US 298565 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
No. 298,565; Patented May 13, 18 84.
INVENTOR WM VeAMOVDLZM ATTORNEY (No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet. 2.
4 PLOOR'MAT. I
No. 298,565. Patented May 13, 1884.
W1 INVENTOR w W i w N. PETERS. Phola'Lilhognphur. Wuhington, D. C.
Unrrnn Srarns Parana @rrren.
FRIEDRICH FASTENRATH, OF NEW YORK, -Y.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 298,565, dated May 13, 1884.
Application filed November 16, i883. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern Beit known that LFRIEDRIOH FASTENRATI-I, a citizen of Germany, residing at New York, in the county of New York and State of New 5 York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Floor-Mats, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings.
My invention relates to that class of mats in whicha series of parallel slats of wood or other cheap and durable material are flexibly connected together, so that the mat can be rolled up in whole or in part when required; and it consists in the novel features of construction 5 hereinafter described, whereby an article of superior strength and durability is obtained.
The following is a description of what I consider the best means of carrying out'the invention. I produce, by a process analogous to punching, two or more holes in eachslat, one near each end, and one or more, if desired, at intermediate points, all the slats being similarly punched. I drive through each of the holes a strip of metal, preferably rolled brass, 5 the hole being long and narrow and matching closely to the strip. The fit should be such as to require considerable force to insert the pieces ofthe metal, but not so much as to prevent the pieces from being easily driven in by a hammer or other suitable appliance. I provide means for promptly truing the positions of all the pieces of metal, so that each piece projects to an exactly equal extent on each side of the slat in which it is set. The pro- 5 j ecting ends of the metal are then-,by the action of suitably-formed dies, peculiarly bent. Then two adjacent slats, with their projecting and bent strips of metal, are placed in a proper position, and an oblong ring or connectinglink being dropped onto the adjacent bent ends to connect the two together, finishing-dies are brought into operation to curl over the adjacent ends, thereby effecting a complete locking. The ends of the metal strips are brought around so asto abut against the wood. This aids in sustaining it firmly in position. If the metal strips are applied at three points on each rod, a corresponding number of dies may be employed, suitably located, to treat the whole at a single operation; but in working in a small way a single die can be made to an;
swer, the work being mounted on acarriage and moved forward and backward to bring the several fastenings successively into place to receive the action of the die.
In the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, Figure 1 is a sectional side view of the punch used for producing the holes in the slats. Fig. 2 is a plan view of a slat having the metal strips inserted therein. Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the dies used for truing the metal strips and bending the same. Fig. 4c is a plan view thereof. Fig. 5 shows a slat in cross-scction after being subjected to the action of the dies last named. Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the finishing-dies. Fig. 7 is an end View thereof. Fig. 8 shows two adjacent slats as they appear after being subjected to the action of the finishing-dies. Fig. 9 is a plan view of a portion of the completed mat. Fig. 10 is a diagram showing the arrangement of the slats to produce a mat of curved shape.
Similar letters indicate similar parts.
A A, &c., are a series of slats of wood, of cylindrical or other suitable shape.
B B, 850., are strips of metal. They may be rolled brass cut into strips of uniform breadth and length.
0 is a thin flat punch, with its edge ground off square or at right angles to its sides. This is for producing the long narrow holes in the wood to receive the metal strips. It is important that the edge of the punch be not beveled. I have determined by experiment that the blunt end produced by grinding directly across forces apart the fibers of wood in a manner less likely to split the slats than a sharp edge to the punch. The wood may be saturated with water, cold or hot, or with steam, previous to punching, if found necessary or expedient in any case, as in working some peculiar kinds of wood or inserting extra-thick pieces of metal; but I have not found such treatment to be necessary. A sufficient thickness of brass-.say OncsiXteenth of an inch-can be inserted in slats of pine or maple threefourths or one inch, the wood having been subjected to no peculiar treatment, but being preferably green, or onlyrecently cut from fresh logs. The punch O is fixed in the head of any usual or suitable punching-press (not represented) adapted to give it a reciprocating motion.
1) is a bed which lies in the-path of the punch O, and is tubular, as shown, to receive one of the slats and to hold it firmly in the required position. A hole in the bottom of the bed D allows any particles of wood which are detached by the punch Cto be forced out and discharged. The hole is mainly produced by displacing the particles of wood laterally. Under ordinary circumstances, so soon as the punch is withdrawn, the hole in the wood closes up tightly; but there remains for a long timeprobably for an indefinite period-a hole so conditioned that the thin metal, on being ap plied and driven by a hammer or otherwise, can be forced through. I have in my experiments inserted the metal by driving with a hammer; but I propose to employ machinery for this purpose in a large way. A gage aids to limit the extent to which the metal is driven through. The position of the metal relatively to the wood is subsequently adjusted with great nicety by means of a die, E. A raised portion on one side (marked E) is provided with a flaring socket, which guides the rod as it is placed in the die, and insures that the rod descends correctly into itssemicircular recess E and rests there centrally. At the sides the die is extended upward with inclined inner faces, as indicated by E. These inclined faces receive the ends of the metal strip B, and, ifitis unequally spaced or stands askew in the slat, compel it to shift its position to the extent necessary to make it lie exactly at right angles to the slat, with its ends projecting equally. A small recess, E, is produced on each side of the main recess E. A die, F, having a recess, F, and two narrow projections, F, with their lower ends rounded to the proper radius, is now brought down by the force of the press, so that the projections F strike on the metal strip B, over the recesses E, to sink the strip into those recesses and cause the ends of the strip beyond the recesses to stand upright. This position is shown in Fig. l inishing-dies G H are now brought into action. Assuming the mat to have been already partially formed, the last slat is placed in the lefthand recess, i, of the die G, another slat is placed in the right-hand recess, '17, an oblong ring or link, 0, Figs. 8 and 9, is dropped over the upright ends ofthe adjacent metal strips, and the die 11 is de pressed. This die is adapted to press on the parts, so as to hold them firmlyin position and prevent a malformation, under any circumstances, bya partial lifting or other misplacement of the slats or metal strips. An important function of this die H is performed by a central V-shaped portion, 00, and by the adjacent shoulders 00 .r. The V- shaped portion or enters between the adjacent ends of the metal strips 13 and bends them apart. The
bending will naturally occur mainly at thebottom, because the leverage is greatest there.
The upper portion will remain practically straight. As the die descends farther the shouldersw .17 act on the separated ends and fold them over, bringing them at last quite down into the horizontal position. Finally the wide portion of the V-shaped part a: acts with gentle force endwise to upset or drive inward toward the center of each slat A the projecting end of the metal strip forming the eyes 8. The elevation of the die H leaves the joint complete. The shifting of the mat forward and backward on the machine allows each of the three or other number of joints to be completed successively; or, if proper dies are provided, the whole of the joints between one slat and the next may be completed simultaneously. \Vhen all are completed, the mat or the portion thereof which has been completed is shifted along 011 astage by placing the slat, which is now in the lefthand recess, i, into the righthand one, and a new slat with the metal strips properly bent being placed in the left-hand recess, the work proceeds as beforc,the links being added and the die H brought down to complete each of the junctions.
Modifications may be made. The metal strips B may extend out farther or not as far. There may be ferrules of metal, rubber, or other suitable material inclosing the ends of the slats A. A nail or other transverse fastening may be inserted through the slats to aid in holding the metal strips against slipping. For all ordinary purposes, however, I prefer the construction as shown. No fastening is required to prevent the metal strips from slipping. The wood of the slats is opened but little by the passage of the punch. It presses on the strips so strongly that a great force would be required to move it. The ends of the strips being round and abutting against the slats gives further assurance against any displacement of the strips after the work is completed.
Iron or steel may be used as the metal. instead of brass. I propose, for the better class of work, to employ steel coated with some efficient preservative against corrosion, and nickel-plated or otherwise made attractive in appearance. The dies should be so formed and manipulated that the elasticity of the metal will be exerted to press the ends with considerable firmness against the slats. I This allows the slats to shrink somewhat in season ing without causing looseness. The fact that the ends are free and can spring a little when the mat is shaken, beaten, or otherwise strained contributes to the durability and efficiency of the mat. Y
There is ordinarily a tendency of all folded or curled sheet metal to spring back again a little when the bending force is relaxed. In the forming of my joints this is overcome by the upsetting action of the wedge-shaped part a: of the die H. The last part of the move- A ment not only forces the ends of the metal strips firmly against the slats, but also, by in creasing the curvature of the bent portion adjacent or partially shutting up the joint, causes the metal to exert an elastic force, pressing the folded end of the strips against the other or main part. This causes the bent ends of the metal strips to maintain the correct form when unstrained, and, when by any severe pull the eye has yielded a little by its elasticity, so as to open the parts, causes it to immediately assume the correct form when the strain is re laxed.
I do not claim in this application the punch shown in Fig. 1, nor the dies shown in Figs. 3 to 7, inclusive, but reserve the right to make such the subject-matters of separate applications for Letters Patent.
I am aware that a mat has heretofore been constructed of slats having metallic strips inserted in openings extending inward from the ends of the slats to engage with connectinglinks. In such mat, however, it is necessary to use ferrules for holding the slats in position laterally in the openings, whereas by inserting the metallic strips in holes or openings which are within the ends of the slats no extraneous devices are required for holding the slats in position, while an article of superior strength and durability is obtained.
IVhat I claim as my invention is As an improvement in floor-mats, the combination of the parallel slats A, having the described holes or openings at points entirely within the-ends thereof, the metallic strips 13, fitted into said openings of the slats and constructed with eyess at both ends, andthelinks 0, engaging said eyes of the metallic strips, for connecting the slats, substantially as shown and described.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
Witnesses J AS. S. EWBANK, O. H. CRAWFORD.