US 2984050 A
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May 16, 1961 w. J. cRooKs SWIMMING Poor. CONSTRUCTION 'Filed Aug. 17, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INV ENTOR May 16, 1961 w. J. CRQOKS 2,984,050
SWIMMING POOL CONSTRUCTION Filed Aug. 17, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 fly- INVENTOR Kham f (wa/f5 @i ik Aa-TTORNEYS SWIMMING POOL CONSTRUCTION William John Crooks, 4'309 Elmwood Drive, Glen Ellyn, Ill.
Filed Aug. 17, 1959, Ser. No. 834,333
4 Claims. (Cl. 'S0-153) This invention relates to improvements in swimming pool construction, and more particularly to outdoor swimming pools.
At least two major problems in the construction of outdoor swimming pools are solved by the present invention.
One of these problems concerns the provision of a leak-proof connection between relatively flexible sheet metal side walls and a concrete bottom. Heretofore, the sheet metal panels have been anchored into the concrete bottom by securing the ends of reinforcing rods or mesh directly to the lower margins of the panels embedded within the concrete. During pouring of the concrete, however, it is necessary for the workmen and cement finishers to walk upon the bottom with a consequent disturbance of the reinforcing steel. Such disturbance is inconsequential insofar as the concrete of the bottom itself is concerned. However, the connections of the reinforcing steel with the panels causes vibrations, pull, pumping action, reciprocal movement, and like disturblances in the attached panel margins tending as the cement gels to break the cementitious bond of the concrete with the embedded panel margins. In consequence, leaks are often found to be present at the joint between one or more of the side wall panels and the concrete bottom, undetectable until the pool is lled, and then requiring costly repair work to cure. Y A second major problem in building swimming pools is that of excess subsoil water in the bottom of the excavation which interferes with construction work, and which may subsequently build up undesirable upwardly thrusting pressures on the concrete slab bottom of the pool.
An important object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved sheet metal panel and concrete bottom pool construction wherein effective anchorage of the sheet metal panels in the concrete bottom is attained while such panels remain free from any attachment to the reinforcing steel in the concrete bottom, thus avoiding any disturbance of the embedded margins of the panels during the construction activities invovling pouring and finishing of the concrete of the bottom.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved anchorage of the sheet metal side wall panels of an outdoor swimming pool in a concrete bottom.
A further object of the invention is to provide new and improved means for eliminating excess water accumulation in the excavation within which an outdoor swimming pool is constructed.
Still another object of the invention is to provide simplication in the construction of outdoor swimming pools.
Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention wil be readily apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment thereof taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure l yis ha longitudinal sectional view through a Patented May 16, 1961 ire swimming pool structure embodying features of the invention;
Figure I2. lis an enlarged fragmentary sectional elevational detail view taken substantially on the lineVII--Il of Figure 1 but showing the excavation and soil water drain structurebefore the metal work for the pool is installed within the excavation;
Figure 3 is a fragmentary top plan view of one corner of the pool excavation showing the metal work of the pool in place therein ready for pouring of the concrete bottom; and
Figure 4 is a vertical sectional elevational detail view taken substantially on the line IV--IV of Figure 3.
Referring to Figure l, an outdoor swimming pool 5 is constructed in situ within an excavation 7 dug in the ground. Essentially, the swimming pool comprises a concrete bottom 8 and a sheet metal side Wall structure 9. This side wall structure is made up of a plurality of sheet metal panels 10 which are preferably, though not necessarily vertically corrugated, with their vertical side margins overlapping (Fig. 3) with suitable sealer 11 sealing the lapped joint.
All of the side wall panels 10 are se-cured together in pool side wall relation by a metal framework comprising a plurality of tiers of circumscribing frame bars 12 to which the panels are secured at their overlapping marginal joints by means such as bolts 13. Secured to the horizontal frame bars 12 are vertical supporting and anchor bars 14, which in an economical and convenient form comprise suitable diameter reinforcing steel rods' secured to the outer sides of the frame bars 12 as by means of respective tie wires 15. At their lower ends, the rods 14 are desirably driven into the ground in the bottom of the excavation 7 for stabilizing and anchorage purposes.
During erection of the metal-work for the swimming pool, the vertical frame rods 14 serve to Support the side wall metal-Work properly centered Within the excavation 7 and with the lower edges of the side wall panels 10 at a proper elevation above the bottom of the excavation to enable ya suitable mesh-work of reinforcing rods 17 to be installed for reinforcing the concrete bottom 8. On the other hand, if preferred, the bottom reinforcing robs 17 may be installed in the bottom of the excavation before the side wall metal-work is installed. In either event, the lower edges of the panels 10` are supported in spaced relation above the bottom reinforcing rods 17, the spacing being adequate to avoid any transmission of vibration or panel-moving forces to the lower margins of the panels *10. However, such elevation of the lower edges of the panels 10 is below the desired top surface level of `the concrete bottom 8 so that the lower margins of the panels 10 will be adequately embedded and bonded in watertight relation within the concrete of the bottom 8.
In order to reinforce an outer marginal upwardly projecting reinforcing flange 18 of the concrete bottom 8 (Fig. l), about the perimeter of the pool side wall structure 9, the outer end portions of the reinforcing rods 17 project outwardly beyond the side wall perimeter and have upwardly extending reinforcing terminals 19, providing reinforcement for the upwardly projecting margin of the concrete bottom.
'In Order to provide solid anchorage of the lower ernbedded marginal portions of the side wall panels 10 in the concrete bottom 8, reinforcing projections 20 are provided on the lower embedded margins ofthe panels. In the present instance, the projections 20 are in the form of generally L-shaped anchor bolts extending through respective apertures 21 provided therefor in the panel margin and having heads 22 engaging the outer sides of the panel margins, while the Shanks of the bolts project inwardly a substantial distance to downwardly projecting relatively short anchoring terminals 23 on the inner end portions of the bolts. In a typical installation, it has been found desirable to use anchoring bolts of one-half inch diameter .and abou-t twelve inchesin length. By having the anchor bolts 20 projecting inwardly, rmaximum anchorage of the lower margins of the panels is attained not only against upward displacement from the concrete bottom', but also against outward displacement such as might be induced by freezing of waterin the pool. As ay matter of fact, this anchorage of the lower margins of the panels 10 in the concrete bottom relieves the upstanding reinforcing and supporting iiange `1S of the concrete bottom from strains imposed by freezing water thrust against the wall panels, since the anchor bolts distribute a substantial percentage, at least, ofthe strain to the concrete ofthe bottom 8 inside of the pool perimeter. During construction of the pool and especially during pouring and tinishing-'of the concrete bottom 8, there is ypractically no likelihood of the vanchor bolt projections on the lower embedded margins of the panels 10 from being disturbed. Therefore, the lower margins of the panels become thoroughly intimately bonded to the cement of the concrete bottom S and a thoroughly waterproof joint is provided. Since the bottom reinforcing rods 17 are free from contact with the side wall panels 10, and are free from contact with the reinforcing framework including the vertical rods 14, no 4amount of movement of the reinforcing rods 17 during pouring and finishing of the concretelwill have any disturbing eiect on the Vcement gel embedding the lower margins of the wall panels 1) and the concrete can therefore set in perfect 'bonded engagement with the panel margins. In order to solve the problem of subsoil water in the excavation 7, especially during erection of the swimming pool, but also after erection and in order to avoid undesirable heaving pressure from such water, I provide a vsub-excavation recess (Figs. l and 2) in at least the lowest portion of the excavation 7 and lill the same with coarse gravel 27 to the level of the lower face of the concrete bottom 8 to provide a collection sump. Within the body of gravel 27 a drain tile duct 28 is disposed. Within one end of the drain tile duct 28 the end of a pump-out conduit 29 is disposed having its inlet end protected by -a screen 30 to keep out coarse material. The pump-out conduit may be a .plastic pipe such as a polyethylene soil pipeY and is directed to the top of the excavation where a suitable pump 31 driven by a prime mover such as a motor 32 pumps water' through the conduit 29 from the drain tile duct 28. Where there is .constant water seepage into the excavation, the pump .'31 may be kept going until the pool has been completely nfinished, the pump-outconduit 29 then being closed in the back till of the excavation around the pool walls. rWhere the ground water level situation is not severe, ythe dischage end of the conduit 29 may be buried in the back lill. However, where desirable the conduit 29 4. may remain exposed at its discharge end for continuous vor interval pumping out of accumulated groundwater under the pool. In any event, the ground water collecting sump 25 under the pool continues -to serve a useful purpose in preventing or at least greatly minimizing development of localized areas of ground water pressure on the pool bottom 8. I
It will be understood tha-t modifications and variations may be effected without departing from the scope of the novel concepts of the present invention.
I claim as my invention:
l. In a swimming pool construction, a concrete bottom, a sheet metal panel side wall structure comprising generally vertical panels sealingly joined along their vertical edges, the lower margins of the panels being embedded in the concrete bottom substantially above the lower side of the bottom, the outer margin of the concrete bottom projecting outwardly beyond the panels and having an upwardlyxextending flange, reinforcing rods in the concrete bottom passing the' lower'edgesof Athe panels in spaced relation therebelow and .projecting outwarddisplacement from the concrete bottom especially as may be induced by freezing of water in the pool.
2. A swimming pool construction as defined in claim l, wherein the projecting end portions of the rods within said ange extend laterally upwardly in spaced relation opposite thelower margins of the panels.
3. A swimming pool construction as defined in claim Y1, wherein said llaterally projecting inner ends of'the anchor bolts extend downwardly toward but in spaced relation to the bottom reinforcing rods.
4. A swimming pool construction as defined in 4claim l, wherein the laterally projecting end portions of the rods extend upwardly in spaced relation opposite the lower margins of the panels, and the laterally projecting anchoring terminals of the anchor bolts extend downwardly toward but are in spaced relation to the reinforcing rods. 4 Y
References Cited in the tiley of this patent v UNITED STATES PATENTS `747,425 Hodges Dee. 22, '1903 1,817,437 Hawkinson Aug. 4, l'1931 2,412,307 Tatsch Dec. IQ, 1946 2,873,505 Sheldon Feb. 17,'1959 2,888,818 Leuthesser lune "2., 1959 l1959 2,899,820 Headrick Aug. i8,