 1954 (Fig. 11 on page 26).
The PhilosophicalMagazine, Series 7, vol. 43, No. 342, J .t Z-P as- 9Z- i l i i