|Publication number||US2983026 A|
|Publication date||May 9, 1961|
|Filing date||Jul 19, 1956|
|Priority date||Jul 19, 1956|
|Publication number||US 2983026 A, US 2983026A, US-A-2983026, US2983026 A, US2983026A|
|Inventors||Skalko Francis C|
|Original Assignee||Owens Corning Fiberglass Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Referenced by (13), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 9, 1961 F. c. SKALKO METHOD FOR PRODUCING CRIMPED FIBER 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 19. 1956 INVENTOR: Fmzxmzs L KALKD. BY
May 9, 1961 F. c. SKALKO 2,983,026
METHOD F OR PRODUCING CRIMPED FIBER FiledJuly 19. 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR FRANCIS L. EKALKLI 4 ATTORNEYS F. c. SKALKO 2,983,026
5 Sheets-Sheet 3 May 9, 1961 METHOD FOR PRODUCING CRIMPED FIBER Filed July 19. 1956 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IIIIII |"T PT III May 9, 1961 F. c. SKALKO 2,983,026
METHOD FOR PRODUCING CRIMPED FIBER Filed July 19. 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTORI FRANCIS L7. SKALKU.
BY MA ORNEYS.
May 9, 1961 F. c. SKALKO METHOD FOR PRODUCING CRIMPED FIBER Filed July 19. 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR:
Emma's E United States Patent METHOD FOR PRODUCING CRIMPED FIBER Francis C. Skalko, Pawtucket, R.I., assignor to Owens- Corning Flberglas Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Filed July 19, 1956, Ser. No. 598,796
2 Claims. (CI. 28-72) This invention relates to a method for producing crimped, corrugated, wavy or curly fibers of glass or other heat-softenable fiber-forming material and more especially to a method adapted and arranged to impart a crimp or curly configuration to a linear bundle of fibers or filaments.
Methods have been developed for imparting a crimped or curly configuration to filaments or fibers wherein the crimping or curling operation is performed by directing linear bodies or streams of glass from a stream feeder between intermeshing toothed elements from a feeder while the bodies or streams are in a semi-solid or plastic condition. Through such method the successive crimps or bends formed in the filaments or fibers become fixed upon chilling. Apparently, due to the fixation of all of the crimps or bends in the fiber, the carding or picking of crimped or curly fibers formed by this method is not entirely satisfactory as the fibers tend to load up or cling to the carding or picking rolls resulting in considerable waste of material and threads or yarns formed from the carded fibers are of inferior quality.
The present invention embraces a method wherein fiber in the form of linear bundles of filaments or fibers, yarns, rovings, strands or threads are engaged by crimping elements under temperature conditions which will result in alternate crimps or bends being permanently fixed in the fiber.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method wherein linear bundles of preformed fibers of glass or other mineral material are subjected to diiferential temperatures for producing a crimped or curly configuration therein.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a method of forming crimps or curls in glass fibers or the like wherein the shape, sharpness or acuteness of the crimp or bend configuration may be varied and controlled.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a method wherein spaced crimps of different magnitude may be alternately impressed along the length of a linear bundle of fibers or filaments on opposite sides of the bundle forming a continuous pattern or shape resembling a running W in a planar direction.
Another object of the invention relates to method of crimping a linear bundle of glass fibers wherein successive groups of crimped configurations may be imparted to a strand or linear bundle of fibers alternately on opposite sides of the strand or bundle, such groups of crimped configurations being formed by heating and cooling successive zones of the bundle of fibers to provide a balanced crimped or curly fiber.
Another object of the invention is the provision of apparatus for forming crimped or curly fibers wherein the fiber engaging elements or components are adjustable in order to control the magnitude, shape and character of the crimped or curled configurations imparted to the fibers.
Another object is the provision of an apparatus for engaging successive zones of a bundle of glass fibers 2,983,026 Patented May 9, 1961 with elements which are at differential temperatures whereby successive groups of crimped or curly configurations are impressed in opposite sides of the bundle of fibers so that the ultimate crimped or curled bundle of fibers is provided with successive helical curvatures in generally oppositedirections.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a method of deforming a strand or linear bundle of fibers providing a three dimensional configuration in a linear pattern wherein comparatively sharp crimps are fixed in the strand or bundle connected by gradual curved portions.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a method of and apparatus for forming curled or crimped fiber wherein the fiber is continuously fed into contact with surfaces shaped to impart a sinuous configuration to the fiber, the surfaces being of different temperatures whereby a crimp or curl is imparted to one side of the fiber.
Another object is the provision of a method of crimping or curling fiber or bundles of fiber wherein the degree or magnitude'of crimp deformation may be varied and controlled to secure various forms of deformation of the fiber.
Another object of the invention is the provision of apparatus for deforming fiber wherein the fiber is delivered into heat transferring relation with surface zones at differential temperatures for imparting a crimped or curled shape to the fiber and wherein the temperatures of the heat transferring zones and the character of the path of traverse of the fiber through said zones may be controlled, changed or modified to determine the resultant shape, pattern or configuration imparted to the fiber.
Further objects and advantages are within the scope of this invention such as relate to the arrangement, operation and function of the related elements of the structure, to various details of construction and to combina: tions of parts, elements per se, and to economics of manu'- facture and numerous other features as will be apparent from a consideration of the specification and drawing of a form of the invention, which may be preferred, in which:
Fig. l is a diagrammatic side elevational view of a form of apparatus for carrying out the method of the invention of deforming fiber or bundles of fiber;
Figure 2 is a detail sectional view illustrating a means for feeding or conveying fiber;-
Figure 3 illustrates a form of crimp or curl imparted to fiber utilizing the method and apparatus of the in- Figure 8 is a side elevational viewof a portion of thearrangement shown in Figure 7, certain parts being shown in section;
Figure 9 is an in Figure 7 with certain elements removed and others broken away for purposes of illustration; Figure 10 is a fragmentary detail sectional view taken substantially on the line 10--10 of Figure 9; Figure 11 is an isometric view of a portion of the structure shown in Figure 10;
end view of the apparatus illustrated Figure 12 is an isometric view of one of the fiber engaging and deforming elements;
Figure 13 is an isometric view of one of the fiber engaging projections or blades; I
Figure 14 illustrates a means for securing the blades in position on a circular cylindrical roll,-
Figure 15 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating assembly of the elements or components shown in Figures 12 through 14;
Figure 16 is a semidiagrammatic section view illustrating a modified form of apparatus of the invention, and
Figure 17 is an isometric view illustrating one of the fiber engaging elements shown in Figure 16.
The method and apparatus of the invention are particularly adaptable for use in imparting or establishing crimped or curled configurations in fibers of mineral material, such as glass, and the invention in its broader aspect is applicable in the formation of crimps, curls, or the like in fibers formed of other heatsoftenable materials such as fusible rock slag or any material which may be deformed at elevated temperatures and in which the deformation is rendered substantially permanent at normal temperatures. The method and apparatus of the invention are usable for crimping or curling fiber strands in which the fiber may be in the form of continuous filaments, slivers, 'yarns both twisted and plied, threads, rovings or bundles of fibers, and the use herein of the terms fiber and bundles of fiber are intended to include the types of materials mentioned above.
The principles of the invention involve the steps of delivering bundles of fiber into engagement with elements or surfaces shaped to impart a crimped or curled pattern or configuration to the fiber or bundles of fiber wherein opposite sides or zones of bundles of fiber are subjected to differential temperatures, the elevated temperature of one surface or zone being sulficiently high to render the adjacent zone of the bundles of fiber plastic to the extent that the bundles of fiber are deformed by the surfaces to predetermined configuration, such as a crimped or curled shape, and which becomes permanent or fixed upon the fiber moving away from the region of differential temperature.
It has been found that upon engagement of the opposed regions or opposite sides of bundles of fiber with surfaces at differential temperatures, crimps or curls are established wherein the connecting regions between fixed crimps or curls are generally curved and yieldable, facilitating the further processing of the crimped or curled fibers through carding and other textile operations or after treatments, providing an improved product. Crimped or curled fibers made in accordance with the method of the invention facilitate better spinning with a minimum of fiber breakage. Such crimped or curled fibers improve bulking and provide low density and high resiliency characteristics where the fibers are utilized for wadding, batting, pillow stufling and kindred uses.
Referring to the drawings in detail and initially to Figure 1 there is illustrated in diagrammatic form the steps in the method of deforming fibers or bundles of fiber into crimped or curled configuration. The bundles of fiber P which may be in the form of rovings, slivers, yarns or the like are withdrawn from packages G mounted upon spindles supported upon a creel structure 11. The bundles of fiber F are passed over a spacing bar 14 provided with projections for spacing the individual bundles of fiber and are delivered between fiber deforming, crimping or curling surfaces and 15.
As shown diagrammatically in Figure l, the fiber engaging surfaces 15 and 15' are inclusive of spaced projections, overlapping elements, fins or teeth 17 resembling gears in loosely meshing relation.
As hereinafter described the crimping or curling structures include means for establishing differential temperatures at opposite sides or regions of the bundles of fiber whereby one region of the fiber is elevated in temperature by heat transfer to a softened or plastic condition such that the deformation formed therein by engagement with the crimping surfaces establishes crimps or curls in the fibers which are substantially permanent.
Each of the continuous bundles of crimped or curled fiber, upon disengagement from the crimping surfaces enters a conveying tube 20, there being one tube for each bundle of fiber illustrated in Figure l. Mounted upon or associated with each of the fiber enclosing tubes 20 is a fiber feeding or advancing means 22, one of the fiber conveying or feeding units 22 being shown in section in Figure 2.
The fiber feeding or withdrawing means 22 may be of the air lance type wherein the movement or inspiration of air through a passage effectively conveys the bundle of fiber through the passage and away from the crimping or curling surfaces. The fiber advancing devices 22 are mounted upon pipes or tubes 24 which are connected with a manifold or supply pipe 26 connected with a source of compressed air for delivering air under pressure to the fiber feeding devices.
The crimped or curled fibers F are delivered or collected in containers or receptacles 28 in the manner illustrated in Figure 1, there being an individual collector or container for each of the crimped bundles of fiber. If desired more than one bundle of crimped fiber may be withdrawn by each of the feeding or withdrawing devices 22 and several bundles of fiber fed into a single collector or collecting zone.
Figure 2 illustrates a form of fiber feeding or withdrawing device 22. In the form illustrated, the feeding device includes a generally circular housing 32 having an inner circular wall 34 defining a passage 35 to accommodate the crimped fiber, the inner and outer walls of the housing 32 forming an annular chamber 36. A circular plate 38 secured to the housing 32 forms a wall of the chamber 36. The plate 38 is formed with an annular comically-shaped wall 40, the exterior surface 41 thereof and a conically-shaped surface 42 providing an annular passage 44. A fiber guiding tube 20 is connected to the plate 38 to direct the bundle of crimped fiber to the feeding or withdrawing device. The tube 24 conveys air or gas under pressure to the annular chamber 36, the air or gas being projected through the frusto-conically shaped passage 44 and into engagement with the bundle of crimped fiber F drawing the crimped fiber through the tube 20 for delivery into a fiber collecting container 28 or other fiber collecting region.
While four rovings, strands or bundles of fiber F are illustrated in Figure 1 being processed simultaneously through the crimping apparatus, it is to be understood that any number of rovings, strands, yarns, or bundles of fiber, may be processed through the crimping device, limited only by the amount that may be accommodated within the length of the crimping rolls or surfaces. As a typical example, the apparatus may accommodate a large number of rovings where each roving is formed with approximately sixty strands and each strand formed of two hundred or more continuous filaments or fibers.
Figures 5 through 11 illustrate in detail a form of apparatus especially adapted for imparting crimps or curls to a plurality of rovings or bundles of fiber delivered to the crimping or curling surfaces in the manner illustrated in Figure 1. The apparatus includes a frame structure 50 which includes a base or table portion 51, supporting legs 52 and bracing members 53.
Fixedly mounted on plate 51 is a member 57 which supports longitudinally spaced bearing blocks or supports 60, these bearing blocks being secured in place by means of bolts 61. Also mounted upon the supporting member 51 is a plate 66 which extends longitudinally of the frame 50. The plate 66 supports hearing or journal blocks 68; which aresecured to. the plate 66 by means of bolts .70.
The plate 66 is adapted for transverse sliding movement relative to the supporting member 51. The end zones of plate 66 are notched or recessed as at 72 to accom= modate securing bars or members 74 which are mounted upon transversely extending ways or blocks 76, the latter forming guides to facilitate transverse movementor adjustment of the plate or member 66.
As particularly shown in Figure 9, the plates 74, 76 and the table portion 51 are bored to accommodate headed clamping bolts 78, the heads 79 of which engage the upper surface of the plates 74. The threaded portions of the bolts 78 extending below the plate 51 extend through spacers 80 are provided with knurled clamping nuts or members 82 which are manually movable to lock and unlock the-clamping plates 74 in engagement with the end zones of the plate 66 carrying the journal blocks 68. v
Mechanism or means is provided for adjusting the position of plate 66 relative to the bearing blocks 60 in order to vary or change the extent of enmeshment or overlap of the. crimping projections 17. .The plate 66 is formed with threaded bores to accommodate threaded members 84 which are journaled for rotation in boresformed in plates or members 86 secured to housings 87 carried by the table 51. Secured on an end portion of each member 84 and contained within a housing 87 is a worm wheel 88, each worm wheel being enmeshed with a worm 90', the worms being secured upon and adapted to be rotated by a shaft92= journaled in bearing blocks 93.
A manipulating or hand wheel 95 is secured to each end of the shaft 92. By rotating either of the hand wheels 95, the worms 90 simultaneously rotate the worm wheels 88 and the threaded members 84 to move or adjust the plate 66 and bearing members 68 transversely yet maintaining the juxtaposed zones of the fiber curling or crimping surfaces 15 in parallel relation.
The fiber engaging, crimping or curling projections 17 forming the surfaces or zones 15, are carried or mounted upon circular cylindrical rolls or drums 100 and 100, each drum or roll being formed with circumferentially spaced slots 102 shown in Figure 12.
Each slot is adapted to receive a blade, fin or longitudinally extending projection 17, one of which is shown in Figure 13. The projections on the drums provide, in etfect, two groups of circumferentially spaced teeth resembling spur gears which are in enmeshing' or overlapping relation as shown in Figures 1 and 9 and are adapted to engage fiber or bundles of fiber to crimp or curl the same in a manner hereinafter explained. Each of the projections or blades 17 is formed with an extension or tongue 106 at each end to accommodate a band or annulus 108 surrounding the tongues 106 as shown in Figure 15 to secure the blades or projections 17 in the slots 102. 7
Each of the cylindrical members or drums 100 and 100' is supported at its ends upon disk-like members 110 secured to bushings or sleeves 112 as shown in Figure 7. Circular plates 114 of refractory or other material having high heat resistance characteristics are supported interiorly of the drum and carried by the members 110. The drums 100 and 100 are rotated with the members 110 through the medium of drive pins 115 which extend into the end zones or regions of the slots 102.
The sleeves 112 are journaled in bearings 117 sur' rounded by sleeves 118 carried in bearing supports or blocks 60 and 68 disposed adjacent the ends of the drums 100 and 100. The bearing blocks are formed with annular chambers 120 surrounding the sleeves 112 to accommodate a circulating cooling fluid or medium con veyed into and away from the chambers 120 by inlet and outlet pipes 122 and 123.
Means for driving the rolls or drums includes a gear 125 secured to one end of one of the sleeves 1.12 supporting the roll and a gear 128 secured to the end of one of the sleeves supporting the roll 100' as shown in Figures 7 and 9. Disposed adjacent the gears and Figures 9 to 11.
of screws 133.
The member 13 2 forms a journal or hearing for rotatably supporting a shaft 134. As shown in Figures 10 and 11, one end of the shaft 134 is formed with a tenon portion 136 which receives a driving gear 138 held to the tenon portion by means of a pin 139 whereby the gear 138 is rotated with the shaft 134. The tenon portion 136 of shaft 134 is journaled in a suitable bearing 140 carried by the triangularly shaped member 130 as shown in Figures 10 and 11.
The outer extremity of the shaft 134 is equipped with a pulley 143 shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7. A belt 145 connects pulley 143- with a driving pulley 147 mounted upon a shaft 148 adapted to be driven through suitable reduction'gearing contained in a housing 152 by an electrically energizable motor 150 or other suitable source of power.
The rate of rotation of the fiber engaging and crimping rolls 100 and 100 may be regulated by the speed reducing means contained within the housing 152 which may be controlled by a control member 154.
The triangularly shaped member 130' is provided with a threaded bore arranged to receive a threaded portion 158 formed on a stub shaft 160. Journaled upon the shaft'or pin 160 is a gear 162 which is in constant mesh with gear 138, as shown in Figures 9 and 10, and is arranged to be driven by gear 138. The gear 138 is meshed with gear 125 and gear 162 is meshed with gear 128 whereby gears 125 and 128 are simultaneously driven in opposite directions at the same speed by gears 138 and 162.
The pair of bearing supports 68 for the drum or roll 100' are movable transversely so as to move the fiber engaging fins or teeth 17 thereof toward or away from the fins or teeth on the roll 100 to vary the size, character and shape of the crimps or curls imparted to the fiber or bundles of fiber. In order to maintain a drive enmeshment of the gear 162 with gear 128 when the latter is moved relative to the gear 162, means is provided for moving the gear 162 into proper mesh with the teeth of gear 128.
As shown in Figures 9, 10 and 11 the triangularly shaped member 130 is provided with a cylindrically shaped projecting portion 165 which is bored to accommodate a cylindrically shaped head or member 166 which is disposed for limited oscillation in a bore formed in the projection 165. A connecting link or shaft 167' is threaded into a transverse bore formed in the head or member 166 and extends transversely through a slot 168 in a wall of member 165 as shown in Figures 9 and 10. I
As the triangularly shaped member 130 is mounted upon the tenon portion 136 of the shaft 134 for pivotal movement about the axis of the shaft, transverse move= ment of rod 167 swings the triangular member 130 and a gear 162 about the axis of the shaft 134 to effect a proper meshing relation of gear 162 with gear 128.
Secured to the plate 51 by means of screws 170 is an,
upwardly extending member 172. The member 172 is bored to receive a threaded portion 168 of the shaft 167 as shown in Figure 9. Threaded upon the portion 168 and disposed on opposite sides of the support 172 is a manipulating member 174 and knurled lock nut 175.
By manipulation of member 174 and lock nut 175, the.
shaft 167 may be adjusted lengthwise, swinging the triangularly shaped member 130 about the axis of the shaft 134 to move the gear 162 into proper meshing relation with the gear 128 of the transversely adjustable roll Heating or temperature controlling means is provided for each of the drums or members 100 and 100 for establishing predetermined temperatures of the fiber engaging and crimping elements or projections 17 carried by the drums. With particular reference to Figures through 9 the drums are respectively provided with heating or temperature controlling elements 180 and 181.
The heating units or elements 180 and 181 may be of any desired type preferably adapted to be electrically energized to control the temperature within the drums and thereby control the temperature of the fiber engaging projections 17 on each of the drums. In the embodiment illustrated, the heating elements or units 180 and 181 are of the resistance rod type comprising a composition of carbon and binder, such as silicon carbide.
As will be apparent in Figure 7, the sleeves 112 carrying the drums 100 and 100 are of hollow configuration to accommodate the heating units or elements 180 and 181. The interior walls of the sleeves 112 are spaced sufficiently from the heating elements to prevent contact therewith.
Secured to each of the bearing supports 60 and 68 is a bracket 184, held to the bearing supports by means of screws 185. Each of the bracket 184 is provided with a sleeve or bushing 186 formed of high temperature resistant insulating material which provides support for the resistance heating elements 180 and 181. Secured to the end zones of each of the heating elements is a bus bar or connector 188 which is joined with a current conductor 190 by means of a bolt 192 insulatingly supported upon each of the brackets 184, as particularly shown in Figures 7 and 8. The conductors 190 are connected with a suitable source of electrical energy for supplying current to the resistance elements 180 and 181 to provide heat interiorly of the drums 100.
The drums or members 100 and 100' equipped with fiber engaging fins or projections are substantially enclosed by suitable heat resistant jackets or enclosures 195 and 196. As particularly shown in Figure 9 each of the jackets or enclosures includes a metal shell comprising inner and outer walls 198 and 199, the space between the walls containing a heat resistant material 200 formed of glass fibers or the like. Each of the jackets or enclosures 195 and 196 may be hinged as at 202 to facilitate swinging the jackets or enclosures away from the drums for purposes of inspection.
As shown in Figure 9, the jackets or enclosure are spaced to provide a passage 204 to accommodate the fiber or bundles of fiber moving into engagement with the crimping elements of the drums. The outer metal wall 199 of each insulating packet is covered with an additional layer 206 of flexible insulating material. Each of the jackets or enclosures may be provided with a handle 208 to facilitate manipulation of the jackets.
As particularly shown in Figure 9, a support or fitting 210 is mounted upon each of the metal walls 199 and encloses a thermosensitive element or couple 212, each being connected with a suitable temperature indicating instrument for the purpose of accurately determining the temperature adjacent each of the fiber crimping elements.
In the operation of the arrangement hereinbefore described it is deirable to regulate the temperatures of each of the fiber engaging drum or elements whereby the temperature of one of the fiber engaging drums is sufiiciently elevated to effect a softening of the fiber or bundles of fiber engaging the crimp forming projections. The temperature of the other fiber engaging drum is preferably below the softening point of the glass or other mineral material of the fiber or bundles of fiber to be crimped or curled.
It has been found that by heating one of the fiber engaging elements to a temperature of about 1200 F. and maintaining the temperature of the other fiber engaging element at about 600 F. a sufiicient temperature 8 differential is established to attain a desired crimp or curl configuration in the fiber or bundles of fiber.
The fiber engaging roll or drum of the higher temperature is herein referred to as the hot roll and the fiber engaging drum or roll of lower temperature is herein referred to as the cold roll. It is to be understood that the temperatures indicated herein for the fiber engaging rolls are exemplary and have been found to produce a desired crimp or curl to the fiber, but the rolls may be maintained at other temperatures depending upon the characteristics desired in the crimped or curled product.
Figure 3 is exemplary of a crimp or curl fixation imparted to the fiber or bundles of fiber formed by engagement with the projections 17 wherein one element or hot roll is at 1200 F. and the other at approximately at 600 F. As shown in Figure 3, the apex- 215 of each crimp or curl is of rather sharp definition and this configuration is formed by engagement of the fiber with the projections on the hot roll The sharpness of the bend at the apex 215 is caused by a partial softening of the fiber engaging the hot projections whereby the glass or mineral material of the fiber is endowed with a substantially permanent or fixed crimp or bend 215, the crimps, curls or bends being spaced along the fiber by successive engagement of the heated fins or projections with the fiber.
The logs 217 of each crimp or curl 215 are joined by arcs or curves indicated at 219 which are not of sharp bend as the apices 215 for the reason that the projections or fins of the cold roll engage the portions 219 of the crimped or curled fiber. The fins or projections on the cold roll 100 are below a temperature which will soften the glass or mineral material of the fiber and hence the curved portions 219 are formed by reason of the permanent or fixed bends or crimps impressed in the fiber at the zones 215.
By reason of the fixation of the bends or apices 215 at one side of the crimped or curled fiber, the stress of fixation tends to form the fiber in an are as shown in Figure 3, which in continuity generally become a helix in configuration. It has been found that the direction of the general helical deformation is toward the hot roll.
By providing the fixation zones of the crimp at only one side of a linear bundle of fiber, the crimped or curled fiber, when chopped and treated for further processing, gives improved results in carding with less waste and may be more readily spun than other types of crimped or curled fiber. The crimps 215 and curved zones 219, for the reasons above mentioned, are of two magnitudes, and are alternately disposed along the length of the strand or bundle of fiber and on opposite sides thereof as shown in Figure 3.
One factor present which controls the tightness of individual or discrete crimps or curls is the degree of bend or crimp imparted to the fiber or bundles of fiber during setting or fixation of the portion being deformed by heating. This characteristic is dependent upon such factors as the duration of contact with the hot fins or projections, the degree of interenmeshment or overlap of the fins or projections on the rolls, the tension of the fiber or bundles of fiber being crimped, and the shape of the fins or projections. The tension on the fiber or bundles of fiber in a measure determines the rapidity and effectiveness of heat transfer from the hot fins or projections to the fiber as well as the sharpness or acuteness of conformation of the fiber to the fin shape.
The operation of the apparatus in carrying out the method of the invention is as follows: The resistance heating units 180 and 181 are energized with a suificient amount of current to establish the desired temperature differential between the drums 100 and 100' to heat the projections on one drum to a temperature sufiicient to soften the fibers or filaments and to maintain the teeth or projections on the other drum at a lower temperature. A hereinbefore mentioned the temperature of the hot 9 crimping projections may be at approximately 1200' F. and the projections of the so-called cold roll at a temperature to 600 F. a temperature below the softening temperature range of the material to be crimped or curled.
The locking bolts or rods 78 are released by manipulation of the knurled nuts 82 to release the clamping bars 74 adjacent the members or bearing blocks 68 which support the drum 100'. One of the hand wheels 95 is rotated in a direction whereby the threaded shafts 84, rotated by the worm wheel and worm mechanism 88, 90, move the drum supports or bearing blocks 68 and the roll 100' in a righthand direction, as viewed in Figure 9, to move the projections or fins 17 in a demeshed or nonoverlapping relation.
The bundles of fiber F to be crimped or curled, such as strands, threads, rovings, slivers, yarns, or the like, from the packages or supply spools G are threaded over the guide member '14 to position the material in spaced relation and align the same in a single plane for passage through the crimping or curling apparatus. Each individual bundle of fiber is threaded into a tube 20 and through a feeding device 22 such as that shown in Figures l and 2.
The fiber engaging roll or member 100' is then readjusted by rotation of one of the hand wheels 95 tomove the projections or fins 17 of the roll-100' into meshing or overlapping relation with the fins or projections on the roll 100 as shown in Figures 1 and 9. The extent of overlapping or enmeshment of the fins or projections 17 is dependent upon the character of crimp or curl desired in the linear material.
The gear drive adjusting mechanism, shown in Figures 9 through 11, is then adjusted to being the drive gear 162 in proper meshing relation with the driven gear 128 which rotates the drum 100'. This adjustment may be accomplished by releasing the locking nut 175 shown in Figure 9 and rotating the hand wheel 174 to move the rod 167 lengthwise, swinging the triangularly shaped member 130 about the axis of shaft 134 to move the gear 162 into proper position. The drums 100 and 100' may be individually and rotatably adjusted relative to the gears 125 and 128 by manipulating set screws (not shown) carried by the gears and engaging keys carried by the drum supporting sleeves 112 in order to synchronize the peripheral spacing of the groups of blades 17 on the respective drums.
The motor 150 is energized and, through the reduction gearing contained in the housing, the drive pulley 147 drives the belt 145, rotating pulley 143, shaft 134, gears 125, 128, 138 and 162, to effect simultaneous rotation of the drums 100 and 100' in opposite directions to effect a crimping or curling of the material passing between and in contact with the projections or fins 17. The material feeding devices 22 are brought into operation by directing compressed air to each device through a tube 24 whereby each linear bundle of fiber in crimped or curled form is fed or delivered into an individual container or receiver 28..
The drums 100 and 100 are rotated at a speed to eflect a crimping or. curling of the material at a rate of several feet per minute. The rate at which the fiber may be fed through the crimping apparatus is dependent in a measure upon the temperature of the hot roll and the extent of enmeshment or overlap of the vfins or projections 17 to secure a crimp or curl of desired character and fixation.
It is to be understood that the rolls or drums equipped with the fiber engaging surfaces or projections may be utilized at various temperatures and both may heelevated .to a high. temperature if a sharp or acute bend is. desired for successive crimps at opposite sides of the fiber and if it is desired to have all of the crimps or bends permanently fixed in thefiber.
As previously mentioned, the heat fixation of the crimps or curls at one side. of the bundle of fiber result in the continuous curled fiber assuming a generally helical shape. The present invention embraces a method and apparatus for crimping fiber in a manner whereby a three dimensional deformation of crimp or curl'may be pro-4 vided in successive groups with a forward and reverse helical or arcuate shape of the general character illustrated in Figure 4 providing stress balanced crimped fiber.
Alternate groups 225 of fibers crimped on one side of the fibers, are separated by groups 226 (one of which is shown in Figure 4) in which the acute fixed crimp configuration is at the opposite side of the crimped fiber, the continuous crimped strand or fiber embodying this characteristic being generally in the form of a running W with the crimped regions in a planar formation. An arrangement of fiberengaging means and heat controlling means for forming this configuration of fiber or bundles of fiber during crimping or curling operations is illustrated in Figures l6 and 17.
The forward and reverse helical formation of successive groups of crimps in the fiber are formed by fiber engaging projections or fins on rolls which are partitioned or divided into sections such as quadrants wherein differential temperatures exist between opposed sections of the rolls. By this method, heat is alternately applied by the fins or projections on the rolls to opposite regions or sides of the fiber. As particularly shown in Figure 16, the fiber crimping rolls 230 and 231 are formed with fins or projections 17 which intermesh in the same manner as the fins 17 shown in Figure 9. The rolls or drums 230 and 23l are supported and driven in the same manner as the drums and 100' hereinbefore described.
Each of the drums 230 and 231 is formed with a cylindrical or sleeve-like portion 234 which accommodates a stream of air for a purpose hereinafter explained. Each end of the drum is formed with a wall 236, one of which is shown in Figure 17, the end walls closing the region within the drum exterior of the sleeve portion 234. Each of the drums may be formed into sections, such as quadrants, indicated at 238, 239, 240. and 241.
The opposed quadrants 239 and 241 of each roll are provided with resistance heating units or shoes 244 for maintaining the projections 17 adjacent these quad-rants at a temperature above the softening point of the material of the fiber to effect a permanent crimp or deformation to one side of the fiber during its engagement with the hot projections.
Ths sections, regions or quadrants 238 and 240 arranged between quadrants 239 and 241 are maintained at a lower temperature viz., a temperature below the softening point of the material of the fiber to be crimped,
so that a permanent deformation is not imparted to the One end 236 of each of the drums may be provided I with a pair of current conducting rings or members 248 and 249 which are connected with the heating units 244 contained in alternate quadrants or drum sections. Brushes 250 and 251 respectively engage the rings for conveying electrical energy to the heating units 244 to heat the opposing quadrants or sections 239 and 241 of each roll or drum. If desired a current conductor ring may be disposed at each end of'a drum for carrying current to the heating units, but for purposes of illustration the current conducting or distributing rings 248, 249 and the cooperating brushes 250 and 251 are illustrated at one end of a drum as shown in Figure 17.
A tube or pipe 254 may be telescoped into the sleeve portion 234 of each of the drums in the manner shown in Figure 17. The tube 254 forms a bearing for one end of the drum 'which is supported in a manner similar to that shown in Figure 9. A fitting or member 256 surrounds 'an end zone of the pipe 254 and is connected As particularly shown in Figure 16, the portion of the sleeve 234 adjacent the quadrants 238 and 240 of each drum is provided with openings 260 to facilitate flow of air from the hollow interior 261 of the cylindrical portion 234 into the nonheated sections of the drums and the air discharged through vent openings (not shown). The air supplied to pipe 258 flows through the pipe 254 into the chamber 261 and through the orifices or openings 260 into the sections or quadrants 238 and 240 for controlling the temperature of the cool sections. The flow of air into the nonheated sections or quadrants of each drum may be controlled by valve means (not shown). By regulating the temperature and amount or rate of flow of air or fluid into the chambers 238 and 240, the projections of fins 17' adjacent the nonheated sections or quadrants may be maintained at a temperature below the softening point of the glass or other mineral fiber being crimped by the apparatus.
In certain installations, the walls or partitions between adjacent sections or quadrants may be sufficient to retard heat transfer from the heated sections to the nonheated sections to maintain the pro-per temperature differential between the adjacent groups of fiber engaging projections or crimping elements without the use of a temperature controlling fluid.
In the use of the arrangement shown in Figures 16 and 17, successive zones of a continuous bundle of fiber are subjected to groups of heated fins or projections alternately on opposite sides of the bundle of fiber.
The bundle of fiber, moving between the crimping elements, is engaged on one side by heated fins or projections on one drum, forming crimps or curls in the bundle equal to the number of teeth adjacent a heated quadrant of the drum. In the succeeding zone, heated projections of the other drum engage the opposite side of the bundle of fiber to impress or impart crimps or curls to the fiber resulting in a general fiber configuration similar to a running W illustrated in Figure 4. This pattern of crimped fiber provides for a substantially stress balanced product and such product does not tend to form a generally helical shape The method and apparatus may be utiilzed to advantage in imparting a crimped or curled configuration to a strand or linear bundle of fibers having a high degree of twist to form a relatively tight; corkscrew-type of rotational curl A high twist strand, yarn or bundle of fiber fed between the crimping elements will effectively be rotated continuously under the influence of the high twist in the strand and, hence a tight rotational curl will be imparted to the twisted strand, yarn or bundle of fiber. A product of this character may be advantageously used where a high degree of resiliency or extensibility is desired.
It is to be understood that while electrically energized heating units or elements are illustrated for heating the alternate sections or quadrants of the crimping apparatus of Figures 16 and 17, induction heating or other type of heating suitable for the purpose may beemployed. The character of the individual or discrete crimps or curls in the continuous crimped fiber may be modified in their characteristics by changing or modifying the same factors which control the character of the crimp or curl imparted to the fiber by the apparatus hereinbefore described and illustrated in Figures 3 through 15.
The apparatus described involves the use of rotatable fiber engaging and deforming elements in carrying out the method. The method of fiber crimping or deformation may be accomplished through the utilization of finned belt-like arrangements wherein the fins or fiber engaging projections are in overlapping or meshing relation. The meshed belt-like arrangements may be maintained at differential temperatures and function to deform or crimp the fiber in the manner herein described in connection with the rotatable crimping elements.
The crimped or curled fiber may be processed and spun into threads and yarns for weaving fabrics or such fiber may be processed to form relatively thin unwoven webs or fabrics especially usable for filters, reinforcement for molded plastic articles, sheet materials and for other purposes. The crimped or curled mineral fiber is admirably suited for admixing or blending with other types and kinds of fibers for both woven and unwoven textiles or web formations. The glass or mineral fiber may be combined or blended with vegetable fiber such as cotton, animal fiber such as wool or hair or synthetic fiber such as acetate rayon, viscose rayon, nylon or other fibers. The admixtures of fiber may be blended in individual threads or yarns, or threads and yarns of crimped or curled glass fiber may be woven or processed into textiles with individual threads or yarns of cotton, wool, rayon or other synthetic fiber.
As the crimped glass or mineral fibers are dimensionally stable at normal temperatures, a mixture of crimped glass fiber with cotton, wool, rayon or other synthetic fiber results in a product having improved dimensional stability, crease resistance, washability, strength and thermal characteristics, and coverage of yarns made from these combinations.
It is apparent that, within the scope of the invention, modifications and different arrangements may be made other than is herein disclosed, and the present disclosure is illustrative merely, the invention comprehending all variations thereof.
1. The method of deforming mineral fiber including continuously advancing mineral fiber in the direction of its length, heating successive spaced apant portions of the fiber to a temperature sufficient to effect a softening of the mineral fiber, heating the remaining portions of the fiber to a different temperature and below the soften.- ing temperature of the fiber, and forming acute angular crimps in the fiber at the regions of the high temperature portions of the fiber and rounded crimps in the portions between successive angular crimps.
2. The method of deforming mineral fiber including continuously advancing mineral fiber in the direction of its length, heating successive spaced apart portions of the fiber to a temperature of approximately 1200 Fahrenheit, heating the remaining portions of the fiber to a temperature of approximately 600 Fahrenheit, and forming acute angular crimps in the fiber at the regions of the high temperature portions of the fiber and rounded crimps in the portions between successive angular crimps.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,923183 Blum Aug. 22, 1933 2,002,314 Friedrich May 21, 1935 2,348,182 Slayter May 2, 1944 2,394,165 Getaz Feb. 5, 1946 2,647,285 Pfau Aug. 4, 1953 2,664,671 Courtney et a1. Ian. 5, 1954 2,668,564 Laros Feb. 9, 1954 2,669,001 Keen Feb. 16, 1954 2,685,763 Courtney et a1 Aug. 10, 1954 2,708,813 Bourgeaux May 24, 1955 2,740,992 Shattuck Apr. 10, 1956 2,751,661 Shattuck June 26, 1956 2,763,898 Sammons et al Sept. 25, 1956 2,812,569 Lawson et al. Nov. 12, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 742,440 Great Britain Dec. 30, 1955
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|U.S. Classification||65/102, 65/275, 28/259, 19/66.00R, 28/279, 28/289, 65/271|