US 2982200 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 2, 1961 s. ROBERTSON ETAL FIG..|
5 Sheets-Sheet 1 May 2, 19 1 s; ROBERTSON ETAL 2,982,200
v CAN CRUSHING MACHINE Filed June 6, 1958 lel sss 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 May 2, 1961 s. ROBERTSON ET AL 7 CAN CRUSHING MACHINE 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed June 6, 1958 FIG? rates 2,982,200 CAN CRUSHING MACHINE Snell Robertson, Los Angeles, Calif., and Scott 'E. Allen,
Montclair, NJ assignors to Swing-Spout Measure Co., Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Filed June 6, 1958, Ser. No. 740,289 4 Claims. (Cl. 100-53) This invention relates to can crushing machines or devices and more particularly to an improved machine for crushing cans of moderate size such, for example, as one quart and five quart cans in which liquids such as lubricating oil are dispensed.
In automobile service stations where large quantities of empty cans from which oil, fluid for automatic transmissions, and other liquids, have been removed the empty cans occupy valuable space and their disposal presents a considerable problem. Furthermore, these cans contain scrap metal such as steel and aluminum, and merely to send them to the town disposal plant constitutes an economic waste.
One of the particular features of the present invention resides in the provision of an improved can crushing machine by which such empty cans are, in effect, reduced to scrap metal which can be stored without inconvenience and periodically collected by scrap dealers and delivered ice ticular, it can be used to advantage wherever empty cans in some quantity must be disposed of and the necessary air pressure is available.
' For a better understanding of the invention reference by low air pressure, such as is available in scrvice stations,
and, as indicated, is easy to feed, and discharges the crushed cans automatically.
The crushing machine of our present invention has a light frame structure in which stationary and movable plates are mounted in vertical and parallel relationship. A fluid pressure cylinder such as an air-operated cylinder is arranged within the frame to operate the movable plate and, after placing a can between the plates while they are in'withdrawn or separated position, the air pressure is applied by means of a hand-operated valve and the two ends of the can are forced toward one another crushing the side walls and reducing the volume of the can very considerably, namely, to about one-sixth of its original volume. Advantageously, the machine includes a can crushing chamber in collinear arrangement with the fluid pressure cylinder and this chamber is closed on allsides except the bottom. As a safety feature to prevent injury to the operator a cover is provided for the crushing chamber which may be hinged at about. the middle of the device, and when this cover is raised to insert a can, an interlocking mechanism is operated which prevents the opening of the air supply valve as long as the cover is raised. I
The can, or cans, to be crushed are rested upon short projections or pins on the respective movable and stationary plates, and, after the crushing operation, the crushed cans drop out automatically as soon as the movable plate is retracted a short distance from the -stationary plate. The crushing device is light in weight and may be placed over an empty barrel, drum or other receptacle into which the crushed cans drop. The device may be transferred from the top of one barrel to another, a rack or suitable support being provided to support the crushing machine on the top of the'barrel or other receptacle.
Although the improved machine is intended for the crushing of cans in automobile service stations, in parshould be made to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a can crushing machine andthe upper portion of a barrel on which it is temporarily beingoperated;
Fig. 2 is a central vertical section of the machine shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1, but with the cover closed and the parts shown at the end of a crushing stroke;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the machine as indicated by the line 44 of Fig. 2 and showing the cover in section;
Fig. 5 is a view partly in end elevation and partly in section being taken on line 55 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is a vertical transverse section taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 7 is a similar section taken on line 77 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary horizontal section showing a modified detail;
Fig- 9 is a vertical fragmentary section showing a further modification of such detail;
Fig. 10 is a vertical section showing a modified form of an end or reaction plate and is drawn to a considerably smaller scale than Figs. l-7;
Fig. 11 is a plan view partly in horizontal section taken on line 11-11 of Fig. 12 of a modified form of the crushing machine;
Fig. 12 is a vertical section taken on line 12-12 of Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a fragmentary vertical section illustrating a detail of Fig. 11;
Fig. 14 is a view in horizontal section similar to the part of Fig. 11 which is shown in section, and illustrating a modification;
Fig. 15 is a modification of the structure shown in Fig. 14;
. Fig. 16 is a fragmentary plan view of a modified form of the short and long stroke apparatus illustrated in Figs. 11-13 but drawn to a much smaller scale;
Fig. 17 is a vertical transverse section taken on line 1717 of Fig. 16; and
Fig. 18 is a fragmentary side elevation of the right end of the machine showing a modification of the air valve and interlock mechanism.
The can crushing machine shown in Figs. l-7 is intended for crushing the usual one quart lubricating oil cans one at a time. It is shown in perspective in Fig. 1 supported by means of a rack 1 which has been placed over the top of a drum or barrel 2 in which the crushed cans are collected. The rack 1 comprises two spaced longitudinal angle bars long enough to somewhat more than span the top of barrel 2 and connected by cross angle bars 3 which are welded to the side bars to form a rigid structure. The can crushing machine merely rests upon the cross bars 3 and may be readily lifted ofi of the rack when desired as, for example, in transferring the rack and crushing machine to another barrel.
The can crushing machine of Figs. 1 to 7 comprises a frame structure consisting of two rectangular plates 4 and 5 one at each end, and connected by four longitudinal rods or bolts 6. The heads of these bolts are each welded to the right hand plate 4 as indicated at 7, and the left-hand plate 5 is held in position by pairs of nuts 8, one on each side of the plate. Hence, rods 6 serve both to space and to tie togther the plates 4 and 5.
The right-hand plate 4 serves as the cylinder head for an air cylinder 9 which comprises a section of large steel tubing welded to plate 4- around its periphery so as to make an air-tight joint therewith. Arranged to reciprocate within cylinder 9 there is a ram indicated generally by numeral 10 and comprising a piston structure 11 at its right end and a heavy steel plate constituting a ram head 12 at its left end. The piston structure 11 comprises a circular plate 13, a cup-shaped packing member .14 and a disc 15, these parts being secured together by means of a screw 16 and nut 17.
A pipe plug 18 is mounted in a threaded aperture in plate 4 to facilitate the assembly of these parts. Plates 12 and 13 of the ram structure are secured together by means of a steel structure 19 which is U-shaped in cross section, as may be seen in Fig. 7, so as to be open at the .bottom for access to the screw and nut 16, 17. Plates 12 and 13 are welded to the opposite ends of the U- shaped member 19 so that the parts form a rigid unitary ram structure possessing considerable compressural strength.
The ram head 12 is arranged to reciprocate horizontally with respect to the end plate which constitutes the reaction member of the crushing device and the cans, such as the can 20, are placed between the two substantially parallel and vertical plates 5 and 12 while the plate 12 is held in retracted position, as shown in Fig. 2. Thereupon air pressure is introduced into the right end of cylinder 9 causing the ram and the ram head or plate 12 to be moved towards the reaction plate 5 thereby crushing the side walls of the can structure and moving the beaded opposite ends of the can into proximity to one another, as shown in Fig. 3. Upon the release of the air pressure in cylinder 9 the ram and its ram head 12 are moved back to their original or withdrawn position by means of a pair of tension coil springs 21 (Fig. 4). One end of each spring is connected to the right hand end plate 4 and the opposite end thereof to one side margin of the ram plate 12.
Air is supplied to the device by means of an air hose 22 under a pressure of around 80 to 200 pounds per square inch. This hose is connected to a three-way control valve 23 having an operating lever 24 which is pivoted and which engages a stem 26. When this lever is depressed by hand it depresses the stern, and the air under pressure is admitted to cylinder 9, and when the stem is released it is spring-returned to its upper position which opens a passage (not shown) allowing the air within the cylinder to escape to atmosphere.
The space between the crushing plates 12 and 5, that is, between the ram head and the reaction plate is closed on its opposite sides and top to form a crushing chamber. The opposite side walls 27 are of sheet metal and .have lugs at their left ends which are perforated, bent at right angles to the walls and clamped under the outside nuts 8 on the rods 6. Each plate has pressed into its interior surface a longitudinal recess 30 (Fig. 6) to receive one of the springs 21.
In order to support can 20 in position ready to be crushed, a ledge structure is provided in the form of a pair of short pins or posts 31 fixed in apertures in the ram head 12 and projecting forwardly or to the left therefrom. These projecting pins are arranged symmetrically to the longitudinal axis of the machine. A third pin 32 is associated with the end plate 5 and these three pins or ledges provide a three-point support for the can. The bead of the can at its right end rests on pins 31, and the can bead at its opposite end rests on pin 32.
Pin 32 is mounted to have a longitudinal yielding movement as indicated in Fig. 2. Thus the pin is fixed to the lower end of plate spring 33 whose upper end is secured by a screw or otherwise to the outer surface of plate 5. Pin 32 projects through a suitable aperture formed in this plate. The reason for this yielding mounting is to prevent damage to the machine should the can be crushed to a thickness less than the projecting portion of pin 32 or should the ram be operated, accidentally or otherwise without placing a can in the crushingchamber.
In order to facilitate the collapse of the cans the end or reaction plate 5, instead of being made fiat, is formed in a press to produce a vertically extending inwardly projecting rib or rib portion 34 which may be seen particularly in Fig. 4. By this arrangement the operating air pressure required is less than would otherwise be necessary, and the diameter of the ram piston and its operating cylinder are also less thanotherwise would be required, thereby helping to reduce the weight and cost of the crushing machine. Modified forms of this rib structure are shown in Figs. 11, 12, 13 and 15, and will be described presently. As shown especially in Figs. 1 and 6, the ram plate 12 is a rectangular plate of substantially the same dimensions as the reaction plate -5, but small enough to operate with suitable clearance between the side walls 27 of the crushing chamber. This plate is apertured at each corner at 35 to receive the tie rod 6 and, in fact, slides upon these rods during its reciprocating movement.
The crushing chamber is closed at the top by means of a cover member 36 pivoted at its right end on a transverse rod 37 which is secured by welding 38 to the upper surfaces of the top tie rods 6. This cover has side flanges which cooperate with the side walls 27 and completely close the crushing chamber when cover 36 is in closed or horizontal position, as shown in Fig. 3.
In order to interlock the operation of the cover with that of the operating valve 23, which controls the air supply, a longitudinally shiftable rod is pivotally attached at 40 at its left end to a projection 41 which extends upwardly from cover 36 adjacent its hinge pivot 37 (Fig. 2). The left end portion of rod 39 slides in an aperture 42- in the right-hand end plate 4 when the cover 36 is raised from closed position to upright position (Figs.
1 and 3) and this moves the right end of rod 39 to cause it to project beneath the left edge of operating lever 24 of air valve 23 and serve as a latch member to prevent the air valve from being closed while the cover is open for the insertion of a can into the crushing chamber.
Now referring to Fig. 8 a modified construction of the rib portion 34 of the end plate 5 is here illustrated. According to this construction the surface of plate 5a is flat throughout and welded thereto is a steel bar 43 which has a rounded outer surface forming a comparatively sharp rib against which the end of the can being crushed is forced. Like the rib portion 34 (Fig. 4) rib 43 hastens the breakdown or collapse of the can.
In Fig. 9 the rib 43a, like rib 43, is a steel bar welded to the front surface of plate 5a. The difference is that the forward surface 44 of rib 43a is sloped, or is at an angle less than a right angle to the axis of the can being crushed and to the operating axis of the ram, whereas the crushing surface of rib 43 is at right angles to such axis. Consequently, with a rib structure such as 43athe crushing pressure of the ram head is first exerted on a localized small area (theoretically a point) which is on the periphery of the can head, and, consequently, a still lower crushing force will cause the start of the col lapse of the can. As shown in Figs. 1 to 7, 8 and 9, the ribs 34, 43 and 43a are vertically positioned. However, they can, if desired, be placed horizontally or at any convenient angle.
In Fig. 10 a somewhat similar result to that obtained in the construction of Fig. 9 is produced in a somewhat different way. Instead of providing a rib on the face of the reaction or end plate 512, this plate is deformed in a press so as to provide an angular can engaging surface, or portion, 45, whereas the outer portions of the plate which are apertured to receive the tie rods 6 are flat and co-planar. The angularity of the portion 45, as shown in Fig. 10, is such that the upper edge of the end of the can engages the plate ahead of the remaining portion of the can periphery.
from one to three of the smaller cans maybe crushed simultaneously, or one of the larger size cans.
This form of the invention requires a ram plate 12a of larger dimensions than the ram plate 12, and, of course, a larger air cylinder. Otherwise the general construction of the two machines is much the same. For example, the ram plate 12a is secured to the piston member (not shown) by a U-shaped steel structure 19a which, except for its size, is like the structure 19 shown in Fig. 7. The end plates 4a and 5b are connected together by means of four tie rods 6a as in the previous construction. As before also, the ram plate 12a is apertured at its corners to receive the four tie rods 6a, and slides along these rods as it reciprocates with respect to the stationary or reaction plate 5b.
Inasmuch as the one-quart cans are considerably shorter than the five-quart cans it is not necessary to move the piston and crushing plate 12a through their maximum stroke when the machine is being used for the onequart cans. Accordingly, in order to change the length of the stroke an adjustable stopping device (as shown in Fig. 13) is employed. This stops the plunger on its return stroke as it is being moved by the pair of springs (not shown) which correspond to the springs 21 of Fig. 4.
This stopping device comprises a short section of tubing 46 which surrounds one of the tie rods 6a and is fixed in position by welding its right end to the surface of the end plate 4a. A larger, and somewhat shorter section of tubing 47 is also placed on rod 6a and may be shifted from the full-line position of Fig. 13 to the dotted-line position where it is received in telescoping position on the fixed tubing section 46. When in the full-line position the length of the movable section 47 is added to that of section 46. This gives a working stroke of the ram plate 1201 which is appropriate for the short, or onequart cans. In Fig. 11 position S of this plate indicates the short back stroke position. When it is desired to crush the longer five-quart cans tubing section 47 is telescoped onto fixed section 46, and the ram plate is stopped by the end of this latter section and in the position indicated by the letter L in Fig. 11.
7 pins having substantially the same spacing as the yieldadjacent plate 12a by means of the two inner pins 31a.
When three cans are to be placed in the machine the two lower cans 50 are supported respectively on one of The support of the dilferent sized cans is accomplished as follows: The small cans are supported in the form of an approximately equilateral triangle. The reaction plate 5b is provided with two yieldably mounted supporting pins 32 a which are secured to the lower ends of two plate springs 33a and project through apertures in plate 5b. These pins are spaced apart from one another and their spacing is determined by the points of intersection of circles representing the diameters of the two small cans which are horizontally placed (Fig. 12). The larger circle represents the diameter of a single large can. Thus the forward end of a large can 43 can be sup ported on these two pins 32a as indicated in Fig. 12.
Also when small cans are placed in the machine these pins serve to support the inner end portions of two such cans at points closer to one another than the can centres. V
In order to support the ends of these cans at points outside of the can centres, two vertical flange members 49 are mounted to project from the inner surface of the plate 5b (Fig. 11). These may be formed of two short lengths of angle bar welded to the surface of plate 5b. In this way the outer ends of the two lower short cans 50 are supported in stable position. The third short can 5-1 is nested between and above the two cans 50.
For the purpose of supporting the cans at their opposite ends, four short fingers, pins or posts 31a are mounted to project from the surface of ram plate 12a. These pins are approximately equally spaced, the two inner the inner pins 31a and one of the outer pins 3 1a.
In this form of the apparatus the stationary or reaction plate 5b is provided with three vertical rib portions 34a, one of them being placed at the lateral centre of plate 5b and the other two being placed substantially opposite the axis of the two horizontal short cans 50. Thus, when three short cans are to be crushed in the machine, one of the rib portions 34a is engaged by each of the three cans 50 and 51 to start their collapse. However, when a single large can is to be crushed all three of the rib portions 34a are in engagement with one of the can ends and assist in starting its collapse.
It will be understood that the other forms of ribs may be used instead of the form shown in Fig. 11 as being pressed into the material of the reaction plate 5b. That is to say, instead of that form of rib, the bar-type rib 43, or the sloping surface bar-type rib 43a, may be employed. Also, if desired, the entire'plate 5b may be mounted in sloping position in accordance with the construction described and illustrated in Fig. 10 in which case no rib is associated with the plate.
The modified construction of Fig. 14 is intended to facilitate manufacture. The vertical rib formations 34b may be more easily pressed into the steel plate if it is of comparatively thin gauge such as the plate 5c, than in a sheet of suflicient thickness and strength to withstand the crushing pressure to which it is subjected. The thin reaction plate 50 is supported by a thicker reenforcing plate 52 which is flat throughout. Because of the greater thickness of the two plates together the yieldably mounted supporting pins 32b may be somewhat longer than those previously described.
In Fig. 15 there is illustrated a combination of the constructions of Figs. 9, l0 and 14. The reenforcing plate 52 is the same as in Fig. 14 and mounts the springs 33a which support the yieldable pins 32b. However, the reaction plate Ed has one or more rib portions 340 formed therein, but the entire plate, instead of being mounted flat against the surface of reenforcing plate 52 is mounted at a slight angle thereto. This is indicated in Fig. 15 where the lower portion of the plate is spaced to the right of the surface of plate 52 while the uppcredges of the two plates are in contact. Such support of the lower portion of plate 5d may be accomplished by means of spacing blocks (not shown) welded or otherwise secured in position between the two plates.
With this construction the lower periphery of the end of the large can 48, which is indicated in this figure, contacts one of the rib portions in much the same manner as described in connection with the illustration in Fig. 9. A similar result obtains when three of the short cans 50 and 51 are to be crushed in this form of the apparatus.
In Figs. 16 and 17 there is illustrated a modification of the stop mechanism for the two-stroke type of apparatus for operating on either short or long cans.
In this form of apparatus, like that shown in Fig. 11, the ram head or crushing plate 12a is substantially larger in area than the crushing plate 12, and, as before,
is operated by an air cylinder 9 and piston rod structure 19. Both the length and spacing of the tie rods 6ais greater than for the single can machine shown in Figs. 1-7. In order to give added rigidity to the enlarged structure a central frame plate 53 may be provided. This plate is mounted just to the left of the open end of cylinder 9 and may be welded or otherwise secured to the four tie rods 6a. As shown in Fig. 17 plate 53 has an aperture 54 of approximately the diameter of cylinder 9, but this aperture may be considerably larger, if desired.
In order to stop the ram head 12'a at the correct position for operating on the short cans, a short rod or post 55 is welded or otherwise secured to the right-hand face of ram head 12a, and on the back stroke of the ram the right end of this post engages the surface of a U-shaped stop member 56 which is pivotally mounted on plate 53. When it is desired to use the machine for crushing the longer and larger cans, the U-shaped stop member 56 is swung about its pivot to the dotted position shown in Fig. 17 by loosening a thumb screw 57 which undercovers an aperture 58 in plate 53 through which the post 55 may pass. Accordingly, the back stroke of the ram is now stopped by the engagement of ram head 12a with plate 53 or with the surface of the 22 to cylinder 9 is cut off and the interior of the cylinder is placed in communication with the atmosphere. The right end of the interlock rod 39, before described, holds the sleeve in this position so long as the cover member 36 is in its upright or open position. When the cover is swung to its closed position, however, the right end of rod 39 recedes to the left and allows sleeve 59 to be moved by hand to open air valve 23a, that is, to supply air under pressure to the cylinder 9. Or, if desired, rod 39 may be secured to sleeve 59 by a suitable connection (not shown), so that the opening of the cover member 36 will close the air valve and the closing of the cover member will open the air valve. Cover 36 may be provided with a window 60 in the form of a slot so as to be able to observe whether a can has been properly crushed.
If it is desired to make a smaller machine to crush, say, two small cans or one larger can this may easily be done by rearranging the supporting means for the cans, in which case the two small cans will be placed on the diagonal with respect to the end plate and the crushing plate.
It will be understood that, although it is advantageous to build the can crushing machine with the stationary or reaction plate and the movable plate or ram head constructed as described, it is not beyond the scope of the invention to reverse these parts and use for the movable plate or ram head the various special constructions described and illustrated in connection with the stationary head or reaction plate.
It will be understood that the particular forms of the crushing apparatus which have been illustrated and described herein are intended to be illustrative only, inasmuch as changes may be made therein without departing from the teachings of the invention. Accordingly, reference should be made to the appended claims in determining the full scope of the invention.
1. In a can crushing machine, a crushing chamber for receiving cans to be crushed, said chamber having at one end a substantially vertical stationary reaction plate, a
'fluid pressure cylinder collinear with said chamber, a ram operating within said cylinder having a substantially vertical crushing head operating within said crushing chamber to reciprocate horizontally with respect to said reaction plate, means on said crushing head and plate respectively on which to rest the opposite end portions of at least one can to support the same horizontally between them when the crushing head is in withdrawn position, a manually operated valve control member for causing admission of pressure fluid to said chamber to move the ram head towards said plate to crush the can, means for returning the ram and head to their withdrawn position, said chamber being open at the bottom and the withdrawal of said ram and head causing release of the crushed can allowing it to drop by gravity from said chamber, a movable cover for the top of said chamber to permit the insertion of a can to be crushed, a latch member for holding said fluid valve control member in open position, and means operated by said cover to move said latch member into latching position during the opening movement of said cover so as to prevent manual operation of said control member when the cover is open.
2. A can crushing machine for operating upon cans 'of at least two diiferent lengths comprising a frame structure, substantially vertical stationary and movable plates supported thereby and between which at least one can to be crushed is supported with its opposite ends adjacent said respective plates, a substantially horizontal fluid pressure cylinder mounted in said frame, a ram including said movable plate and a piston operating in said cylinder, and a stop device for limiting the back stroke of said ram, said stop device comprising a fixed member and a movable tubular member and means for supporting said members in abutting relationship lengthwise of the stroke movement to stop said ram in one position, the arrangement of said members being such that the tubular member can be telescoped over the fixed member and the movable tubular member being not longer than the fixed member, thus enabling said fixed member of itself to serve as the stop device to limit the stroke of the ram in a second position.
3. A can crushing machine for operating upon cans of at least two different lengths comprising a frame structure, substantially vertical stationary and movable plates supported thereby and between which at least one can to be crushed is supported with its opposite ends adjacent said respective plates, a substantially horizontal fluid pressure cylinder mounted in said frame, a ram including said movable plate and a piston operating in said cylinder, and a stop device for limiting the back stroke of said ram, said stop device comprising two tubular members one fixed and the other movable, the latter being not longer than the former, and a rod for supporting said members in collinear, abutting relationship lengthwise of the stroke movement to stop said ram in one position, the arrangement of said tubular members being such that they can be telescoped with respect to one another so as to permit said stationary member of itself to serve as the stop device so as to limit the stroke of the ram in a second position.
4. In a can crushing machine, a crushing chamber for receiving cans to be crushed, said chamber having at one end a substantially vertical stationary reaction plate, a fluid pressure cylinder collinear with said chamber, a ram operating within said cylinder having a substantially vertical crushing head operating within said chamber to reciprocate horizontally with respect to said plate, means on said crushing head and stationary plate respectively on which to rest the opposite end portions of atleast one can to support it horizontally between them when the crushing head is in withdrawn position, a valve for causing admission of fluid to said cylinder to move the ram and head towards said plate to crush the can, a manually depressible actuating member for opening and closing said valve, said crushing chamber having a cover manually operable to permit the insertion of a can to be crushed, a rod, one end of which is operatively connected to the cover to cause the rod to be shifted horizontally when the cover is operated, the opposite end of said rod moving beneath the depressible actuating member when the cover is opened thereby preventing the depressing of the valve actuating member so long as the cover is open.
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