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Publication numberUS2982121 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 2, 1961
Filing dateJul 7, 1958
Priority dateJul 7, 1958
Publication numberUS 2982121 A, US 2982121A, US-A-2982121, US2982121 A, US2982121A
InventorsGeorge Harry F
Original AssigneeGeorge Harry F
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tumbler lock and key
US 2982121 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 2, 1961 H. F. GEORGE 2,982,121

TUMBLER LOCK AND KEY Filed July 7, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 A f H y 1961 H. F. GEORGE 2,982,121

TUMBLER LOCK :AND KEY Filed July 7, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent if TUMBLER LOCK AND KEY Harry F. George, Park Ridge, I11. (919 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago 11, Ill.)

Filed July 7, 1958, Ser. No. 746,859

6 Claims. (Cl. 70-363) This invention relates to a tumbler lock, and more particularly to a tumbler lock of improved construction, economical to manufacture, and possessing greater efliciency and durability, and to a novel key therefor and method of forming the same.

Among the objects of my invention are: to provide a novel and improved tumbler lock; to provide a tumbler lock constructed for operation by a tubular key having bittings formed on the inside of its open end; to provide a tumbler lock having a molded plastic barrel fixed to the shell, and carrying slidable tumbler pins and springs; to provide a tumbler lock having a rotatable keyoperated locking plug of novel construction; to provide a rotatable locking plug having a novel spacer washer and associated parts; to provide a novel key and method of making the same; to provide a novel shell, rotatable plug, and key for a tumbler lock; and such further objects, advantages and capabilities, inherently possessed by my invention, as will later more fully appear.

My invention further resides in the combination, construction and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and while I have shown therein a preferred embodiment, I wish it understood that thesame is susceptible of modification and change without departing from the spirit of my invention.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is an enlarged side elevation of a tumbler lock embodying my invention, and showing the key about to be inserted into the lock.

Fig. 2 is a view similar. to Fig. 1, but showing the lock and key as viewed looking downwardly at the top of Fig. l.

Fig. 3 is an end view looking toward the line 3-3 in the direction of the arrows in Fig. 1, but omitting the key. 4

Fig. 4 is anend view looking toward the line 4-4 in the direction of the arrows in Fig. 1.

Fig. 5 is an enlarged end view of the'key, looking toward the open end of the tubular head'thereof.

Fig. 6 is a transverse section on the line 6-6 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 7' is an enlarged, vertical, longitudinal, median section on the line 77 of Fig. 8.

Fig. 8 is a transverse section on the line 88 of Fig. 7.

Fig. 9 is a horizontal, longitudinal, median section on understanding of how they are to be assembled together.

In the form shown for illustrative purposes in the drawings, my invention comprises in general a stamped shell or casing 1, a locking plug having a shaft 2, a cap 3, a spacer washer 4, and three stampings 5, 6 and 7, the parts of the locking plug being fixed to rotate together as a unit, a molded plastic barrel 8 fixed to the shell, a cam plate 9 removably fixed to the shaft to rotate therewith, a fastening element It for holding the looking plug and cam plate against longitudinal displacement with relation to the shell and barrel but permitting rotation with relation thereto, and a key 11.

The shell 1 is a metallic sleeve preferably stamped out of brass, and is formed at its key end with an inwardly extending annular flange 12 having 'a key notch 13, the other end of the sleeve being formed with an open ended longitudinally extending slot 14 in preferably approximate alinement with the key notch 13 longitudinally of the shell sleeve. The shaft 2 of the locking plug is shown as being of hexagonal cross section, although other noncircular cross section could be used if desired. The cap 3 is fixed with a press-fit, or other suitable means as desired, over the key end of the shaft, and has formed to extend longitudinally along its outer circumferential surface a key notch 15, as will be understood in Figs. 8 and 13. The spacer washer 4 is formed with a central axial hole 16 of a shape corresponding to the cross section of the 'shaft 2 and of a size to be fixed to the shaft with a press-fit when pressed onto the cumferentially spaced flutes or channels 17 extending in a direction longitudinally of the shaft, for a purpose later more fully explained.

The three stampings 5, 6. and 7 are of disk shape of a diameter approximately that of the inside of the body of the shell 1, with just enough clearance to permit free rotation of these disks with relation to the shell when the parts are in unlocking position. Each of these disks is formed with a central axial hole 18 of a shape corresponding to the cross section of shaft 2, and of a size to be fixed to theshaft with a-press-it when pressed onto the shaft to bring one of the side faces of disk 5 into contact with the adjacent side face of spacer washer 4, one side face of disk 6 into contact with the adjacent side face of disk 5, and one side face of disk 7 into contact with the adjacent side face of disk 6. The thickness of each of disks 5, 6 and 7 is approximately one sixteenth of an inch, but can vary therefrom as may be suitable and desirable. Each of the disks is formed with a plurality of tumbler pin holes 19 extending therethrough in a direction longitudinally of the shaft, so that when the three disks are fixed side by side on the shaft, these holes will so aline in groups to form a plurality of tumbler pin holes which also respectively aline with the flutes 17 in the spacer washer 4.

A tumbler pin 20 is slidably mounted in each of holes 19, these pins varying in length for reasons well understood in the tumbler lock industry. The key ends of these pins, being respectively in alinement with the respective flutes or scallops 17 in the spacer washer 4, will, when under pressure, he forced into contact with the inner edge of cap 3, as will be understood in Figs. 7 and 9. As seen in Figs. 4 and 8, the tumbler pin holes 19 in the disks 5-7 are arranged in a circle concentric with the axis of shaft 2, and the external diameter of cap 3 is such that the outer circumferential edge of this cap extends a slight distance radially outwardly over a portion of the tumber pin ends, but leaving a substantial portion of the pin ends exposed to be contacted by the bitting ends of the key as later more fully described. As will be understood the flutes in the outer edge of the spacer washer 4 make possible this partial contact of the tumbler pin ends with the inner end of the cap 3, and at the same time insures that each of the pins will be maintained in alinement with its hole in disks 5-7. The disks 5-7 constitute a locking cylinder fixed to rotate with the shaft.

The barrel 8 is cylindrical in shape and of a diameter to be fixedly held in the shell 1 by a pin 21 passing through a hole 22 in the shell and into a corresponding hole in the body of the barrel, as will be understood in Figs. 2, 7 and 12. The barrel 8 is also formed with an integral upstanding lug 23 which, when the barrel is inserted into the shell, passes into the slot 14 of the shell to further hold the barrel against rotation in the shell. In order to further hold the lug 23 fixedly in place in slot 14 the metal of the shell just back of the lug is swaged inwardly a slight amount at 24 to lessen the width of the slot, as seen in Fig. 2. When in assembled position, the rear end, to the left as viewed in Fig. 7, of the barrel 8 is flush with the rear end of the shell 1.

The barrel 8 is formed with a central longitudinal bore 25 extending axially therethrough, of a diameter enough larger than the maximum diameter of shaft 2 to permit rotation of the shaft in the barrel during operation of the lock, and at the same time prevent wobbling of the shaft in the barrel. Also formed in the barrel around a portion of a circle concentric with the axis of the shaft are a plurality of longitudinal, circumferentially spaced, tumbler pin holes 26 closed at one end and open at the other, which open ends can be respectively brought into registry with the respective holes 19 in the disks 5-7 when the locking plug is rotated to such position. Slidably mounted in holes 26, one in each, are tumbler pins 27, these pins varying in length so that their forward ends may be brought into the parting plane by the bittings in the key, as will be understood in the art. Mounted behind each of the pins 27, in holes 26, are coiled compression springs 28 to normally urge these pins forwardly, as shown in Figs. 7, 9 and 11. When the barrel and locking plug are in assembled position in the shell, the forward end of the barrel 8 will be in rotatably sliding contact with the rear face of disk 7, to form therebetween a parting plane 29.

The barrel 8 is formed of molded plastic material of such nature as to enable the central bore 25, the tumbler pin holes 26, and the lug 23, to be formed in the barrel by molding, and to be present in the barrel when the hardened barrel is removed from the mold. Any suitable commercial plastic material may be used as desired, but one such material that I have successfully used for this purpose is a nylon resin available on the market under the trade name Zytel which is manufactured by the Du Pont Co. Molded plastic barrels thus formed are less expensive than machined metal barrels, and will not rust, and are self lubricating.

Mounted on shaft 2, at the rear end of shell 1, is the cam plate 9 having a hole 30 of a shape corresponding to the cross section of the shaft and of a size to be snugly slipped over the shaft, and also be removable therefrom when desired. A portion of the cam plate 9 is radially extended at 31, and as such cam plates are generally known in the art further detail description thereof is not necessary. When cam plate 9 is positioned on shaft 2, with its extended portion 31 in rotatably slidable contact with the rear end of shell 1, it is secured against rearward longitudinal slipping on the shaft by forcing a spring clamping element into a circumferential groove 33 formed in the shaft to contact the rear face of the cam plate.

In the above described structure the stamped shell 1, the cap 3, the spacer washer 4, the stamping disks 5, 6 and 7, and the tumbler pins 20 and 27, are each preferably formed of brass, the shaft 2 and the cam plate 9 are each preferably formed of steel, and the barrel 8 is preferably made of molded plastic material. The shell is preferably stamped into shape, which lessens its cost of manufacture.

I have provided a novel form of key 11 which is made of two halves a and b each of which is stamped from a flat sheet metal blank, the two halves then being secured together by spot welding, or other suitable fastening means as desired. As seen in Figs. 1 and 2, the finished key comprises a flat portion 34 to facilitate turning the key by the operators fingers, and a tubular head portion 35, the end of which is to be inserted into the annular space 36 formed between the shell and the outer circumference of cap 3. In stamping the blank of the key half b each of its side edges in the part to be formed into half of a tube will have a dovetail projection 37 formed thereon, and the blank of the key half a will have formed formed in each of its side edges in the part to be formed into half of a tube a dovetail recess 38 to be complemental with the respective projection 37 of the other half, and to receive the same when the tubular portions have been bent into semicircular curves and placed together, as will be understood in Fig. 2. Also on one edge of one of the blanks of one of the halves, this being shown on half a in Figs. 2 and 5, a lug 39 is bent to extend radially outwardly of the finished key, one end of said lug 39 being flush with the edge of the open end of the tubular head of the key. Just back of lug. 39 on the same half a, a lug 40 is bent to extend radially inwardly of the finished key. These lugs 39 and 40 will be understood in Figs. 1, 2, 5 and 11. The positioning of the dovetail projections and recesses 37 and 38, and the radial lugs 39 and 40, may be reversed to the side edges of the other half, if desired.

Also stamped into the blanks of the two key halves, at the free ends of the parts to be bent into the tubular head of the key, are the bittings 41. These bittings are stamped so as to be on the inside of the tubular head of the key. In other words, they are stamped so as to put the bitting grooves on the inside of the end portion of the tubular head of the key, and the pressed out embossed portion 42 thereof on the outside of the tubular head, as seen in Fig. 5. As is understood in the art, these bittings will vary in length so that when they push on the adjacent ends of the driving tumbler pins 20, the opposite ends of these pins will be flush with the parting plane 29 when the key is pushed home in the lock, because of having pushed the tumbler pins 27 in the barrel 8 rearwardly against springs 28. This places all of the abutting ends of the tumbler pins 20 and 'the tumbler pins 27 flush with the parting plane 29, to permit rotation of the locking plug with relation to the barrel and shell. This is the unlocking position of the parts, as seen in Fig. 11. When the key is removed from the lock, the two sets of tumbler pin holes will be in respective alinement and the coil springs 28 will force the abutting ends of the tumbler pins out of the parting plane into the locking position, as seen in Figs. 7 and 9.

Referring to Figs. 4 and 13, it will be seen that the internal flange 12, at the key end of the shell 1, is formed with a plurality of circumferentially spaced scallops or recesses 43 for receivin the respective outer embossed surfaces 42 of the bittings 41, to permit the key to be inserted into place in the lock. It will also be noted that when inserting the key into position in the lock, the outer key lug 39 will pass through key notch 13 in the shell flange 12, and the inner key lug 40 will pass through key notch 15 in cap 3. This permits the outer and inner key lugs to move circumferentially in the annular space ance.

36 between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the cap 3 and spacer washer 4, except that the right hand end, as viewed in Fig. 11, of the inner key lug 40, will still be seated in the key notch 15 in the cap 3 when the key is pushed home in the lock. This enables the inner key lug 40 to transmit rotational force to the cap 3 when rotating the locking plug with relation to the shell, without the interengagement of the bittings with the driving tumbler pins 20 being required to take the turning force of the key. The cap 3 is spaced inwardly from the inner edge of the shell flange 12 sufiiciently to provide the annular slot 44 to receive the tubular end of the key when the key is inserted into the lock, as seen in Fig. 4.

The above described structure enables me to provide a tumbler lock that is economical to manufacture, efiicient and durable in operation, and attractive in appear- The forming of the bittings on the inside of the end of the tubular portion of the key provides additional security because it makes it more difiicult to observe or measure the depth of the bittings than if they were on the outside, and also gives a better key because it provides less wear on the lining of the owners pocket.

Having described my invention, I claim:

1. Ina tumbler lock, a shell, a barrel fixed to the shell, a locking cylinder rotatably mounted in said shell and contacting the barrel, a shaft with which said locking cylinder is fixed for rotation therewith, said shaft being-rotatable with relation to the barrel, an enlarged portion on one end portion of the shaft forming an annular shoulder therearound in a plane at right angles to the axis of rotation of the shaft, a spacer washer fixed to the shaft between the shoulder and locking cylinder, said locking cylinder and barrel having holes extending parallel to the shaft, tumbler pins in said holes, one end of each of the tumbler pins in the locking cylinder passing over the peripheral edge of the spacer washer and normally contacting said shoulder on the shaft, said shell having on one end an inwardly extendiug flange adjacent to but diametrically spaced away from the enlarged portion of the shaft, a key having a tubular end formed with circumferentially spaced bittings on its inner surface, the tubular portion of the key at each hitting passing outside of the respective end portion of the locking cylinder tumbler pin, the last mentioned locking cylinder tumbler pin end portions coming in contact with the bittings on the inside of the key tubular portion.

2. In a tumbler lock as claimed in claim 1, in which the outer end of each of the locking cylinder tumbler pins adjacent said shoulder is at all times spaced inwardly away from contact with said shell flange in a direction longitudinally of the shaft.

3. A tumbler lock, comprising, a rotatable shaft, 8. barrel having a central longitudinal bore to rotatably receive the shaft, a locking cylinder fixed to rotate with the shaft, an enlarged portion on one end portion of the shaft forming an annular shoulder therearound in a plane at right angles to the axis of rotation of the shaft, a spacer washer fixed to the shaft between the shoulder and locking cylinder, said locking cylinder and barrel having holes extending parallel to the shaft, tumbler pins in said holes, one end of each of the tumbler pins in the locking cylinder passing over the peripheral edge of the spacer washer and normally contacting said Shoulder on the shaft, resilient means in the barrel holes 6 for normally urging the locking cylinder tumbler pins into contact with theshoulder to prevent the tumbler pins from falling out of the locking cylinder and barrel, the shaft extending completely through the locking cylinder and the barrel, and the locking cylinder being rotatable with relation to the barrel.

4. A tumbler lock as claimed in claim 3, in which said shoulder is the sole contact for the locking cylinder tumbler pin outer ends to prevent them falling out when the lock is in locked position. v

5. A tumbler lock, comprising, a shaft, a locking cyl inder fixed to rotate with the shaft, a barrel having a central longitudinal bore to rotatably receive the shaft, the locking cylinder having a plurality of holes extending therethrough parallel to'the axis of the shaft, said barrel having a plurality of holes extending partway thereinto parallel to the axis of the shaft, tumbler pins in said holes, a cap fixed onto one end of the shaft and being of greater overall transverse dimension than the overall transverse dimension of the shaft and forming an annular shoulder therearound in a plane at right angles to the axis of rotation of the shaft, a spacer washer fixed on the shaft for rotation therewith and positioned between said cap and locking cylinder, said spacer washer having on its circumferential edge a plurality of flutes equal in number to the number of locking cylinder tumbler pin holes, the bottom ends of said flutes falling on a circle of less diameter than the diameter of said cap and larger than the diameter of the shaft, the adjacent ends of the tumbler pins in the locking cylinder normally extending through said flutes and contacting said annular shoulder and preventing the tumbler pins from falling out of the locking cylinder.

6. A tumbler lock, comprising, a shell, a barrel fixed to the shell, a locking cylinder rotatably mounted in said shell and contacting the barrel, a shaft with which said locking cylinder is fixed for rotation therewith, said shaft passing through the barrel and being rotatable with relation thereto, an enlarged portion on one end portion of the shaft forming an annular shoulder therearound in a plane at right angles to the axis of rotation of the shaft, a spacer washer fixed to the shaft between the shoulder and locking cylinder, said locking cylinder and barrel 2 having holes extending parallel to the shaft, tumbler pins in said holes, one end of each of the tumbler pins in the locking cylinder passing over the peripheral edge of the spacer washer and normally contacting said shoulder on the shaft, said shell having on one end an inwardly extending flange adjacent to but diametrically spaced away from the enlarged portion of the shaft, the outer end of each of the locking cylinder tumbler pins adjacent said shoulder being at all times spaced inwardly away from contact with said shell flange in a direction longitudinally of the shaft.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,517,177 Stone Nov. 25, 1924 1,619,252 George Mar. 1, 1927 1,877,404 Jacobi Sept. 13, 1932 1,984,202 Shinn Dec. 11, 1934 1,998,900 Lombardo Apr. 23, 1935 2,014,233 Keil Sept. 10, 1935 2,105,099 Schuyler Jan. 11, 1938 ,133,187 Cheney Oct. 11, 1938 2,292,515 George Aug. 11, 1942 2,588,230 George Mar. 4, 1952

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1517177 *Jan 10, 1921Nov 25, 1924American Hardware CorpKey and process of forming the same
US1619252 *Dec 12, 1921Mar 1, 1927George Harry FTumbler lock
US1877404 *Jul 29, 1929Sep 13, 1932Briggs & Stratton CorpLock
US1984202 *Sep 4, 1934Dec 11, 1934Chicago Lock CoKey for locks
US1998900 *Oct 31, 1934Apr 23, 1935Joseph LombardoLock
US2014233 *Jun 26, 1934Sep 10, 1935Keil Francis & Son IncLock construction
US2105099 *Aug 31, 1935Jan 11, 1938Western Electric CoMethod of manufacturing keys
US2133187 *Sep 8, 1937Oct 11, 1938William Cheney CharlesKey for locks
US2292515 *Jun 21, 1941Aug 11, 1942George Harry FTumbler lock
US2588230 *Apr 9, 1947Mar 4, 1952George Harry FTumble lock
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3524335 *Feb 6, 1968Aug 18, 1970George Harry FAxial tumbler type lock and key therefor
US3886780 *Jun 17, 1974Jun 3, 1975Fort Lock CorpMethod of making a tubular key construction
US4838060 *May 12, 1988Jun 13, 1989Fort Lock CorporationTubular key and corresponding lock housing key entry construction
US5592837 *Sep 11, 1995Jan 14, 1997Universal LockPick resistant lock
US5964108 *Jan 9, 1998Oct 12, 1999Mcbride; Darryl G.High security lock
US6038898 *Jan 6, 1998Mar 21, 2000Compx International, Inc.Internally bitted key changeable, axial pin tumbler lock and compatible key
US7681425Nov 2, 2009Mar 23, 2010Stanley Security Solutions, Inc.Key and core with side pin
US8065897Mar 23, 2010Nov 29, 2011Stanley Security Solutions, Inc.Key and core with side pin
US8186194Mar 27, 2009May 29, 2012Medeco Security Locks, Inc.Cylinder lock and auxiliary locking mechanism
US8479545 *Nov 29, 2011Jul 9, 2013Stanley Security Solutions, Inc.Key for use with lock core having side pin
US20120240644 *Nov 29, 2011Sep 27, 2012Diana TeixeiraKey for use with lock core having side pin
WO1989011015A1 *Feb 10, 1989Nov 16, 1989Fort Lock CorpTubular key and corresponding lock housing key entry construction
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/491, 70/367, 70/404, 70/351, 70/331
International ClassificationE05B27/00, E05B27/08
Cooperative ClassificationE05B27/083
European ClassificationE05B27/08B