US 2989881 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 27, 1961 R. P. LAVIETES 8 MULTIPLE USE HAND TOOL HAviNG A RATCI-IET'HANDLE I Filed Jan. 27, 1959 my, In!
, United States Patent ice 2,989,881 MULTIPLE USE HAND TOOL HAVING A RATCHET HANDLE Raymond P. Lavietes, Wepawaug Road, Woodbridge, Conn. Filed Jan. 27, 1959, Ser. No. 789,437 1 Claim. (Cl. 81-177) This invention relates to a hand tool or hand set for setting fasteners, such, for example, as screws, or nuts on bolts or the like, and has for an object to provide an improved and simplified construction, including an improved ratchet drive, for operating the fastener operating means by turning movements of a hand grip about an axis extending longitudinally of the device.
Another object is to provide a construction whereby a series of fastener setting means of different sizes and shapes may be easily and quickly secured in and removed from the ratchet operated means.
With the foregoing and other objects in view, I have devised the construction illustrated in the accompanying drawing forming a part of this specification. It is, however, to be understood the invention is not limited to the specific details of construction and arrangement shown, but may embody various changes and modifications within the scope of the invention.
In this drawing:
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of the preferred form of the device;
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal section;
FIG. 3 is an end view looking from the right of FIG. 2 but on a larger scale;
FIG. 4 is a detail transverse section substantially on line 44 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a side view of one end of the ratchet pawl on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 6 is a side view looking from the right of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a detail longitudinal section taken substantially on line 7-7 of FIG. 1 and on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 8 is a similar section showing the associated parts separated;
FIG. 9 is an end view of the rotary hand grip looking substantially on line 99 of FIG. 2 and on a somewhat larger scale;
FIG. 10 is an end view of the housing substantially on line 10-10 of FIG. 2 and on a larger scale;
FIG. 11 is a partial side elevation and partial longitudinal section through the ratchet means, the section being substantially on the plane of line 1111 of FIG. 9;
FIG. 12 is a similar view showing the ratchet pawl in another poistion, and
FIG. 13 is a similar view showing the ratchet pawl in still another position.
The device comprises a handle 1 including a housing 2 and a hand grip 13. Housing 2 is preferably a tubular housing provided with a non-circular opening 3. in one end. To improve grip on the handle the housing may be roughened, as for example by fluting as shown at 2a. The opening 3 may be of any desired shape, but preferably is hexagonal, as that is the common form for this type of device. Mounted in this opening is a similarly shaped shank 4 also of a size to closely fit the opening 3, but is adapted to be inserted and removed from the opening to permit the use of shanks of difierent lengths. The shank may be ofiset by stamping on opposite sides to provide stop lugs 5, suitably spaced from the free end of the shank, and adapted to engage the end of the housing to limit the insertion of the shank into the housing. At the opposite end of the shank is a fastener-operating or setting bit 6. This may be of any suitable size or shape, depending on the size and shape Patented June 27, 1961 of the fastener to be operated by it, but in the form shown it comprises a socket wrench provided with a hexagonal socket 7 for receiving and operating a hexagonal nut. In its opposite end from the socket 7 bit 6 is provided with a noncircular opening 8 of the size and shape of the shank 4 to receive the outer end of this shank, and the shank is provided with offsets 9 similar to the oifsets 5 to engage the end of the member 6 to form stops to limit its telescoping movement onto the shank 4. The shank is removably secured in both the opening 3 and the opening 8 by any siutable means, preferably a releasable friction means comprising a spring-pressed ball 10 mounted in a suitable transverse socket adjacent each end of the shank and normally pressed outwardly by a coil spring 11 in the socket. The outward movement of the ball is limited by spinning over somewhat the outer edge of the socket, as indicated 'at 12, but will permit it to project somewhat from the surface of the shank, so that when the end of the shank is inserted in either of the openings 3 or 8 it will provide sufficient friction against the wall of the opening to retain the shank in the opening 3, or retain the bit 6 on the shank for normal operation of the device in setting up a fastener, but will permit ready removal of the shank from the housing or removal of the bit from the shank to permit change of shanks or change of hits, as desired.
At the opposite end of the housing 2 from the opening 3 and the shank the handle 1 is provided with a rotatable hand grip 13 for operating the housing 2 and the tool bit carried thereby on the opposite end of the shank. This hand grip is mounted to rotatae on the housing part of the handle about an axis extending longitudinally of the housing, and operates through a ratchet device for rotating the housing and the tool bit carried thereby. This ratchet is so constructed that it may be set to operate the housing and the tool bit positively in either direction by turning of the hand grip, or it may be set to provide a one-way drive for the housing and tool bit in either direction.
In the arrangement shown, a ratchet block 14 is mounted at the opposite end of the housing 2 from the opening 3, and a simple and effective means to seat this block is in a shouldered recess 15 in the end of the housing. Mounted at one end in this block and projecting longitudinally therefrom is a pivot pin or shaft 16, and this block and the shaft may be secured together and to the housing 2 by a transverse pin or rivet 17 extending through these members. The outer side of the block 14 is provided with a series of shoulders 18, preferably formed on the opposite sides of radially extending grooves or channels 19, formed in the outer side of the block. The hand grip 13 is mounted to turn on the pin or shaft 16, and this grip comprises a body portion 20 through which the shaft 16 extends and on which it is rotatable about the longitudinal axis of the handle. The hand grip also includes a head or hand knob 21 secured on the outer end of the member 20, and it may be of a material, such, for example, as a suitable molded plastic, and form to improve the grip of the operators hand. For this purpose it may be provided with longitudinal grooves or channels 22. At its inner side this member is recessed and is telescoped over the body member 20 and is rigidly secured thereto, either as a tight frictional fit or other suitable means. The hand grip including the members 20 and 21 may be secured on the pivot pin or shaft 16 by any suitable means, a simple and effective means being a so-called O ring 23 snapped into a groove in the pin or shaft 16 adjacent its free end and at the outer end of the member 20. A spring-pressed ratchet pawl is mounted in the member 20 to cooperate with the shoulders 18 on the housing 2 for rotating the housing.
A simple and effective means is that shown in the 'tion of a coil spring 26 mounted in a socket into which the end of the pin 24 projects. The opposite end 27 of the pin is shaped to cooperate With the sides of the channels 19 to form a positive drive for the housing 2 in either direction, or if desired may be set to provide a one-way drive for the housing in either direction. For the positive drive in either direction this end portion is substantially square with parallel sides 28 which when seated in a channel 19, as shown in FIG. 11, provides a positive grip on the sides of the channel 19 to rotate the block 1-4 and the housing 2 positively in either direction. Extending laterally from the pin 24 is a finger grip 29 projecting through a transverse recess 30 in the side of the member 20, providing a stop shoulder 31 at one end of this recess. Normally the pin is shifted by the spring 26 so that its outward movement toward the ratchet block 14 is limited by the finger grip 29 engaging the shoulder 31, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 11 to 13. In this position, however, it is spaced from the inner end of the member 21 and the operator may grip the member 29 and shift the ratchet pawl 24 longitudinally, or to the left as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 2, or upwardly as viewed in FIGS. 11 to 13, to withdraw its end 27 from the channel 19 in which it may be seated and permit turning of the pin 24 in either direction through an angle of about ninety degrees to either position as shown in FIGS. 12 and 13. On one side between the square sides 28 the end 27 has a bevelled side 32 opposite a straight side 33. When turned to the position of FIG. 12 the straight side 33 engages the side 18 of the channel 19, and if the hand grip is turned in a clockwise direction or to the right, as shown by the arrow, the housing 2 will be given a right angle or clockwise rotation. On reverse movement of the hand grip the inclined Wall 32 will ride up on the edge of the channel and over the intervening block 34 without turning the housing 2. Thus a oneway ratchet drive is provided for the housing. Similarly if the finger grip 29 is turned in the opposite direction to the position of FIG. 13 the hand grip and the ratchet will provide one-way operation for the housing 2, counterclockwise as indicated by the arrow.
Thus it will be seen from the above that this device provides a very simple and effective means for operating a hand tool for setting a fastener by simple turning movements of a hand grip, and that, by a simple operation of setting a ratchet pawl in any one of a series of different positions, means is provided whereby rotation of the hand grip will provide positive rotation in either direction for the tool or positive one-way drive for the tool in either direction. Furthermore, toolecarrying shanks of varying lengths may be easily and readily set in the ratchet-operated handle, and various tool bits of different sizes and shapes may be as easily applied to these shanks. Furthermore, the noncircular shape of the tool carrying shanks provides an effective wrenching surface for use of a wrench in operating a tool, if desired, where it may be diflicult to operate a fastener by means of the handle of this device.
Having thus set forth the nature of my invention, I claim:
A hand tool comprising; an elongated ratchet handle; an elongated coaxial shank detachably connected at one of its ends to said handle; and a fastener operating bit detachably connected to the other of said ends of said shank; said ratchet handle comprising an elongated hand grip and an elongated housing that extend coaxially relative to each other and relative to said shank; said shank being noncircular in cross-section throughout its length; said housing being generally cylindrical and having a noncircular opening of similar shape to the cross-section of said shank formed at one end having its axis co-axial with the axis of said housing and arranged to detach ably receive said one of said ends of said shank; said housing at its other end rigidly supporting a separate shouldered ratchet block; a short shaft rigidly supported by said ratchet block and extending centrally axially thereof; said hand grip mounted on said short shaft so as to be axially restrained but capable of rotation relative to said short shaft and housing; a selectively positioned spring-pressed ratchet pawl mounted on said hand grip and being configured relative to and cooperating with said ratchet block so as to selectively provide either a one-way rotary ratchet drive of the housing in either direction of rotation or a positive rotary drive in both direetions; said fastener operating bit having a noncircular opening formed therein that is shaped similarly to the noncircular opening formed in said housing and arranged to detachably receive the other of saidends of said shank; and means at each end of said shank for individually detchably connecting each of the ends of said shank in an associated similarly shaped noncircular opening comprising in each instance a socket in each end of said shank opening through a side wall of the shank, a spring-pressed ball in the socket arranged to frictionally engage a side wall of an associated opening, and stop lugs formed adjacent to each of said spring-pressed balls and disposed farther from the ends of said shank than said springpressed balls, whereby one of the ends of said shank may readily be detachably connected in the noncircular opening in said housing and the other of the ends of said shank may readily be detachably connected in the noncircular opening in said fastener operated bit, andin each instance the stop lugs limit the insertion of the ends of said shank into their associated openings and the springpressed balls effect detachable connections.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 112,143 Hildreth Feb. 28, 1871 418,167 Copelin Dec. .31, 1889 1,422,067 Abegg July 11, 1922 1,503,888 Erickson Aug. 5, 1924 1,724,491 Mandl Aug. 13, 1929 1,873,472 Pfauser Aug. 23, 1932 FOREIGN PATENTS 71,236 Switzerland July 27, 1915 1,116,742 France Feb. 6, 1956