US 2980533 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
the amount of flux. ing methods are limited to the thickness of the coloring medium and flux which can be deposited. Furthermore,
'Another'j'objctiof the venton s I "design or 'image in fine line detail and subtletonl gradu-` United States v TRANSLUCENT OBJECTS DECORATED WITH DESIGNS OR IMAGES Alexander E. Charlton, Cincinnati, Ohio, assgnor to ?hotoceramics, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Mar. 6, 1953, Ser. No. 340325 1 Clain. (Cl. 96-34) therein, more especially ifeither is covered with an overlay of glaze or other protective material, and applied to a transparent object with a colored background.
Heretofore, photographically applied designs or images on transparent or translucent products have been reproduced, but with `the objectionable result that light will shine through the images or designs and they are not sufliciently opaque to be of the same brightness and intensity as when viewed against an opaque background. Furthermore, the pigments in the light sensitive material '7 in which the designs or images areformed contain a large amount of flux combined therewith which, of course, correspondingly dilutes the efiectiveness ot 'the pigment. Some of the glass Vitrifiable coloring material often times contains as much as ninety (90%) percent flux and as' When, therefore,`
little as ten percent pigment. such coloring material is used in photographic decora tion, the amount of the actual coloring material or pigment contained therein is very small in proporton to Then, too, photographic decoratsome light sensitive materials, particularly 'those containing metallic salts as a sensitizing agent, have an adverse etfect upon some coloring oxides and thus greatly impair the effectiveness of the coloring material because of the small proportion of coloring pigment present in respect to the flux. This objection is avoided here by reducing the proportion of the flux, or eliminating it altogether, in the light sensitive material so that substantially all of the coloring matter Will be composed of i the coloring pigment with little, if any flux.
Accordingly, one of the objects of the present invention isin interposing an opaque background layer between a transparent or translucent object to be decorated and the decorative design applied thereon and having'lttle,
if any flux in the coloring material used in the .design.
Another object of the invention is to utilize amardmum amount of coloring pigment in the light, sensitive material in Whichthe design or image is formed.
v Another object of the invention isto overlay the design or image with aprotectve flux material rather than ini jcorporating theflux with the pigment..
The inatent O ment after firing.
embodiments of my invention are illustrated in the draw:
ings, forming a part of this specification, in which:
Fig; 1 is a cross-sectional View of one embodiment of the invention before firing. I
Fig. 2 is a cross-section of the embodiment after firing.
Fig. 3 is a cross-sectonal view of a second embodiment of the invention before firing.
Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view of ment after firing. r A
Fig. 5 is a cross-section of a third embodiment of the invention before firing.
Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional viewof the third embodiment after firing.
Fig. 7 is a cross-sectional view of a fourth embodiment of the invention before firing.
Fig. 8 is `a cross-sectional view of the fourth embodithe second embodi- Fig. 9 is a cross-sectional view of 'a fifth embodiment before firing.
Fig; 10 is a cross-sectional view of the fifth embodiment after firing.
In photographic designs on objects to be decorated, it
- will be ,appreciated thatto reproduce the designs in the fine line detail necessary, the light sensitive coloring material inwhich they are reproduced must be in very thin inch. However, on transparent layers or films, prefe'rably of a thickness of .001 to .0 03 or translucent objects this permits the light to shinethrough the designs and dim their brightness and intensity. Then, too,the pigment or coloring component of the coloring material contains a large amount of flux, more often a preponderant proportion,' so that' the color efiectiveness of some colors thereof is materially reduced by reaction between-the pigment and some light sensitive materials, more particularly that caused by metallic salts, usually contained in some light sensitive materials, upon the oxides in some coloring materials.- I t The aim of the presentjinventior is to' provide' a colored background on one side of the design and a transparent or translucent foreground on the other'side through which the design is visible. Then, too, the coloring matter in the light sensitive material is` substantially free from fiux so that a maximum amount of colored material will be in the design, thereby rendering said in formingthe with. 'mafies isa design brighter and* more intense than if diluted with fluX.
'If any protection is required for the designs, they are' overlaid 'with a flurl( or" glaze after being applied rather thanlbeing'inc or'porated within the coloringmaterial.
Referring 'specifically 'to the drawings ir' which like numerals are usecl'to designate like parts, numeral 3 is an object to be decorated, such as glass, china, ea'rthenware,
porcelain-enamel or metal, more particularly transparent 2 (Figs. to 4) isapplied to aselected coloring i .oxides, with i ..flu :m x iih 'soft glass ground to a very fine mesh pigment material and uX 'without'limitation as to the particular pigment material or ,to *the ux, or to their proportions. The'proportion of the ux to the pigment or coloring matter, and-the type of fiux, vary considerably, depending upon the article to be decorated and the firing temperature .towhich it is to be'subjected. The ux should be of a nature to assistin the development of the color used and be of a character suitable to ,the purposes for which the decorated object is used. It should resist abrasion and Chemical reaction With materials with which the decorated object 'may be contacted, such as cleaning and sterilizing materials. Then, too, the fluX should ;have the same therrnal expansion 'characteristics as the material or object on which it is fired.
A photographic design 4 is reproduced in light sensitive material in any conventional manner, or vpreferably by the method of my application Serial No. 162,754 which is incorporated heren by reference and trelied upon in ullas a part of the disclosure for photographically decorating the objects. All of the portions of the light sensitive coating, except that in which the design is tormed, are removed, leaving only the design 4 as shown in the drawing. While design 4 is referred to as a photographc design, it will be understood that it maybe applied in any i other manner, such as rubber stamping, transfers and the like.
The design applied by the method of my application is particularly suitable, since it is formed in two separately applied light sensitive layers, the first applied layer being' free of the pigment and the second applied layer containing pigment. consequently, the design is brighter and more intense, as well asbeing sharper. and in finer detail i than conventionally .applied designs as there will be no objectionable shaded background.
The decorated design or image is overlaid with a transparent fusible flux layer 5, free of pigment, this serving `as a protective layer both for the design and the colored background. 'The colored background layer 2 may be somewhat greater in area than the area of the design or image (Figs. l and 2), particularly ir" said colored background contains suificient fiux to cover and protect the coloring pigments therein, but if the colored background tmaterials substantially free from flux as is the coloring material in the design, the superimposed layer is of greater area than the colored background 2, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4 to completely cover the design and the background layer. V EXcept for thisdiference as to the areas of the protective overlay layer and the background in respect toeach other, the embodiments in Figs. lto 4 are the same.
In the embodiment of Figs. 5 and e, the design 4 is applied directly to the transparent or translucent base 3,
'with the colored layer 2 overlying the design or image 4.
In this embodiment, `the desigrnor thernaterial forming same, may be free from flux since it is protected between the base' 3 and the overlying colored layer. HoweVer,
sutficient flux is contained in the overlay layer to protect the design and also the pigment in said overlying colored layer,'and if there bernany flux in the design it will, fuse with that in the overlay layer. Or the design'and colored layer can both be free of fiux with a transparent protective layer of fluxas an overlay, as in Figs. l to 4.
The'embodiment in Figs, 7 and ,8 is the same as the! A. 2 and the design 4 to inprson the pigments thereof and protect them.
The embodiment of Figs. 9 and 10 discloses the design 4 applied directly to the surface of transparent or translucent object 3 and said design is overlaid with the transparent layer 5, there being-no colored background, such as shown in Figs. 1 to 8. This embodiment particularly pertains to designs utilizing pigments of intense coloring properties !and which retain such properties after being fired, it being understood that some pigments which are inherently intense are unstable in the ring operation so as to lose some of their inherent color intensity.
Figs. 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 show the various embodiments as they are manufactured and prepared' prior to 'firng, whereas Figs. 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 show the respective embodiments after they have been fired. The superimposed layers 'will flow to someextent, and the design will, when superimposed on the background layer (Figs. 1 to 8), slightly settle itself to be partially embedded within the colored background.
It will be understood that any carrier or binding medium for the coloing material, in addition to or in lieu of flux will be of such anature as to burn out and leave no residue when the prepared decorated object is firedat a temperature to melt the protective flux layer or the fluxed design and/ or colored background.
in the embodiments of Figs. 1 to 4, the design is'laid down on the :colored background, and will be visible through the transparent overlaid glaze 5, the ,colored background being interposed between the transparent or translucent object 3 .and the -superimposed design 4 'and overlay 5. So, too, will the embodiment inFgs. 7 and 8 be visible from the top above the .colored background on which it is formed.
In the embodiment of Figs. 5 and 6, the design is visible from the bottom through the transparent or translucent` object ,which is decorated, it being overlaid -with the colored background, :whereas in `theembodiment of Figs. `9 ,and lOvthedesign is visible fromeither side.
However, in all of the. embodiments, thedesign is .made from coloredmaterial having amaximunramount of pigment therein .s'o that it will be of maximum bright- A ness andintensity, .there being only a small amount of vchangeably r'ferring broadly to objects which are transparent or translucent.` i g v While the roregoing has been described particularly 'in reference to fi1'eable:fusible layers in which the desgnsare found, it willbe understood that the invention is also applicable to `layers-which need not be fired for fusion; purposes but` simply heated sufficiently to set. or
v harden them. Accordingly, the background layer for the embodimentin Figs. 1 to 4, except thatthe superimposed overlying transparent glaze 5has been omitted, sufficient flux being, containedwithin the colored background layer design *or the protective layer Overthe design,` or'both,
could be formed of such materials as transparent or opaque plastics of which Organic silicon oxidepolymers are representative. v v
I am aware that there may be various changes in detailsof Construction ;and composition without ,departing trom the spirit of my' invention, and, therefore, Iclaim my invention broadly as indicated bytheappended claim. V, Having thus described my invention, what I claim as 'new :and useful, and desire .to secure by U.S.` Letters 'l atent,` is:
,pignented lightsensitizedlayer superimposed on a non =p gmentetbrnable light sensitized layer' appliedto the' References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Salvy Jan. 20, 1880 6 Hughes Nov. 1, 1927 Schulz Feb. 21, 1933 Matthes Sept. 24, 1940 Schlegel Dec. 31, 1940 Sheetz Feb. 23, 1943 Staehle June 7, 1949 Minsk et al. Ian. 24, 1956