US 2985263 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. MACIUNAS FIELD FABRICATED CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION May 23, 1961 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 19, 1957 INVENTOR. George Mociunos ATTORNEYS May 23, 1961 G. MACIUNAS FIELD FABRICATED CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov.
INVENTQR George Moclunos O CMM YWQ MQ%@ May 23, 1961 G. MACIUNAS FIELD FABRICATED CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 19, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 l-IIIIIIIIIII INVENTOR. George Maciunus Mm, WJM0%@ ATTORNEYS May 23, 1961 G. MACIUNAS 2,985,263
FIELD FABRICATED CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 19, 1957 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. George Muciunos ATTORNEYS May 23, 1961 G. MACIUNAS FIELD FABRICATED CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Nov. 19, 1957 FIG. l4
INVENTOR. George MOCIUHOS ATTORNEYS United States FIELD FABRICATED CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION George Maciunas, New York, N.Y., assignor to Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, a corporation of Virginia Filed Nov. 19, 1957, Ser. No. 697,348
8 Claims. -(Cl. 189-34) This invention relates to wall structures 'andin particular provides a curtain wall construction particularly suitable for field fabrication.
It is an important object of this invention to provide a wall structure constructed of structural members, typically formed from extruded aluminum tubing, which can be cut to size at the building site with elimination of shop fabricating steps such as cutting, mitering and welding.
It is a further object 'of this invention to provide a curtain wall structure in which the mullion and rail design requires a minimum numberof standard parts, thus assuring simplicity of installation, while at thesame time :achieving water tightness especially at joints and yet providing for horizontal thermal expansion at the joints without exposure of the structural aluminum tubing to the weather.
It is yet another object of this .invention to provide .a curtain wall structure which, because ofits simplicity of installation and desigmcan be constructed by unskilled labor without the necessity of shop drawings and 'yet which is flexible with unlimited horizontal module variation within the maximum length-of the standard parts and in which the standard parts are readily modified to accommodate vents, any panel =design, doors and glass of any thickness.
It is still a further object of this invention to EI rovide ;a curtain wall structure having pleasing appearance characterized by simplicity of mullion shape, elimination of exposed screws and accommodation of vent members .and door stiles within the'mullion thickness.
It is another important object of this invention to provide in a curtain wall structure a unitary, continuous, water-proof barrier surrounding all panels, .except at vents and door openings, and in which the barrier is supported along the structural portions of the various mullions and rails in a mannerpreventing externalexposure of such structural members.
These and other objects'of this invention are essentially obtained by employing three standard parts in the construction of the frame memberswhich-can be cut to any desired length and asembled together with suitable fastening devices such as screws. Fundamentally each mullion and rail of the curtain wall construction of this invention includes a structural member, typically formed 0f extruded aluminum tubing having a rectangular cross- .section, having a boss'inonelongitudinal face which receives a slotted resilient strip, typically a neoprene extrusion, which has one or more flanges which cooperate with the face of the structuralmember to define an elongated recess or recesses for receiving wall panels, glass and the like. A clamping plate, which is also typically extruded aluminum, is placed over the resilient strip overlying the flange or flanges to hold the latter. tightly against and in sealing contact with a wall panel retained between the flange or flanges on the resilient strip and the associated portion of the face on'the'structural member. Fastening devices, such as screws, extending through the clamping 2,985,263 liatented May 23, 1961 ICE plate and resilient strip into the structural member are employed to hold the clamping plate tightly against the resilient strip. Advantageously, a cover, such as an extruded aluminum channel, is removably placed over the edges of the clamping 'plate 'to cover the ends of the fastening devices. Also advantageously at joints between mullions, rails and the like abutting resilient panel-receiving strips are cemented'together such that the panel receiving strips form the above noted unitary, continuous, water-proof barrier. The ,panel receiving strips *are, moreover, preferably compressed lengthwise during installation such that thermal expansion of the' structural members on which :the panel receiving strips are mounted is accommodated Without distortedfstretching of therp'anel receiving strips.
In another. aspect of thisinvention, thermal expansion of joints between upright and horizontal frame members is permitted by providing a shelf construction for an upright structural member which horizontally and slidably receives the end of'a horizontal structural member such as a rail. In thisspecific case the shelf is 'aflixed to the side-of the upright member, e.g., a mullion, and the end of the horizontal structural member is slotted atone end along its side to receive a boss on :the side of the shelf. The inside contour of the upper portion of the shelf is formed-complementary to the cross-sectional contour 'of the upper interior portion of the end of horizo'ntal member, such that while sliding reception 'of'the horizontal member on the shelf is permited, rotational movement "of the member is prevented. Advantageously, a shim :is
wedged in the-slot in'the end of the horizontal member beneath. the boss on the shelf further to prevent relative application of the principles of this invention reference is made to the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure 1 is afragmentary elevational View of a curtain wall construction in accordance with this invention;
Figure 2 is a fragmentary isometric view of a partially assembled portion of thecurtainwall construction-shown in Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a fragmentary. isometric view of a portion of Figure '2 illustratinga standard step in construction of the curtain wall-shown in Figure 1;
Figure 4is -a fragmentary isometric view similar to Figure 3 showing a standard step in construction of the curtain wall of this invention;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary isometric view of another portion of the curtain wall construction shown in Figure l;
Figure 6 is a cross-section taken at line 6-6 in Figure 2;
Figure 7 is a fragmentary isometric view of a portion of a typical curtain wall construction in accordance with the invention;
Figure 1; and
Figure 14 -is a fragmentary isometric view of a modification of the curtain wall construction of this invention; and
Figure is a fragmentary isometric view of another modification of the curtain w'allconstruction of this invention.
Referring more particularly to Figure 1, the reference numeral designates a fragment of a building embodying the principles of this invention and including a corner post 21 and successively spaced mullions 22, 23, 24 and 25 supported above a concrete slab 26. Corner post 21 and the next adjacent mullion 22 carry identical rails 27 between them. Mullions 22 and 23 carry between them non-identical rails 28, 29 and 30 (rail 29 not visible in Figure 1, see Figure 11). Similarly, mullions 23 and 24 carry between them three identical rails 31 which are also identical to rails 27, and mullions 24 and 25, which also serve as door stiles, carry between them a lintel 32. In addition identical rails 33 are spaced along the bases of corner post 21 and mullions 22, 23 and 24, and a concrete door sill 34 rests on slab 26 between the bases of the mullions 24 and 25. Coping 35 along the upper ends of corner post 21 and mullions 22, 23, 24 and 25 is positioned over identical rails 36 supported be- 7 tween the upper ends of the associated posts and mullions.
above carry between them various panels, windows and a door. More specifically, ten identical wall panels 37 are carried between post 21 and mullion 22 and their associated rails 27, 33 and 36, between mullions 22 and 23 and their associated rails 28, 30, 33 and 36 and between mullions 23 and 24 and their associated rails 31, 33 and 36. A wall panel 38 of similar construction is carried between mullions 24 and 25 above lintel 32 and below rail 36 and a door 39 is mounted between mullions 24 and 25 below lintel 32. A pair of identical windows 40 are supported vertically adjacent to each other between mullions 22 and 23 and their associated rails 28, 29 and 30.
Each of the frame members referred to above involves the same basic construction. Referring more particularly to Figure 2 which shows mullion 23 with fragments of rails 31, it willbe observed that both the mullions and rails are formed of a rigid hollow tubing of essentially rectangular cross-section which constitutes their structural member. Tubing 45 in addition to having a generally rectangular transverse section has four exterior planar faces at right angles to each other. In the forward face 46, a boss 47 projects forward of tubing 45, centrally dividing face46 vertically. Boss 47 has a T cross-section which is centrally slotted lengthwise as indicated by the reference numeral 48. Each lateral portion of face 46 is also provided lengthwise with an undercut slot 49. internally tubing 45 is also of generally rectangular transverse contour but is thickened, as indicated by the reference numeral 50 in the vicinity of boss 47 and in the vicinity of slots 49 as indicated by the reference numerals 51. It will be observed that in each case every rail and mullion and every other frame member of the entire construction shown in Figure 1 employs this basic rectangular tubing 45 as the structural portion of the construction. In the case of mullion 23, shown in Figure 2, tubing 45 is reinforced throughout most of its length by an internal frame 52 which typically is an aluminum extrusion and which is shaped with a generally rectangular transverse section and sized to fit snugly within tubing 45. Interior frame 52 is provided withone .wall broken lengthwise, as indicated by the reference numeral 53, to facilitate its insertion in tubing 45.
The tubing 45 forming the structural member of mullion 23, as in the case of other vertical frame members such as post 21 and mullions 22, 24 and 25, is supported on concrete slab 26 by a cast aluminum shoe 55. Shoe 55 includes a base portion 56, which rests on slab 26 and conveniently can be bolted to slab 26, and an inte gral upright tubular sleeve 57 having a rectangular crosssection fitting snugly within the lower end of tubing 45.
At its upper end each upright frame member, typified by mullion 23, is secured to a roof spandrel beam or the like with a vertically extensible joint which includes an open sleeve or bracket 58 having a vertical base plate portion 59 which is suitably aflixed to a roof spandrel beam and which carries a pair of integral parallel flanges 60 which embrace opposite side faces 61 of tubing 45 of mullion 23. Each of flanges 60 is provided with a vertically elongated slot 62 which receives a stud 63 projecting from the associated side face 61 of tubing 45. Studs 63 typically are self-tapping bolts which threadedly engage a bore in the upper end of tubing 45 which is drilled on site during fabrication.
Referring more particularly to Figure 5 which shows corner post 21, it will be observed that corner post 21 has as its structural members two tubes 45 which are set at right angles to each other and appropriately anchored in shoes 55 and secured to a roof spandrel beam in a manner similar to that described with respect to mullion 23. Tubes 45 forming corner post 21, as noted above, are positioned at right angles. An extruded aluminum angle strip 65, having a length equal to that of the tubes 45 constituting post 21, is positioned outside of the structure against the adjacent pair of side faces 61 of the two tubes 45 and is affixed to each of tubes 45 by drilling holes through angle strip 65 and side faces 61 and driving self-tapping screws 66 into such holes. Thus the two tubes 45 are rigidly'interconnected througout their length.
The rails, such as rails 27 and 31, are attached to upright frame members, such as corner post 21 and milllion 23, in identical manner and similarly include a length of tubing 45 as a basic structural member (see Figures 2, 5 and 7). In each case the tubing 45, constituting a rail is positioned horizontally and is supported on the vertical tubing 45 constituting the structural member of a mullion or corner post by means of a shelf 70. Each shelf 70 (see particularly Figure 5 and Figure 6) is a short length of an aluminum extrusion which, in its upper portion, has a cross-section complementary to the interior upper cross-section of tubing 45 which is employed to form the rails. To one 'side each shelf 70 is provided with an outwardly projecting boss 71 having a thickness, horizontally, of approximately the wall thickness of tubing 45. On the outside of boss 71 there is also a secondary boss 72 of the same T-shape of boss 47 on tubing 45. Shelves 70 are secured to faces 61 of tubes 45 at vertical locations where it is desired to affix a rail 27 or 31, for example, by drilling a pair of holes through shelves 70 into the face 61 of the tubing 45 and then securing the shelf 70 at such position by means of self-tapping screws 69. Alternatively, the extrusion from which each shelf 70 is out can be provided with suitable bores eliminating the need to drill through shelf 70 in installing the structure and which can be used as a template for drilling suitable bores in tubing 45. The end of tubing 45 of a rail 27 or 31, which is to be butted against a face 61 of a tubing 45 of a corner post 21 or mullion 23, for example, is provided with a slot 73 in its forward face (which lies in a vertical plane and extends horizontally). The height of such a slot 73 is sufficient to pass the height of shelf 70 and similarly the depth is desirably greater than the length of a shelf 70.
To assembly a rail and an upright frame member, the tubing 45 of the rail, which has been cut to the desired length and provided with a slot 73 as described above, referring more particularly to Figure 5 is slipped from behind shelf 70 in a forward direction such that shelf 70 slides through slot 73 into tubing 45 of the rail. It will be understood, of course, that the other end of the particular rail is similarly slotted and similarly engaged at the same time with a shelf 70 of similar con- 'struction mounted. to thenext adjacent upright frame member, mullion 22 in the illustrated case. As-tubing 45 of rail 27 is fully extended over shelf 70, the upper portion of shelf 70 clears the upperinterior portion of tubing 45 of rail 27 which permits rail 27,,in fully en gaged position, to drop down andrest upon the upper portion of shelf 70, leaving a gap beneath boss 71' and the bottom of slot 73. In this position the internal upper surface of tubing 45 of rail 27 rests upon the complementary upper surface of shelf 70 with the forward face 46of tubing 45 of rail 27 flush with the forward face 46 of tubing 45 of corner post 21. Preferably the length of the tubing 45 of each rail has a length just short of the space between the mullions onwhich the rail is carried such that a gap, denoted by arrows A in Figure 7, exists between the end of the rail andface 61 of the mullion. This gap permits thermal expansion of the tubing 45 of the rail without compression oftherail or buckling of the mullion. Thesame conditions, of course, exist for every other rail and mullion joint (see, for ex ample, Figure 2). Desirably, the rail and mullion are then aflixed to prevent rotational movement which might tend to upset the joint by driving a shim 74 between boss 71 and the lower end of slot 73 (see Figures Sand 6).
From the preceding description it will be seen'that the framework shown in.Figure l is first set-up with all structural members 45 constituting the various mullions, post, rails, stiles, lintels and the like. In this arrangement, on each outer side of the construction, all forward faces 46 of the various tubes 45 are in a common vertical plane. The various wall panels 37 and 38 are-then installed employing generally a' neoprene extrusion, a clamping plate and fastening devices: In" the illustrated case of Figures 1-7, the same neoprene extrusion-isem ployed for all vertical and horizontal members, excluding rails for supporting the coping and mullions, rails,
stiles and sills surrounding windows and doors. The basic neoprene extrusion thus employed ismore clearly shown in Figure 2 and is denoted by the reference numeral 75.
Neoprene extrusion 75 is a resilient strip of'material including a main body portion 76 which is provided with a T-slot 77 extending centrally along the inner face 78 of strip 75. On each side of the body portion 76, that is adjacent to each side of inner face 78, there is located a flange 79 which is attached to body portion76 and is integral with body portion 76 lengthwise of the side of body portion 76 remote from face 78 and along the inner edge of flange 79. Desirably, flanges 79 in their normal extruded condition extend outwardly away from inner face 78, and their junctures with body portion 76 are each provided with a recess 80 which extends lengthwise of strip 75 on the outer side of body portion 76 to relieve surface tension caused by bending flanges 79 toward a position parallel to inner face 78. Each strip 75 is also provided with a pair of flanges 81 extending from body portion 76 and integral with body portion 75 along the opposite sides of inner face78l with the inner faces of flanges 81 contiguous with inner face 78 of body portion 76. Thus, between each adjacent pair of flanges 79 and 81, lying to one side of body portion 76, there is an elongated recess 82.
Strips 75 are cut to slightly greater than the length of the various upright and horizontal structuralmembers 45, except along doors and windows and at the coping, and are installed sliding their T-slots 77 over the various bosses 47. In the case of the various rails, T-slots-77 are also slipped over the bosses 72 of shelves 70 which are aligned with the bosses 47 of the various horizontal structural members. It will" be observed referring to Figures 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 that the transverse dimension of resilient strip 75 from the tip ofone flange 81 to'the tip of the opposite flange 81 is chosen substantially equal installed, they, abut each other at.the.various joints and suitably are cemented'wherethey ab'ut'as indicated'by the reference letter B in Figure 7 to secure watertight closures. Referring specifically to Figure 7; which shows a typical joint between a mullion and'rails, it will be seen that it is along the abutting surfaces of flanges 81 where the strips 75 are desirably cemented such that the assembled strips '75 present a unitary, continuous, waterproof carrier for enclosing all panels of the frame work of the curtain wall, except of course vents, such as win.- dows 40, door 39 and base panels referred to hereinafter.
Neglecting for the moment the resilient panel receiving strips employed around windows and the like, each of the various resilient strips 75 is then provided with a clamping plate 83 which consists of an elongated plate of extruded aluminum, one edge 84 of which is reentrant and the other longitudinal edge 85 of which is offset (see Figures 3 and 4 for example). Clampingplates 83 are slotted transversely at regular intervals along their lengths as indicated by the reference numerals 86. Each slot 86 in the illustrated case enters from the reentrant edge 84 of clamping plate 83 and extends somewhat-beyond'the center line of clamping plate 83.
Clamping plates 83 are installed by first drilling a series of holes throughthe body portion of resilient strip 75 spaced according to the spacing of transverse slots 86 in clamping plates 83. Self-tapping screws 87 are then inserted'through these holes and threadedly engaged in slots-48 of bosses 47 leaving the head and'short portions of their shanks exposed beyond the outer side of resilient strips 75. Clamping plates 83 are then lined up with slots 86in positionto slide beneath the heads of screws 87. The various plates 83 are then slidfinto position with'the shanks of screws 87 extending through slots 86 and the heads of screws 87 overlyingtheedges of slots 86.
It will be observed that in the position shown in Figure 3, flanges 79 are forced by clampingplates 83 toward flanges 81yto reduce the transverse dimension of recesses 82. Since reoesses-82 outline each area enclosed by a pair ofv adjacent rails lying between an adjacent pair of mullions, panels can be inserted in recesses 82 and thus supported in position. The insertion of panels in recesses 82 is facilitated by the extension of slots 86 beyond the center line of clamping plate 83' which permits clamping plates .83 to be slid transversely over their associated resilient strips 75 a sufiicient distance in either direction without disengagement from the headsoflscrews 87, to permit one or the other flange 79-. to be opened into its normal position bent away from its associated flange 81 (see Figure 4, for example).
Thus, in this manner the various wall panels 37 and 38are installed with plates 83 recentered and screws" 87 tightened down after panel installation. Wall panels 37 and 38 can be of any conventional construction and'can include glass panels. Because of the clamping'pressure exerted vby plates 83 in theposition shown in Figures 3 and 7, flanges 79 firmly hold the wall'panels against the outer face 46 of tubing 45providing a Watertight seal in the joint between the frame member and panel. Adfditionally, the inner flange 81 assists in this'function by increasing the area of sealed contact between the various mullions and rails and their associate wall panels. ,As noted above, strips 75 are cut to slightly greater than the length of their associated'structural members45 As a result after the various panels37 and 38 are installed and clamping plates '83 are tightened down, horizontal and vertical expansion of the structural members 45', which is permitted by the gap; between the ends of the tubes 45 forming the various rails and the faces 61 of the upright tubes 45 and which is permitted by the elongated vertical slots 62, is accommodated by the slightly compressed panel receiving strips' 75 Without distorted stretching of such strips.
g a "creases Insofar as the structure is described above, it includes the essential aspects of this invention. Doors and windows can also be installed by conventional methods. 7 It will be noted, however, that, as described above, the various fastening devices are exposed, rendering possible injury to the structure by an accidental blow and leaving a rather crude appearance. Desirably, the structure is completed by providing covers for the various exposed fastening devices. Thus, each of the mullions, rails and the like is provided with a cover which includes a threesided rectangular aluminum extrusion, i.e., channel. 90 which is provided with an inwardly turned flange 91 along one longitudinal edge and an inward bead 92 extending along the other longitudinal edge. Channels 90 are installed after the panels have been secured in position and screws 87 tightened down by slipping flanges 91 beneath offset edges 85 of clamping plates 83 and snapping beads 92 over reentrant edges 84 of clamping plates 83, (see Figure In addition corner post 21 during the installation of the panels is provided with a two-sided angle strip 93 which is inserted in recesses 82, adjacent to the outer side faces 61 of tubes 45 which are secured by angle 65. Angle strips or channels 93 are installed in the same manner as the various wall panels and if necessary additional strips 94 can be used to build up their thickness to provide a watertight, mechanically-secure seal for channels 93 which also prevents tampering with fastening screws 66 and adds to the pleasing'appearance of the structure. 7 The basic combination of parts employed in this invention thus can be employed to construct any curtain wall structure. In addition with minimum modification employing the same tubing 45, base plates and coping for the wall structure can be included with a few extra parts. Thus, referring to Figure 8, the rail 33 supported at the bases of the various mullions, stiles and posts includes the identical construction and extends a few inches above the concrete slab 26. A strip of flashing 95, the lower edge of which is preset in the concrete slab 26, is extended up between the inner flange 81 of the strip 75 and the outer. face 46 of the tubing 45 of rail 33. A base plate strip or panel 96 is retained in the lower recess 82 of strip 75 to protect flashing 95. I
' At the coping 35 (see Figure 9) the rail 36 extending between the heads of the various mullions, while including tubing 45, is provided with a modified resilient panel receiving strip 97 and clamping plate 98. Resilient strip 97 is provided on one side with outer and inner flanges 99 and 100, respectively, corersponding to flanges 79 and 81 on a side of a strip 75. The body portion 101 of strip 97, however, extends beyond the center line of boss 47 only a sufiicient'distance to permit a self tapping screw 102 for retaining strip 97 to be passed through body 101 into slot 48. Unlike clamping plate 83, clamping plate 98 is a channel which is provided along its lower longitudinal edge with an upwardly turned flange 103 and along its upper longitudinal edge with an upwardly extending inwardly turned angle flange 104. Angle flange 104 is shaped to enclose the upper portion of body portion 101 of panel receiving strip 97 and to extend down below the level of boss 47. Flange 103 is positioned against outer flange 99 on strip 97 such that screw 102 extended through angle flange 104 and panel receiving strip 97. tbreadedly engaged in slot 48, can be employed to bring flange 103 to bear against the outer flange 99 of panel receiving strip 97 and thus secure the upper edge of a panel 37 in the same manner as described above with reference to Figures 2-4.
Coping 35 is of generally conventional construction and can be provided with longitudinal expansion joints as practice dictates. Suitably coping 35 is supported on a concrete floor or roof slab 105 supported on the roof spandrel beams and overlaps rail 36 extending above beneath coping 35 andabov e rail 36 around the forward channel clamp 98. Desirably flashing 106 extends from 8 face 46 of tube 45 of rail 36 to below the upper edge of angle flange 104. V
Figures 10, 11 and 12 illustrate the details. by which glass vents 40 are installed employing the wall construction of the invention. Figure 10 in particular illustrates a cross-sectional view through mullion 22 between rails 28 and 29, while Figure 11 represents a vertical section taken through rail 29 and Figure 12 is a vertical section through mullion 22. Thus Figure 10 illustrates the detail of window mullions, i.e., jambs, Figure 11 illustrates the detail at the head and sill of the windows, and Figure 12 illustrates the mechanism by which windows can be opened for venting. I
Referring more particularly to Figure 10 it will be noted that tubing 45 of mullion 22 (and hence of mullion 23) between rails 28 and 29 (and similarly between rails 29 and 30) is provided with a resilient panel receiving strip 110 for securing the vertical edge of a wall panel section 37 adjacent to mullion 22. Panel receiving strip 110 is typically a neoprene extrusion and includes an elongated body portion 111 which is provided lengthwise with a T-slot 112 located in one face of body portion 111. Extending laterally from a side. of body portion 111 adjacent to the face including T-slot 112 are a pair of flanges 113 and 114. Flange 113 has its outer face flush with the face of panel receiving strip 110 which includes T-slot 112. Similarly, the outer face of flange 114 is contiguous with the face of body portion 111 which is opposite T-slot 112, and flanges 113 and 114 are spaced from each other to define an elongated recess 115 running lengthwise along a side of panel receiving strip 110 which receives the vertical edge of the adjacent wall panel 37.
It should be noted that in all respects the construction of panel receiving strip 110 is similar to the construction of panel receiving strips 75 except that a second pair of flanges opposite flanges 113 and 114 have been omitted. Panel receiving strip '110 is thus installed with the T- shaped boss 47 of mullion 22 received in T-slot 112. A clamping channel 116 having a length equal to the distance between rails 28 and 29 is mounted overlying the flanged portion of resilient panel receiving strip 110. Channel 116 includes along its outer longitudinal edge an inwardly turned flange 117 and along its other longitudinal edge an outwardly turned flange 118. Flange 118 is suitably provided with holes spaced at intervals along its length for registering with similar bores extending through body portion 111 of panel receiving strip 110 and through which self-tapping screws 119 are passed and engaged in the slot 48 in boss 47 to draw clamping channel 116 against panel receiving strip 110 causing flange 117 on channel 116 to bear down against outer flange 114 of strip 110 to retain wall panel 37 securely between face 46 on tubing 45 and flange 114 with flange 113 interposed between panel 37 and face 46. It will be evident that a similar construction is employed on rail 28 over the head of its associated window panel 40 to receive the adjacent wall panel 37, and similarly on mullion 23 along the opposite side of window panels 40 and along rail 30 beneath the sill of the associated window panel 40.
Along each side, top and bottom of eachwindow panel 40 the glass panel 40 itself is retained in a recessed neoprene extrusion 120 which overlies the edges of panel 40 on both faces of panel 40. Extrusion 120 which functions primarily as a gasket is in turn retained along the sides and bottom of panel 40 in a window frame 121 which typically is an aluminum extrusion cut into three lengths to cross the sides and bottom of each window panel 40. Window frame 121 in cross section will be noted to include a main body portion 122 against a face 123 of which the rear face of gasket 120 is received. Frame 121 further includes a forward flange 124 which lies lengthwise of body portion 122, which at its base near body portion 122 receives the edge of gasket 12% and which is provided lengthwise along its forward por- "tion which extends beyond gasket 120 with a series of tapped bores 125.
An aluminum channel 126 having a long side 127 and a short side 128 provided with an inwardly turned flange 129 is positioned with its long side 127 against the outer face of forward portion 124 of frame 121, with its short side 128 extending toward window panel 40 and with flange 129 bearing against the forward face of recessed gasket 121). Side 127 is provided with a series of holes which register with bores 125 to permit screws 130 to be passed through side 127 and engaged in tapped bores 125 to secure clamping channel 126 in position. It will be noted that flange 124 is relieved along its forward'portion which includes bores 125 in order to permit screws 130 to provide an adjustable amount of of clamping pressure exerted by flange 129 against gasket 120.
Flange 133 on frame member 121 is shorter than flange 132 and is positioned along the inner edge of body portion 122. Between them flanges 132 and 133 define an elongated rearwardly facing recess 134.
The window glass frame member at the heads of Window panels 40 is similar to window glass frame member 121 and is indicated by the reference numeral 135 (see Figure 11). Window glass head frame member 135 includes a body portion 136 which rests against the rear face of the gasket 120 extended across the upper edge of each window panel 41). Frame member 135 has a lengthwise flange 137 at the upper end of body portion 136 which overlies and extends forwardly beyond the upper edge of gasket 120 and which at its forward edge is turned upwardly as indicated by the reference numeral 138 and includes a rearwardly extended flange 139 spaced above flange 137 and which terminates at its rearward end over the upper edge of panel 40. Flange 139 is pro- 'islocated on rail 28 over the head of a window panel 40 should be similarly undercut.
The window panels, framed as indicated above, are installed between mullions 22 and 23, one between rails 28 and 29 and the other between rails 29 and 30. In each case along the jambs of the window the flanges 132 fit snugly against the non-flanged sides of panel receiving strips 110. In this position recesses 134 register with the adjacent lengthwise slots 49 in the exposed portions of 10 faces 46 of tubing 45.
Near the head and sill, respectively, of each window frame, slots 49 in the jamb portions of mullions 22 and 23 carry short vertical plates 150 and 151 Which extend into recesses 134 and which at their bases are enlarged to prevent their removal from slots 49 (see Figures 10 and 12). The plates 150 at the head ends of windows are vertically slidable in slots 49 while plates 151 near the sills are wedged or otherwise aifixed in position. Referring more particularly to Figure 12, each of plates 150 and 15-1 is provided with a small bore near its upper,
outer corner. In the case of plate 150 a pin 152 affixed at its ends in flanges 132 and 133 is passed through the bore thus pivotally connecting the head end of the frame of window panel 40 to vertically slidable plate 150. The
lower end of an arm 153 is pivotally connected as indicated by the reference numeral 154 to the upper, outer corner of each fixed plate 151 such that arm 153 can extend upwardly in recess 134. The upper end of each arm 153 is similarly pivotally connected to the frame of window panel 40 by a pin 155 aflixed at its ends in flanges 132 and 133.
Thus when it is desired to open a window panel 40 the lower end of the frame of window panel 40, which is conveniently provided with a conventional latch, is released and extended outwardly with plate 150 sliding downwardly in slot 49 to permit the window to swing open pivoted at plate 150 and at the end of arm 153. It will be noted that the head of the frame of each window panel when the window is closed (see Figure 11) is 40 in sealing contact with sealing strip 146 with bead 145 vided with a series of tapped bores 141) adjacent to connecting portion 138 and flange 137 is provided with a series of weep holes 141 along its portion adjacent to connecting portion 138.
A clamping channel identical to channel 126 and indicated by the same reference number is positioned over frame member 135 with its long side 127 overlying flange 139 and with its inwardly turned flange 129 on its short side 128 bearing against the forward face of gasket 120. Screws 130 are similarly employed to secure clamping plate 126 in position and are threadedly engaged in flange 144 running lengthwise along the lower edge of body portion 146. At its rear edge flange 143 is provided with an upwardly turned bead 145. Thefour frame members 121 and 135 mounting each window panel 40 rabbeted and by fastening with screws and angles for example.
Referring particularly to Figure 11, it will. be further noted that the boss47 of tubing 45 of rail 29 carries a resilient sealing strip 146 which is T-slotted, as in the case of the panel receiving strips for example, but
.which is unflanged and extends only a short distance to each side of boss 47. On its underside sealing strip 146 is undercut as indicated by the reference numeral 147.
'It will be noted that'the panel receiving strip which are joined at the corners with head and sill members 5 extending into the undercut portion 147 of strip 146 (or strip 110). Thus, when a window panel 41 is opened (see Figure 12) the pivot point'152 on each side of the window. frame is located just below head frame with the result that flange 143 swings downwardly and out from undercut portion 147 clearing the engagement of :bead 1 45 at the head of window panel 40 from sealing strip 146.
Door 39 can be supported between mullions 24 and 25, which serve as door stiles, in essentially the same manner as window panels 40 are supported between mullions 22 and 23 except that the hinging arrangement differs. iFigure- 13 moreover shows yet'another arrangement in accordance with'the'princi-ples of this invention by which a door can be supported between mullions in a manner providing a heavier frame construction for the doo'r panel. In the construction shown in Figure 13 it will be noted i that mullions 24 and 25 have as basic structural members the same'tubing 45 described above and that panel receiving strips 97 (see Figure 9) are employed to secure and 'seal the adjacent vertical edges of adjacent wall panels, such as wall panels 37. In place of channels 98, however, a special door jamb structural element 161}, a clamping plate 161 and a cover channel 162 are employed along each door stile and along the lintel 32 (the lintel is notshown in detail).
Door jamb is an extruded aluminum shape of essen- "tially T-cross-section in which the leg 163 of the T which serves asthe actual jamb portion of the door stile,
7 "has a length equal to the thickness of the door frame members 164 in which door panel 39a is mounted. The "headof T-shaped door jamb 160 to one side 165 lies flush against the lateral portion of face 46 of tubing 45 of the stile adjacent to the door opening and at its tip 76- extends beneath the edge of boss 47 with a forwardly projecting flange 166 running lengthwise of door jamb member 160. Flange 166 abuts the side of boss 47 and terminates flush with the forward face of panel receiving strip 97. The other side 167 of door jamb 160 at its end carries a rearwardly turned and reentrant flange 168 which terminates against the side face 61 of tubing 45 of the door stile. Door jamb 160 is provided lengthwise with a series of bores running through its side 165 which register with similar bores in the forward face 46 of tubing 45 to receive self-tapping screws 169 which secure door jamb 160 rigidly to tubing 45.
Clamping plate 161 is a strip of aluminum plate which at one longitudinal edge 170 is offset and which is bored at intervals along its length close to its other longtudinal edge 171 such that it can be mounted overlying panel receiving strip 97 by means of self-tapping screws .172 which are passed through strip 97 and are received in slot 48 of boss 47 with offset edge 170 overlying the outer flange 99 of panel receiving strip 97 and with the other edge 171 abutting the forward end of flange 166 on door jamb 160.
The jamb face of leg 163 of door jarnb 160 is relieved along its forward portion as indicated by the reference numeral 173 and is provided with a lengthwise groove 174 along the end of relief 173 near tubing 45. Cover channel 162 is essentially identical in construction to channels 98 having an inwardly turned flanged 175 along the edge of one side and an inwardly turned bead 176 along the edge of its other side. Thus cover channel 162 is installed to cover screws 172 and 169 by inserting flange 175 over the oflset edge 170 of plate 161 with the outer side of channel 162 lying in relieved portion 173 of jamb 160 and with the bead 176 snapping into groove 174.
Door frame 164 is constructed of four suitable lengths of extruded aluminum tubing having a generally rectangular hollow cross-section which is recessed partly across one face as indicated by the reference numeral 178. The four lengths are then assembled and joined at their ends to form corners by conventional methods with the recesses 178 aligned and facing inwardly such that door panel 39a carrying a neoprene gasket 182 over its edges is snugly received along its four edges by recesses 178. Moulding 179 is then attached to the inner faces of frame elements 164 by means of screws 180 abutting the edges of door panel 39a to retain door panel 39a securely in frame 164. Door 39 is then hung on one stile, e.g., mullion 24, by conventional hinges 181 which are bolted or otherwise aifixed to frame 164 and to jamb leg 163.
It will be noted with reference to the preceding description that the frame member construction of this invention has been described with reference to securing relatively thin panel sections such as wall panels 37 and 38 which can be sheet metal, plywood, glass or composition board. In more permanent installations it will generally be desirable also to provide wall panels of substantial thickness. Such panels are handled employing frame members including tubing 45, panel receiving strip 75, clamping plate 83, screws 87 and cover channel 90 if the wall panel, such as relatively thick wall panel 185 shown in Figure 14, includes a relatively thinner lip 186 projecting along its edges which can be received in recesses 82 similarly to thinner wall panels 37 and 38, for example.
Figure shows, however, a modification of the construction of this invention which accommodates the entire edge of a thicker wall panel 187. In the arrangement of Figure 15 tubing 45 is employed as before as the structural element of the frame member. Panel receiving strip 75 is however substituted by a panel receiving strip 188 which, like strip 75 is typically a neoprene extrusion having a main body portion 189 provided with a T-slot 190 along one of its faces for receiving boss 47. To eachside of body portion 18 9 'there extends away from bolted to shoes 55. 7.
the face containing T-slot a wing 191, the tip 192 of which extends in a direction essentially parallel to the plane of face 46 of tubing 45. Each of the wings 191 thus extends lengthwise of body portion 189 and has its tip portion 192 associated with a lateral portion of face 46 which lies to one side of boss 47 thereby defining a recess between tip 192 and face 46 for receiving the edge of a thick wall panel 187.
Clamping plate 83 in the arrangement of Figure 15 is substituted by a clamping plate 193, the opposite longitudinal marginal portions of which overlie wing tips 192 of panel receiving strip 188. Between the marginal portions of clamping plate 193 there is a well 194 which fits snugly into the longitudinal recess in panel receiving strip 188 formed between wings 191. One margin 195 of clamping plate 193 which overlies a wing tip 192 is offset at its edge away from wing tip 192, and the other longitudinal margin 196 of clamping plate 193 is provided with a reentrant portion.
In construction of the arrangement of Figure 15, after panel receiving strip 188 has been positioned with its T-slot 190 receiving boss 47 of tubing 45, the edges of thick wall panels 187 are inserted between wing tips 192 and the associated lateral portions of face 46 of tubing 45. Desirably an extruded neoprene strip 197 having a lengthwise, wedge shaped boss 292 is laid along each face 46 with boss 202 inserted in a lengthwise slot 49 in the face 46 of tubing 45 to provide additional sealing contact with the inner face of wall panel 187 and also to cushion the seating of panel 187 against face 46 of tubing 45.
Clamping plate 193 is then placed over panel receiving strip 188 with well 194 riding in the recess between wings 191, and self-tapping screws 198 are passed at intervals along plate 193 through suitable openings in the bottom of well 194 which register with similar openings in panel receiving strip 188 to permit said self-tapping screws 198 to engage in slot 48 in boss 47 and hold clamping plate 193 firmly over panel receiving strip 188 with wing tips 192 held firmly against the outer faces of panels 187. Suitably an extruded aluminum channel 199 is employed as a cover for clamping plate 193 and screws 198. Cover channel 199 is provided along the longitudinal edge of one side with an inwardly turned flange 200 and along the longitudinal edge of the other side with an inwardly turned bead 201 such that channel 199 can be engaged with flange 200 received between offset portion 195 of plate 193 and a-wing tip 192 while bead 201 snaps into the space behind reentrant edge 196. Channel 199 thus serves as a cover in the same manner as channel 90.
It will be evident that the frame construction of this invention is susceptible to many other modifications than those described above. Generally tubing 45, panel receiving strips 75, clamping plates 83 and covers 90 along with their various modifications as may be required and as suggested above together with the various wall panels and other special connection items such as shelves 70 are delivered without precutting to the site for erection of a building.
After the concrete slab 26 has been laid with proper fittings the first step in the erection of the curtain wall construction is anchoring of shoes 55 to slab 26. Open ended sleeve brackets 58 are attached at their bases 59 to the various roof spandrel beams. Thereafter tubing 45 for the various mullions and posts is measured and cut. The cut lengths of tubing 45 are then inserted over shoes 55, and the open sleeve portions or flanges 60 of brackets 58 are slipped over the appropriate tubes 45 and are adjusted forverticality, Holes are then drilled in sides 61 of tubing 45 guided by the slotted holes 62 of flanges 60 and bolts 63 installed. At this point the bases of the various upright tubes 45 are drilled and The various horizontal tubes 45 are then measured 13 and cut along with-the various'panel receiving strips, clamping plates, covers and the like. A small space should be allowed at joints for expansion of tubing, and the ends of the horizontal tubes 45 should have notches out in them to form slots 73. Employing as templates predrilled shelves 70, the side faces 61 of the upright tubes 41 are then drilled at appropriate heights to permit screws 69 to secure shelves 70 in position making sure that a pair of shelves confront each other at the same heights between each adjacent pair of mullions at which location of a rail or the like is indicated. The horizontal tubes 45 are then slipped into position and wedged as isndicgtgd heretofore with particular reference to Figures The various sections of panel receiving strips which suitably have pre-drilled holes through their body portions to receive the various'screws 87 are then slipped over the various bosses 47 and screws 87 installed. Abutting strips 75 are cemented as previously noted, as also are strips 97, 111 and 146. Panel strips '188 are also cemented to abutting panel receiving strips 188, but along wings 191 and body portions-189. Thereafter clamping plates 83 are slipped into position as indicated with reference to Figure 3. The various wall panels are then inserted slipping clamping plates 83 first to one side of tubing 45 and then to the other'and then centering after which screws 87 are tightened and covers 90 are snapped into position.
In the case of constructions such as typified by Figures 9-13 and 15 where clamping plates 83 are substituted by cl mping plates whichare not capable of sliding it is preferable to screw the wall panels at their corners to tubes 45 prior to the placement of the clamping plate or channel, and once the clamping plate channel has been installed it is preferable to use open end washers or the like at each screw head, Windows and doors of course can be preassembled, or cut and assembled at the site and are installed preferably after completion of the construction including installation of coping and roof in a conventional manner.
1. In a Wall structure a frame member which includes a rigid elongated structural member having a face extending lengthwise of said structural member and a boss on said structural member extending lengthwise thereof projecting therefrom along one side of said face; a resilient panel receiving strip including an elongated body portion having a face extending lengthwise thereof, means defining a slot extending lengthwise in said face in said body portion, and an elongated flange on said body portion disposed along one side of and remote from said face on said body portion, said flange being integral with said body portion along a longitudinal edge of said flange; said strip being mounted on said structural memher with the faces of said strip and structural member abutting, with said slot receiving said boss and with said flange and said face on said structural member disposed to the same side of said boss thereby defining an elongated recess; a rigid elongated clamping plate disposed lengthwise of said body portion with a longitudinal edge of said plate overlying said face on said structural member with said flange interposed therebetween, said clamping plate including means defining a slot extending from one longitudinal edge of said clamping plate transversely of said clamping plate substantially past the central line thereof; and fastening means having a head portion remote from said structural member and a shank portion extending through said strip and anchored in said structural member holding said plate against said strip, said clamping plate receiving the shank of said fastening means in said slot with the head of said fastening means overlying the edges of said slot.
2. A frame member according to claim 1 which further includes a resilient sealing strip retained lengthwise of said face on said structural member.
3. A frame member according to claim 2 in which said resilient sealing strip is a second flange on said body portion of said receiving strip disposed lengthwise of said body portion along the side of said face on said body portion adjacent to said first named flange and integral with said body portion along a longitudinal edge of said second flange.
4. A frame member according to claim 2 in which said resilient sealing strip is provided with a boss extending lengthwise thereof and in which said structural member further includes means defining a slot extending lengthwise of said face, said boss on said sealing strip being received in said slot in said face of said structural member.
5. A frame member according to claim 1 which further includes an elongated rigid channel member disposed lengthwise over said clamping plate, and cooperating means along the longitudinal edges of said clamping plate and along the'longitudinal edges of said channel member for removably securing said channel member in position over-said plate.
6.- A frame member according to claim 1 in which said fastening means is a screw rotatably engaged in said boss.
7 In a wall structure, a frame member which includes a rigid elongated structural member having a face extendhaving a' face extending lengthwise thereof, means defining a slot extending lengthwise in said body portion centrally along said face in said body portion, and a pair of elongated flanges on said body portion, one of said flanges disposed along each side of and remote from said face on said body portion, said flanges being integral with said body portion along a longitudinal edge of each said flange; said strip being mounted on said structural member with faces of said strip and structural member abutting, with said slot receiving said boss and with one said flange and one said lateral face portion on said structural member disposed to each side of said boss thereby defining a pair of elongated recesses; a rigid elongated clamping plate disposed lengthwise of said body portion with a longitudinal edge of said plate overlying each said lateral face portion on said structural member with one said flange interposed therebetween, said clamping plate including means defining a slot extending from one longitudinal edge of said clamping plate transversely of said clamping plate substantially past the central line thereof; and fastening means having a head portion remote from said structural member and a shank portion extending through said strip and anchored in said structural member holding said plate against said strip, said clamping plate receiving the shank of said fastening means in said slot with the head of said fastening means overlying the edges of said slot.
8. In a wall structure, the improvement which includes a rigid upright elongated structural member having a pair of vertically extending faces at right angles to each other and a boss on said structural member extending vertically and projecting therefrom centrally of one vertical face to divide said one face into a pair of lateral face portions; a hollow horizontal elongated structural member having a vertical face extending lengthwise of said horizontal structural member and a boss on said horizontal structural member extending horizontally thereof projecting centrally of said face to divide said face into a pair of lateral face portions, and means defining a slot in said face, said slot extending horizontally from one end of said horizontal frame member and aligned with said boss; a horizontal shelf aflixed to the other vertical face of said upright structural member, the external cross-section of the upper portion of said shelf 15 being complementary to the upper interior cross-section of said horizontal structural member at said end thereof, and a horizontal boss on the side of said shelf adjacent to said one vertical face on said upright structural member, said end of said horizontal structural member being horizontally slidably received over said shelf with said boss on said shelf received in and extending through said slot aligned with said boss on said horizontal member and with the upper interior portion of said end of said horizontal member resting on said shelf; a pair of resilient panel receiving strips, each including an elongated body portion having a face extending lengthwise thereof, means defining a slot extending lengthwise in said face on said body portion and an elongated flange on said body portion disposed along one side of and remote from said face on said body portion, said flange being integral with said body portion along a longitudinal edge of said flange; one said strip being mounted on said upright member with the face on said strip abutting said one face'on said upright member with said slot in said one strip receiving said boss on said upright member and with said flange and one said lateral face portion of said one face disposed to the side of said boss adjacent to said other vertical face of said upright member; the other said strip being mounted on said horizontal memher with said slot on said other strip receiving said boss on said shelf and said boss on said horizontal member and with said flange and one said lateral face portion on said horizontal member disposed to one side of said bosses on said shelf and said horizontal member whereby the flanges on said strips and the associated lateral face portions of said structural members define a pair of elongated intersecting recesses; a 'pair of rigid elongated clamping plates; one said clamping plate being disposed lengthwise of the body portion of said one strip on said upright member with a longitudinal edge of said plate overlying said one lateral face portion on said upright member with the flange on said one strip interposed therebetween, and the other said plate being disposed lengthwise of said body portion of said other strip with a longitudinal edge of said plate overlying said one lateral face portion on said horizontal member with said flange on said other strip interposed therebetween, each said clamping plate including means defining a slot extending from one longitudinal edge of said clamping plate transversely of said clamping plate substantially past the central line thereof; and fastening means associated with each said structural member having head portions remote from said structural members and shank portions extending through said strips and anchored in said structural members holding said plates against the associated strips, said clamping plates receiving the shanks of said fastening means in said slots with the heads of said fastening means overlying the edges of said slots.
References Cited in the file of this patent 2 Q UNITED STATES PATENTS Canada Jan. 17, 1956