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Publication numberUS2992414 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 11, 1961
Filing dateAug 8, 1960
Priority dateAug 8, 1960
Publication numberUS 2992414 A, US 2992414A, US-A-2992414, US2992414 A, US2992414A
InventorsViehe Frederick W
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Memory transformer
US 2992414 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 11, 1961 F. w. VIEHE MEMORY TRANSFORMER 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed May 29. 1947 INVENTOI}.

rrae/ver July 11, 1961 F. w. VlEHE MEMORY TRANSFORMER 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed May 29. 1947 INVENTOR.

July 11, 1961 F. w. VIEHE MEMORY TRANSFORMER 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Original Filed May 29. 1947 M w L W W 76 my WM 5 Wm FIG-l.

FIG. 2.

zzvmvron. W m 71% p/ IQTme/VEr United States Patent MEMORY TRANSFORMER Frederick W. Viehe, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Continuation of application Ser. No. 238,034, July 23, 1951, which is a division of application Ser. No. 751,422, May 29, 1947. This application Aug. 8, 1960, Ser. No. 47,577

1 Claim. (Cl. 340-174) My invention relates to electric relay circuits and more particularly to improved transformers for use therein. This application is a continuation of my prior application Serial No. 238,034, filed July 23, 1951, now abandoned, which application was a divisional application of my prior application Serial No. 751,422, filed May 29, 1947. Patent application Serial No. 751,422 was abandoned subsequent to the filing of a continuation application Serial No. 232,525, on June 20, 1951. Continuation application Serial No. 232,525 was abandoned subsequent to the filing of a second continuation application Serial No. 439,579, on June 28, 1954, which issued as Patent No. 2,970,291 on January 31, 196 1.

In many electrical systems, electric discharge devices, Whether they be of the vacuum type or of the gaseous discharge type, are used as relays for a wide variety of control purposes. For example, such relays are used in accumulator circuits or transfer circuits of calculating machines. Such relays are also used in sequence-timing circuits for controlling variousmanufacturing operations. In addition, they are used for generating pulses in predetermined relationship in intelligence transmission systems, such as television and teletype-writer systems, or the like. In many other applications, such relay means are used to control the application of large quantities of electrical power. Instances of such applications include inverters and welding machines.

The electric discharge devices used in such electric circuits are adapted to be operated and restored while energized and the devices are always either normally operated or restored while de-energized. Suitable means are provided in such circuits for changing each electric discharge device from its operated condition to its restored condition, and vice versa, While the electric discharge device is suitably energized; and suitable means are also provided for energizing and deenergizing the circuits. In the conventional electronic relay circuit, if the circuit becomes de-energized for any reason whatever, information regarding the last previous condition of each of the relays prior to de-energization is lost forever, or, at least, cannot be ascertained without great difficulty. After reenergization of such systems, the subsequent operation and restoration of the various relays therein bears no predetermined or controlled relationship to the last set of conditions existing prior to de-energization This means, for example, that in the case of a calculating machine, the solution of a problem which has been interrupted by de-energization of the calculating machine must be commenced anew when the calculating machine is reenergized. It also means that in many other cases, a deviation from the normal sequential operation is likely to occur after the sequence is interrupted by de-energization of the relay circuit, resulting in poor Work or other undesirable effects.

An object of my invention is to provide an improved transformer means including a memory core for establishing a predetermined set of conditions in the various sections of an electronic relay circuit.

Another object of my invention, is to provide an improved transformer means including a memory core for changing the condition, either operated or restored, of a Patented July 11, 1961 relay means according to the prior history of the circuit in which it is arranged.

Another object of my invention is to provide an improved transformer means including a memory core for transferring counts from one stage of an electronic calculator to another stage therein.

Another object of my invention is to provide an improved magnetic device for actuating an electronic relay circuit.

A further object of my invention is to provide a magnetic device which is adapted to be magnetized according to the last prior condition of an electronic relay circuit in which it is arranged when that circuit is de-energized.

A further object of my invention is to provide a magnetic device which is adapted to facilitate recall of the last prior condition of an electronic relay circuit in which it is arranged when that circuit is re-energized.

A further object of my invention is to provide a transformer utilizing a core composed of a material having appreciable magnetic retentivity that may be employed for operating or restoring a trigger circuit in which the transformer is arranged, according to the prior history of the core.

While the principles involved in my invention may be applied to various types of electronic control circuits, for the purposes of illustration they will be described hereinbelow with particular reference to their application to an electronic counter, and with particular reference to counters utilizing electric discharge devices as relay means. However, it is to be understood that these principles may also be applied to other types of electronic relay circuits and to other types of relay means so that the disclosure of the specific application of these principles to electronic counters is not to be considered a limitation of the invention thereto. Accordingly, other objects of my invention, together with numerous advantages thereof, and also other applications of my invention to other types of electronic relay circuits, will become apparent in the course of the following detailed description of the invention as applied to electronic counters.

Referring to the accompanying drawings:

FIG. 1 is a wiring diagram of a two-stage scale-offour electronic counter incorporating features of my invention;

FIG. 2 is a wiring diagram of auxiliary circuits associated with the electronic counter of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a rudimentary wiring diagram of the trigger circuit of the type used in the electronic counter of FIG, 1;

FIG. 4 is an isometric sectional view of a transformer unit incorporating features of my invention;

FIG. 4a is a detailed view of the memory transformer T of the unit shown in FIG. 4;

FIG. 5 is a graph representing various magnetic characteristics of a magnetic core used as a memory element in the transformer of FIG. 4; and

FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating the manner of assembling the drawing of FIGS. 1 and 2 to represent a complete electronic counter together with its auxiliary circuits.

Referring to the drawings and more particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is illustrated an electrical counter embodying features of my invention and comprising two scale-of-two counting stages 10 and 11 connected in cascade and provided with memory elements and suitable control circuits by means of which an indicated count may be remembered and recalled in the event that the counter becomes de-energized.

Construction of counter Each of the counting stages comprises two sections which are arranged to be alternatively operated and re stored, the first stage 10 including first and second sections S and S", and the second stage 11 comprising third and fourth sections 8 and S. For convenience, similar elements in the four sections are indicated in the following description by the same legend such as a letter but each carries a different superscript or to indicate whether it is in the first, second, third, or fourth section respectively, and wherever the description applies to any such element in all sections, the legend is given without a superscript.

Each of the sections includes relay means in the form of an electric discharge device. Preferably these devices are negative-transconductance pentodes P. Each of the pentodes P comprises five electrodes, namely, a cathode K, a control grid CG, a screen grid SG, a supressor grid G, and an anode A. Suitable electrode potential supply circuits are associated with the various electrodes in order to maintain each pentode P stably operated in a relatively conducting condition or stably restored in a relatively nonconducting condition, reference here being made to conduction or non-conduction of current to the anode A. Each pentode P is operated as a negative transconductance tube so that an increase in bias from its normal value by application of a negative pulse thereto renders the pentode conductive (i.e., operated) and a decrease in bias from its normal value by application of a positive pulse thereto renders it non-conductive (i.e., restored).

A grid circuit GC is associated with the control electrode CG of each pentode P, each such grid circuit GC including two grid control circuits. One of the grid control circuits C is an operating circuit designed to increase the normal bias on the control electrode CG of the associated pentode P so as to change this pentode from a restored condition to an operated condition when the operating circuit is suitably actuated. The other grid control circuit SC is a restoring circuit and serves to reduce the normal bias on the control electrode CG of the associated pentode P so as to change this pentode from an operated condition to a restored condition when the restoring circuit is stuitably actuated.

Each of the operating circuits OC includes a magnetic element M in the form of a core composed of a material having appreciable magnetic retentivity, which serves to prepare the operating circuit for operation at the time that the associated pentode P is restored. By virtue of its magnetic retentivity each of the magnetic elements M also serves to remember whether the section in which it is located was last restored or operated, as the case may be. This feature is particularly useful if the counting circuit is de-energized for any reason. In such a case, by virtue of the memory function of these magnetic elements, it is possible to recall the previous conditions of the various sections of the counting circuit after the counting circuit is re-energized, regardless of the time elapsed since it was de-energized. Each of the magnetic elements M constitutes a core of an operating transformer T provided with three windings, namely a primary transformer winding W a secondary transformer winding W and a tertiary, or auxiliary, transformer winding W Each of the restoring circuits SC includes a two-winding restoring transformer T including a magnetic core m upon which are wound a primary winding p and a secondary winding s.

A first integrating circuit IC; including a first condenser C and a first resistor R is connected in each of the operating circuits OC across the secondary winding W of the corresponding operating transformer T A second integrating circuit 1C including a second condenser C and a second resistor R is likewise connected in each restoring circuit SC, across the secondary winding s of the restoring transformer T in this circuit. The two integrating condensers C and C in each section S and S" of the first stage are connected in series between the control electrode CG in each of these sections and a first biasing conductor BC Similarly the two integrating condensers C and C in each section 8 and S of the second stage 11 are connected in series between the control electrode CG in each of these sections and a second biasing conductor BC With these arrangements suitable normal bias voltages are supplied to the control electrodes CG in each of the sections from the corresponding biasing conductor BC or BC through the secondary windings W and s and the integrating resistors R and R of both grid control circuits in series.

The primary windings W and W in the two operating circuits OC and DC in the first stage 10 are connected in series in the input -12 thereof so that each of a series of unidirectional current pulses applied to the input 12 causes the restored section in the first stage to operate. In a similar manner, the two primary windings W and W of the operating circuits OC and OC" in the second stage 11 are connected in series in the input 13 thereof which in turn is connected to the output 14 of the first stage 10 so that each of a series of pulses appearing in the output of the first stage operates that section in the second stage which is restored at the time that such pulse is created.

With the specific arrangement illustrated here, when each section S in either stage operates, it serves to restore the companion section in that stage and, at the same time, prepares the companion section for subsequent operation by the next pulse applied to that stage. Connections are provided between the anode A in each section S and the primary winding 12 in the restoring circuit SC of the companion section in the same counter stage to enable each of the sections S in each stage to be restored in response to the operation of the other section in that same stage. Likewise connections are provided between the anode A of each section S and the auxiliary winding W in the operating circuit OC in the companion section of the same stage to enable the operation of each section to prepare the other section in the same stage for subsequent operation.

More particularly, in order to achieve the desired interaction of the sections, the anode A of the first section S is connected to an anode supply conductor PVC through the auxiliary winding W in the operating circuit OC and through the primary winding p of the restoring circuit SC in the second section, in series. With this arrangement the second section S is restored and the operating circuit OC in the second section is prepared for operation, whenever a pulse operates the first section S. Similarly, the anode A of the second section S" is connected to the anode supply conductor PVC through the auxiliary winding W in the operating circuit OC and through the primary winding 1' of the restoring circuit SC in the first section S in series. Likewise with this arrangement the first section S is restored and the operating circuit OC in the first section is prepared, whenever a pulse operates the second section S.

In the case of the second section 8'', the anode A" is further connected to the anode supply conductor PVC in series through the windings W and p mentioned and also in series through primary windings W and W of the two operating transformers T and T in the second stage 11 (through the first stage output 14 and the second stage input 13), so that whenever the second section S operates a pulse appears at the output 14 of the first stage 10 and this pulse is applied to the input 13 of the second stage 11. Such a pulse applied to the second stage serves to operate whichever section in that stage is at that time in a restored condition and prepared for operation as previously mentioned.

Also more particularly, the anode A of the third section 8 is connected to the anode supply conductor PVC through the auxiliary winding W in the operating circuit OC"" and through the primary winding p of the restoring circuit SC" in the fourth section 5" in series. Also with this arrangement, the fourth section 8 is restored and the operating circuit OC in this section is prepared, whenever a pulse operates the third section S". Similarly, the anode A"" of the fourth section is connected to the anode. supply conductor PVC through the auxiliary winding W in the operating circuit OC' and through the primary winding p" of the restoring circuit SC' in the third section 8" in series. Also, likewise with this arrangement, the third section S'" is restored and the operating circuit OC" in this section is prepared, whenever a pulse operates the fourth section S"'.

If desired, the anode A" of the fourth section S' may be further connected to the anode supply conductor PVC through the windings W and p'" mentioned, and primary windings W of operating circuits OC in a third counting stage (not shown) similar to each of the two counting stages described, and the anode A in the second section of the third counting stage may in turn be similarly connected to a fourth stage, and so on if counts in groups higher than four are desired. With such an. extended arrangement, a pulse is created in the output of each stage whenever the second section of that stage operates and each pulse applied to the input of each stage operates whichever section in that stage happens to be in a restored condition and prepared for operation at the time the pulse is applied.

In order to facilitate counting, an indicator preferably in the form of a glow lamp GL is connected in the first section 8' of the first stage 10, and another indicator of the same type GL" is connected in the third section S" in the second stage 11. Each of these indicators glows when the pentode P in the corresponding section is conducting to its anode A and is dark when the corresponding pentode is not conducting. Each glow lamp GL is connected at one end to a reference voltage conductor RVC and at the other end to the screen grid SG of the pentode P in the respective sections, as more fully explained hereinbelow.

In one method of operating this counter, the first and third sections S and S'" are restored and the second and fourth sections S" and S"" are operated when a count of Zero is to be indicated. Thereupon, when a series of pulses is applied to the counter, the first pulse causes the first section S to operate, and the second section S" to restore, thus causing the first glow lamp- GL to light up. second section S" to reoperate and the first section S to restore, this turning off the first glow lamp GL. Also, at the time the second pulse is applied, the operation of the second section S" causes a pulse to be transmitted to the second stage 11, thus operating the third section 5 and restoring the fourth section 8", and causing the second glow lamp GL" to light up. When a third pulse is applied, the first section S again is operated and the second section S" is restored, thus lighting up the first glow lamp GL again but without disturbing the second glow lamp GL". When a fourth pulse is applied, the second section S" is operated and the first section S is restored thus turning off the first glow lamp GL. At the same time the operation of the second section S", causes a pulse to be transmitted to the second stage 11 thus operating the fourth section 8"", and restoring the third. section 8', and turning off the second glow lamp GL". Thus, with this arrangement, a count of one is indicated when only the first glow lamp GL is lit, a count of two is indicated when only the second glow lamp GL" is lit, a count of three is indicated when both glow lamps GL and GL are lit, and a count of four or zero is indicated when both glow lamps are off, and the counting cycle is recommended with every fourth pulse Before explaining the detailed operation of the counting circuit, it is desirable to describe in somewhat more detail various individual parts of the circuit.

When the second pulse is applied, it causes the 6 Trigger circuit construction Referring first to FIG. 3, there is illustrated one of the pentodes P together with its associated electrode voltage supply circuit, including three potential dividing resistors R R and R connected in series in the order named between a B+ terminal and a B-- terminal. A positive voltage with respect to ground is supplied to the B+ terminal, and a negative voltage with respect to ground is supplied to the B- terminal from a regulated voltage supply'. The anode A is connected directly to the B+ terminal, the screen grid SG is connected to the junction between the first voltage dividing resistor R and the second resistor R and the suppressor grid G is connected to the junction between the second voltage dividing resistor R and third voltage dividing resistor R A glow tube GL is connected in series with a decoupling and current limiting resistor r between the screen grid SG and an auxiliary terminal B which operates at a suitable intermediate reference voltage to cause the glow lamp GL to ignite while the pentode P is conducting and to remain off while the pentode is not conducting. The B+ and B- terminals are connected respectively to the positive and negative voltage conductors PVC and NVC of FIG. 1, while the terminal B is connected to the reference voltage conductor RVC of FIG. 1.

A condenser C is connected across the second resistor R and a cathode resistor R is connected between the cathode K and ground GR in order to accelerate a change in condition of the tube from its conducting state to its non-conducting state or vice versa.

Preferably the circuit elements connected to the screen grid SG and the suppressor grid G including the resistors R ,R R and r and the condenser C are enclosed within a grounded electrostatic shield ES. The shields around the circuit elements connected to the screen grid SG and suppressor grid G in the respective sections S of the counting circuit are not shown in FIG. 1. However, they are the same type as that illustrated in FIG. 3. These shields prevent capacitive interaction between the screen grid and suppressor grid circuits of each section with other portions of the counter.

In order to facilitate an understanding of how the circuit of FIG. 3 is restored and operated by changes in the bias applied to the control electrode CG, consider a potentiometer 15 having its positive end grounded and having a sliding contact 16 thereon which is connected to the control electrode CG. And for convenience, consider the operation of this circuit when the circuit elements have the particular circuit constants with which it was supplied in an actual model of the counter illustrated in FIG. 1. More particularly, the pentodes used were 6SJ7s and the values of the individual circuit elements used were those indicated in the following table:

R M 50 R M 300 R meg 1.0 R ohms C II/If r meg 2 Trigger circuit operation With the circuit elements having the constants indicated and connected to a potential supply providing the voltages indicated, this circuit has two stable conditions depending upon the value of the bias voltage applied to the control grid CG, and the bias voltage is electrode CG. Thus the tube is conducting to the anode after the negative bias on the control grid CG is raised to a value greater than about 2.0 v. and is non-conducting to the anode after the negative bias is lowered to a value less than about -1.0 v. When in either of these conditions, it is found that if the bias voltage of the control grid CG is changed to a value in a range between a low voltage threshold of about l.0 v. and a high volt age threshold of about 2.0 v. the condition of the circuit does not change. Thus, for example, if the pentode P is conducting with about 2.0 v. or more on the control decreased to a value between about -2.0 v. and about l.0 v., the pentode still conducts normally, with very little variation in plate current. However, when the bias is decreased to some value less than about -1.0 v., the pentode P suddenly stops conducting, and remains non-conducting until at such time the bias is increased to about 2.0 v., or more. However, if the bias is reduced below about l.() v. the tube becomes non-conducting, and remains non-conducting even though the bias return to some higher value less than about -2.0 v. It is to be noted that while the pentode P is conducting no increase in the bias voltage has any triggering effect whatever, and while the pentode is non-conducting no decrease in bias has any triggering effect whatever.

While the pentode P is conducting, the current flowing in the anode is 5.0 ma., the voltage at the screen grid is +136 v., the current to the screen grid is 1.4 ma., and the voltage on the suppressor is 20 v. When the pentode P is non-conducting to the anode A, the voltage on the screen grid SG is +76 v. and the current thereto is 2.8 ma. and the voltage on the suppressor grid is -60 v. Thus, it will be noted that when the pentode P is conducting, a large potential is impressed upon the glow lamp GL, causing it to glow, and when the pentode is non-conducting, a low voltage is applied to the glow tube, causing it to remain dark.

It is to be noted that while the bias on the control electrode CG remains within the range specified above, a change in bias voltage causes very little change in anode current. However, it does cause a change in the cathode current, which change is absorbed primarily by the screen grid SG. It is this factor which permits the pentode P to operate as a negative trans-conductance tube. Thus for example, while the pentode P is conducting, the anode current remains at 5.0 ma. as the bias is reduced to l.0 v. As the bias is reduced further, the current to the screen grid SG increases sufficiently to reduce its voltage and at the same time to reduce the voltage on the suppressor grid G. As the suppressor grid G becomes more negative, further current is driven to the screen grid SG, and these two grids G and SG being tied together electrostatically by the condenser C this quickly drives the anode to cut off. In a similar manner, if the pentode P is non-conducting, then, as the bias on the control electrode CG gradually exceeds 2.0 v., the current to the screen grid SG is reduced, thereby causing its voltage to increase, and at the same time, the voltage of the suppressor grid G to become more positive until the point is reached where these two grids SG and G become sufiiciently positive to permit current to pass from the cathode K to the anode A. When this occurs the current to the screen grid is further reduced, and the anode current is quickly driven to its maximum value.

From the foregoing discussion, it is readily appreciated that while the pentode P is normally biased in the range between -l.0 and -2.0 v. and operating, if a positive pulse is applied to the control electrode CG sufficient to drive the control electrode beyond the low voltage threshold, the pentode will be restored. In a similar manner, if the pentode is normally biased in the above range and restored, a negative pulse of suflicient amplitude applied to the control electrode CG will cause the pentode to operate.

The cathode resistor R in the above circuit acts degeneratively to minimize effects of fluctuations of the threshold voltages that occur as a result of spontaneous changes occurring in the voltage supply, or thermal drifts in cathode emission, etc., and to spread the threshold voltages farther apart than they would otherwise be in the absence of this resistor. However, because the pentode P is capable of operating as a negative transconductance device at the instant of change from non-conducting to conducting condition, as described hereinabove, then so far as effects due to changes in cathode voltage are concerned in their relationship to control grid voltages, it is clear that at the time that operation (i.e., anode conduction) of the pentode is initiated by a pulse, any increase of cathode current drives the cathode K more positive thus increasing the grid-to-cathode voltage and accelerating the turning on of the anode current to its full value, due to regenerative action of resistor R Conversely, when restoration of the pentode is initiated by a pulse, the decrease in cathode current causes the cathode to become less positive, thus decreasing the grid-to-cathode voltage, and accelerating the cutting off of the flow of anode current. Thus in effect, the presence of the cathode resistor R in a tube operating in the negative transconductance circuit serves as a signal regenerative element so far as triggering signals are concerned so that it enhances the effect of any signal impressed upon the control grid.

Each of the pentodes P in the counter circuit of FIG. 1 is operated in the manner hereinabove described in detail in connection with the description of FIG. 3. In practice the control grids CG in the various sections S of the counter are normally biased through the corresponding biasing conductors BC and BC to about 1.7 v., that is, to a value intermediate the upper and lower threshold values of the triggering circuits which include the pentodes P. Furthermore, the primary winding 7 inter-connecting the anode A of each section with the restoring circuit SC of the companion section is so connected that whenever one of the sections operates it impresses upon the grid circuit GC of the companion section a positive pulse of such magnitude as to cause the latter section to restore. Likewise, the primary windings W which inter-connect the respective operating circuits DC in any stage of the counter section with a common current source are so connected that whenever a unit cur-rent pulse is applied to these primary windings, a negative pulse of suflicient magnitude is applied to the restored section in that stage to cause this section to operate.

Transformer construction Referring now to FIG. 4, there is illustrated an arrangement of transformers which is particularly suited for use in the grid control circuits of the various sections of the counter of FIG. 1. This transformer arrangement includes the three-winding transformer T and the twowinding transformer T both of circular configuration mounted on one side of a circular base 20 and with their axes aligned with the axis of the base. On the opposite side of the base, there are provided eight prongs 21 extending in a direction parallel to the axis of the base, and circumferentially spaced thereon. Also on the same side of the base, there is an axially projecting lock-ing member 22 which serves to register the base upon the socket ,(not shown) into which it is plugged.

The cores M and m of both transformers are ring shaped. Preferably the radial width of the core sections of the three-winding transformer T is small compared to the core diameter, so that the magnetization of the core material in the outer periphery will be about the same as the core material at the inner periphery. In practice, as indicated in FIG. 4a, the diameter D of the core is preferably about A", and the radial width or annular thickness AT of the core is less than about 4 of the diameter.

In an actual three-winding transformer T used in the counter of FIG. 1, the ring core comprises 8 laminations of annealed transformer silicon steel stacked to a thickness TH of about 0.2". In actual practice, the core m of the two-winding transformer T has the same diameter and radial width as the core of the three-winding transformer T in order to simplify and standardize the construction of the entire assembly.

All the windings on the transformers are wound toroidally on the respective cores and are thus linked by flux in said cores, and all of the windings and all of the laminations are mutually insulated from each other.

In a specific example of the three-winding transformer T used in FIG. 1, the primary winding W has 500 turns, the auxiliary winding W has 250 turns, and the secondary winding W has 3 turns. The ends of each of these windings are connected to diiferent pairs of prongs 21., except for one end of the auxiliary winding W which is connected by a jumper to one end of the associated primary p of two-winding transformer T Similarly, the primary Winding p of the two-winding transformer is provided with'225 turns and the secondary winding s with 300 turns, opposite ends of each of these winding being likewise connected to dilferent pairs of prongs 21, with the exception above noted.

It is to be noted particularly that the number of turns in the auxiliary Winding W is half the number of turns in the primary winding W of the three-winding transformer T With this arrangement, if equal currents flow in these two windings in such direction as to establish opposing magnetizing forces in the core M thereof, the direction of magnetization of the core is determined by the current flowing in the primary winding W as long as both windings W and W are energized, and is in the opposite direction and of the same amount when the auxiliary winding W is energized alone.

In a specific example of the counter of FIG. 1, the values of the circuit constants of the elements in the integrating circuits connected to the two transformers in each section are given as follows:

C1 ,lLf R M 10 C ;rf 0.005 R ohrns 500 The material of which the core M of the operating transformer T is composed is preferably such that it has a high permeability and a high degree of retentivity. Preferably, the core is substantially closed, having no air gap therein of such length that it tends to increase the reluctance to any substantial degree or to present a pronounced demagnetizing force on the magnetic circuit. Preferably, this material is also of such a nature that it has a maximum permeability at a low value of magnetization force. Preferably, a soft ferromagnetic material is used which has a permeability of about 5,000 to 100,000, when the magnetizing force is less than about 1 or 2 oersteds. For convenience the core m of the restoring transformer T is composed of like material and is also substantially closed.

A small paper cylinder 24 is slipped over the two transformers T and T after the tnansformer leads have been soldered to the prongs 21 and this cylinder is then filled with molten-wax to prow'de a compact transformer as sembly for use in each section of the counter.

Operation of magnet core Considering now, a typical hysteresis loop of the ring core M of the three-winding, or operating, transformer T reference is made particularly to FIG. wherein there is represented a gnaph of such a hysteresis curve 25. In this graph ordinates represent magnetization and abscissae represent magnetization force. When a unit current is applied to the primary winding W and no current is applied to the auxiliary winding W the magnetization force and the magnetization are at their maximum value as indicated by the point 1 on the curve. Thereafter, if a unit current is applied to the auxiliary winding W so as to produce an opposing magnetization force, the magnetization force is reduced to one half value, while the magnetization is reduced only slightly as indicated by the point 2 of the curve. If the core M is magnetized only by a unit current passing through the primary winding W and this current is then shut off, the magnetization force reduces to zero, while the mag netization falls off only slightly because of the high percentage retentivity of the core, as indicated by point 3 of the curve. On the other hand, if unit currents are passing through both the primary and auxiliary windings W and W so that the magnetization force and magnetization are at values represented by point 2, then if the current in the primary winding W is shut off, while that in the auxiliary winding W remains, the flux in the core reverses assuming an almost equal value, due to the reversal of the net value of the magnetization force as represented by point 4 of the curve. If, while the core is so magnetized, the current in the auxiliary winding W is then cut off, the magnetization force is reduced to zero, but the magnetization falls off only slightly due to the high degree of retentivity of the core material, as indicated at point 5. If, however, a unit current is applied to the primary winding W to provide a magnetization force of opposite direction while the auxiliary winding W is so energized, the magnetization force is reversed and the magnetization is also reversed, assuming a value of about half its maximum value as indicated by the point 6. Thereafter, if the unit current in the auxiliary winding W is shut off while the current remains flowing in the primary winding W the magnetization force is doubled, and the magnetization is about doubled attaining its maximum value as represented by point 1. If on the other hand, the core is magnetized to the amount indicatedby point 5, and then a unit current is applied to the primary Winding W the magnetization in the core reverses and attains its maximum value as represented by a point very near point 1. It is understood of course that magnetization of the core may not always return to the same value as one previously attained but at least returns to one of approximately the same value.

For convenience, an operating core M is considered positively magnetized if it is magnetized in such a direction that it is prepared for operating the associated negative trans-conductance pentode P upon the application of a unit current; and a core magnetized in the opposite direction is considered negatively magnetized. Also for convenience a magnetization force is considered as havmg the same sign as the magnetization which it produces. Furthermore, for convenience, the conditions of the trans former core M corresponding to points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are hereinbelow referred to as condition 1, condition 2, condition 3, condition 4, condition 5, and condition 6, respectively.

It will be recalled that the voltage induced in the secondary winding of a transformer is proportional to the rate of change of flux in the transformer core. It will also be recalled that the voltage generated across the condenser of an integrating circuit connected across such a secondary winding is proportional to the time interval of the voltage produced across that secondary winding. Accordingly, the integrating circuit 1C connected across any of the secondary windings W cooperates therewith to produce across the condenser C of the integrating circuit a voltage which is proportional to and in phase with the flux change which occurs in the corresponding tnansformer core M. This condition applies so long as the time constant of the integrating circuit 1C is long compared to the time interval during which the flux change in question occurs as is the case with these circuits. Considering the hysteresis curve 25 represented in FIG. 5, it will be noted that large changes of flux in each core M occur under some of the conditions mentioned above and small changes under other conditions, and that some of these changes are in one direction, and some are in the other, according to various circumstances including the previous history of the core. Since each of these changes of flux occurs rapidly, the corresponding voltage induced in the secondary winding W of each operating transformer T is substantially proportional to the flux change in question.

Operation of counter Considering now, the normal functioning of the first stage of the counting circuit of FIG. 1 in detail, in the light of the foregoing detailed explanations regarding the values and characteristics of individual circuit elements therein, assume that the first and third sections S and S are in a restored condition, and that the second and fourth sections S and S" are in an operated condition in a normal cycle of operation. Under these circumstances no anode current is flowing in the first pentode P, but unit anode current is flowing in the second pentode P. Due to the previous history of the circuit, the core M" of the three-winding transformer T in the second section S" is negatively magnetized to almost its maximum value, the core being in condition 3, thus in effect remembering the previous history of this circuit. On the other hand, the core M in the operating transformer T of the first section S is positively magnetized to a considerable extent due to the current in the auxiliary winding W the core being in condition 4 as a result of the previous history of the circuit.

Thereafter, when a unit current is applied at the input 12 of the first stage 10 and through the two primary windings W and W the magnetizing force in the first core M is reversed, causing the magnetization in this core also to reverse and to change by a large negative value, the core changing from condition 4 to condition 6.

This large change of flux induces in the associated secondary winding W a large negative voltage which drives the control electrode CG of the first pentode P to a bias value exceeding 2.0 volts, thus rendering this pentode conducting and operating the first section S. Simultaneously, the change in magnetizing force in the second core M" causes the magnetization in that core to increase in the same direction changing from condition 3 toward condition 1. Upon operation of the first section S, however, the current to the anode A of the first pentode P flows through the auxiliary winding W of the second operating transformer T reducing the magnetizing force in the core M of this transformer to a half value, and thus preventing the core from becoming magnetized to the maximum degree, but instead causing it to become magnetized to an intermediate amount in condition 2. During this operation a small negative voltage pulse is generated in the secondary winding W of the second operating transformer T due to the combined action of the two currents in the primary and the auxiliary windings W and W thereof; but at the same time the change in flux in the primary winding p" of the restoring transformer T generates a relatively large positive voltage in the secondary winding s thereof of such a value, that there is a sufficiently large positive voltage pulse impressed upon the control electrode CG of the second pentode P as to cut off this pentode and thereby restore the second section S. Thereafter, when the unit current pulse applied to the input 12 is turned off, the magnetization of the second operating core M is reversed, while plate current continues to flow in the first pentode P, the magnetization of core M changing to condition 4. At the same time, because the current in the primary winding W of the first operating transformer T is turned off after the current in the auxiliary winding W thereof is turned off, the magnetization in this core M falls only slightly, the magnetization of this core attaining condition 3.

At this time the magnetization condition of the two cores M and M" are interchanged from those initially assumed. Accordingly the second operating circuit is now prepared to be operated when the next pulse is applied to the input.

At the same time that the current to the anode A" of pentode P is cut off as above described, a large positive pulse is generated in the secondary winding W in the third section 8 but this voltage has no effect since the pentode P in this section is already restored. Subsequently, when the next pulse is applied to the input 12 of the first stage 10, the reversal of magnetization in the second core M" causes the second section S" to operate and the operation of this section causes the first section S to restore in the manner hereinabove described, the operation of the two sections being entirely symmetrical. When the second section S" operates, it causes a unit current to flow in the third operating primary winding W causing a large flux reversal and operating the third section, which, in operating, causes section 8 to restore.

It is to be noted that each time the first and third sections S and S operate, the glow lamps GL and GL associated therewith glow, so that the accumulative count in a counter is indicated.

A condenser C shunts the primary windings W and W of the first and second operating transformers T and T and another condenser C shunts the windings W and W of the third and fourth operating transformers T and T in order to prevent high frequency components of current changes through the respective primary windings from capacitively inducing such large voltages in the grid control circuits GC as to affect their action. Preferably these by-pass condensers C and C tune the primary windings W to a frequency which is high compared to the frequency of pulses to be counted. However, the Qs of the respective parallel networks including these condensers C and C and the corresponding transformer primaries are designed to be suflieiently low to prevent these networks from oscillating when pulse currents are applied thereto or removed therefrom; that is, each of these parallel networks is more than critically damped. If desired, separate tuning condensers may be connected across the individual primary windings. Suitable values for these by-pass condensers are:

C4 11f and Memory function In order to illustrate the memory and recall function of the operating cores, consider, by way of example, a case in which the counter is indicating a count of two. Under these circumstances, the second counter section S and the third counter section 5 are in their operated condition and the first counter section S and the fourth counter section 5 are in their restored condition. Under these circumstances, the count of two is indicated by the fact that the first glow lamp GL is dark and the second glow lamp GL is bright.

Under these conditions, a unit current is flowing to the anode A of the second pentode P through the auxiliary winding W of the first operating transformer T and the primary winding 1' of the first restoring transformer T and through the primary windings W and W of the third and fourth operating transformers T and T Also a unit current is flowing to the anode A" of the third pentode P, through the auxiliary winding W of the fourth operating transformer T and through the primary winding 2" of the fourth restoring transformer T It is clear that under these conditions, because of the various currents flowing in the operating transformers T the first, second, third, and fourth operating cores 13 M are respectively magnetized in conditions 4, 3, 1, and 2.

To dc-energize the counter in such a way that it will be conditioned to recall the count of two, the various elements of the counter are de-energized in a predetermined sequence. In this de-energization process the res-pective operating cores M become magnetically polarized in specific directions corresponding to that count. Subsequently the elements of the counter are re-energized in a particular sequence in order to prepare the counter for recalling the count. Then a series of pulses equal in number to the maximum number indicated by the counter (in this case, 'four) are applied to the counter to recall and indicate the prior count of two.

More particularly, in de-energizing the counter, the first step is to de-energize the control grids CG in each counter stage in the order in which the stages are interconnected; that is, the control grids CG of the first stage are dc-energized before those in the second stage 11, and so on, if there are more than two stages. This sequence is followed in order to assure restoring the second or output section of each stage before de-energizing anyfollowing stage. The de-energization of the control grids in any stage effectively tie-energizes the sections in that stage provided that precautions are taken to prevent these sections from operating momentarily when the other electrodes in those sections are deenergized. If this procedure is not followed, the operating core-s of the following stages may not be properly polarized to remember the last condition of the sections in that stage.

The next step is to de-energize the anodes A of the various pentodes P. All of the anodes A may be de-energized simultaneously if desired, it only being important that the anodes in the respective stages are de-energized subsequently to the control grids CG in order to prevent spurious pulses from being created in the respective sections S by the multiple vibrator action that may otherwise occur. The next step in the de-energization process is to de-energize the auxiliary grids SG and G, it being important that they be de-energized after the anodes in order to preclude any momentary conduction of the pentodes P that might otherwise occur. Thereafter, to complete the de-energization of the entire counter circuits, the heaters H associated with the respective cathodes K are de-energized.

In de-energizing the counter, the first biasing conductor BC the second biasing conductor BC and the anode supply conductor PVC, are grounded in the sequence mentioned, and then the negative voltage conductor NVC and the reference voltage conductor RVC are grounded together or in any sequence.

When the first biasing conductor BC is grounded, in effect a positive pulse is applied to each of the control electrodes CG and CG" in the first stage 10. The application of a positive pulse to the second pentode P renders it non-conductive. As a result, a negative pulse is induced in the control circuit GC' of the first section S but this pulse added to the positive pulse simultaneously applied to the control electrode CG in the first section S is insuflicient to cause this section to operate. As a result the magnetization of the first operating core M changes from the condition 4 to condition 5. At the same time no change occurs in the second operating core M, it remaining in condition 3. Both pentodes P and P in the first stage 10 are now non-conductive and the two corresponding sections S and S are restored.

At the time that the second section S" restores, the unit current previously passing through the primary windings W and W of the third and fourth operating transformers T and T is terminated. When this current terminates, the magnetization of the third operating co-re M changes from condition 1 to condition 3. As a result a small positive pulse is impressed upon the control electrode CG' of the third pentode P', this positive pulse being insuflicient to restore the third section 8.

Also at the time that the current in the second pentode terminates the magnetization of the fourth core M"" is reversed, changing from condition 2 to condition 4, by virtue of the continuation of the flow of current to the anode A' of the third pentode P. As a result, a large positive pulse is impressed upon the control electrode CG of the fourth pentode P"" but this pulse has no effect since the fourth pentode P" is already restored.

When the second biasing conductor BC is grounded, in effect, a positive pulse is applied to both the third and fourth control electrodes CG' and CG". The positive pulse applied to the third control electrode CG causes the third pentode P' to restore, terminating the current to its anode A' and, as a result, generating a negative pulse in the control circuit GC"" of the fourth pentode P". However, the net voltage impressed upon the fourth control electrode CG"" as a result of the concurrent application of this negative pulse and the positive pulse created by the termination of the current in the primary winding W of the fourth operating transformer T does not become sufliciently negative at any time to render the fourth pentode P"" conducting. As a result there is no change in the magnetizing force in the third operating core M' and it remains negatively magnetized in condition 3. On the other hand, when the current flowing to the third pentode P' through the auxiliary winding W of the fourth operating transformer T terminates, the magnetization condition of the fourth operating core M changes from the condition 4 to condition 5.

After the two biasing conductors BC and BC have been grounded, the anode supply conductor PVC and the negative voltage supply conductor NVC and the reference voltage supply conductor RVC are grounded and the heaters H de-energized in the manner previously explained, this portion of the de-energization process having no eifect upon the magnetization of the operating cores M.

It is to be noted that after all of the control electrodes CG have been thus grounded, the operating cores M" and M' in the second and third sections S and S are negatively polarized; and the operating cores M and M in the first and fourth sections S and S"" are positively polarized. In general, regardless of the particular count previously indicated by the counter just prior to the grounding of the control electrodes CG in the manner explained, the operating cores M of those circuits which were last operating are negatively polarized and those in the sections which were last restored are positively polarized. In this way, a count image in the form of a magnetization pattern or picture is impressed upon the set of operating cores which corresponds uniquely to the last indicated count. Thus by this de-energization process the counter circuit is conditioned to facilitate the recall of the prior count provided the counter is suitably re-energized by virtue of the creation of a permanent magnetization pattern of that count. This pattern is used to control the recall of the last indicated count whenever desired.

Recall function In order to re-energize the counter preparatory to recalling the last prior count, the heaters H associated with the cathodes K are first energized and the cathodes heated to their normal operating temperatures. Then the negative voltage conductor NVC is energized. Then the anode voltage conductor PVC and the auxiliary voltage conductor RVC are energized together, the energization of the anode voltage conductor PVC preferably being gradual in order to prevent any voltage shock to the circuit which might accidentally operate one or more of the pentodes P. The rate at which the anode voltage is raised to its full value should be slow enough to permit the voltage on the condenser C connected between the screen grid SG and the suppressor G of each pentode P to maintain the suppressor sufliciently negative relative to the screen to prevent the pentode P from conducting to its anode A. Next, the biasing conductors BC and BC are energized to their normal negative voltages, it being immaterial in which order the biasing conductors are energized, since all of the pentodes P are non-conducting at the time. While it would be possible to energize the biasing conductors before energizing the anode voltage conductor PVC, the procedure described is preferred, since it permits the screen and suppressor grids SG and G to be energized to their maximum negative voltages at the time that positive voltage is applied to the anodes A, thus preventing accidental operation of any pentodes P. It is to be noted that this re-energization process is performed without operating any counter section S and without disturbing the magnetization pattern of the count image previously impressed upon the set of cores M. With the counter thus re-energized in this manner, the circuit is prepared to recall the last previous count.

In order to recall the last prior count, four pulses of unit current are applied to the input 12 of the first counter stage 10. For example, when a last prior count of two is to be recalled, then when the first pulse is initiated, the magnetization of the first core M is reversed from the positive value of condition to the negative value of condition 1. This reversal of magnetization generates a large negative pulse which is impressed upon the control electrode CG of the first pentode P making it operate. Upon operation of the first pentode P, the resultant anode current flowing through the auxiliary Winding W of the second operating transformer T in cooperation with the unit pulse applied to the primary winding W thereof, changes the magnetization of this core from condition 3 to condition 2 in the manner previously explained. Upon termination of the first unit pulse, the magnetization of the first core M changes from condition 1 to condition 3. The small resultant positive voltage impressed upon the first control electrode CG is insuflicient to restore the first pentode P. Also at the time of termination of the first pulse, the magnetizing force in the second operating core M is reversed, changing from condition 2 to condition 4. The resultant large positive pulse impressed upon the second control electrode CG" has no effect, since the second pentode P is already restored. Because the first pentode P' is conducting, the first glow tube GL shines.

When the second pulse is applied, the magnetization in the second core M" reverses, changing from condition 4 to condition 6. The resultant large negative pulse impressed upon the second control electrode CG" causes the second pentode P" to operate. Upon operation of the second pentode P, the resultant current flowing to its anode A causes a large positive pulse to be impressed upon the first control electrode CG through the first restoring transformer T thereby restoring the first pentode P. The termination of the current to the anode A of the first pentode P causes an increase in the magnetization in the second operating core M from condition 6 to condition 1. The resultant small negative voltage impressed upon the second control electrode CG is ineffective, since the second pentode P is already conducting. Also at the same time that the first pentode P is restored, the first glow tube GL darkens.

As a result of the application of the second pulse and the operation of the second pentode P, the magnetization of the first core M changes from condition 3 to condition 2 in accordance with the principles hereinabove explained. Also as a result of operating the second pentode P, a unit pulse is initiated through the primary windings W and W of both the third and fourth operating transformers T and T The application of this unit pulse causes the polarity of the fourth operating core M to reverse, the magnetizalig 9f this 16 core changing from condition 5 to condition 1. The large resultant negative voltage impressed on the fourth control electrode CG" renders the fourth pentode P"" conducting.

By the combined action of the current flowing in the anode A"" of the fourth pentode through the auxiliary winding W of the third operating transformer T the magnetization of the third operating core M' changes from condition 3 to condition 2. Termination of the second pulse causes the magnetization of the first core to reverse, changing from condition 2 to condition 4. The third pentode P remains restored and the fourth pentode P"" remains operated in accordance with the principles set forth above.

When the third pulse is applied, the first section S operates and the second section S restores, causing the first glow tube GL to shine again and terminating the unit current previously applied to the second stage 11. When this unit current terminates, the magnetization of the third operating core M changes from condition 2 to condition 4, and the magnetization of the fourth operating core M changes from condition 1 to condition 3, the third section remaining restored and the fourth section remaining operated. After the third pulse has terminated the first and fourth operating cores M and M"" are negatively polarized in condition 3, and the second and third operating cores M and M are positively magnetized in condition 4.

When the fourth pulse is impressed upon the input of the first stage, the first section S restores, darkening the first glow tube GL, and the second section S operates, initiating a new unit pulse at the input 13 of the second stage 11. The initiation of the latter pulse causes the third section 5 to operate, thereby lighting up the second glow tube GL and also causes the fourth section 8 to restore.

From the foregoing explanation, it is seen that when the fourth pulse has been applied, each of the sections S of the counter is in the same condition, that is operated or restored, that it was in prior to the de-energization of the entire counter. Thus by de-energizing and reenergizing the counter and then applying a series of pulses thereto in the manner described, it is possible to remember the count last indicated by the counter prior to its de-energization for an indefinite period and to recall that count.

Zeroing procedure Not only may a count of this circuit be remembered and recalled, but, if desired, any count may be erased and the counter zeroed. In zeroing the counter of FIG. 1, consider, for example, a starting condition in which the counter indicates a count of 2. In this condition, the first and fourth sections S and S" are restored and the second and third sections 5'' and S" are operating; and the first glow lamp GL is dark and the second glow lamp GL shines. While in this condition the first, second, third and fourth operating cores are in conditions 4, 3, l, and 2 respectively.

In the zeroing process a unit current pulse is applied to the input 12 of the first stage 10, operating the first section and restoring the second section. Then, while this pulse is still applied, the control electrodes CG and CG of the first and third sections S and S' are grounded, restoring both of these sections; and then, the control electrodes CG and CG of the second and fourth sections S and S"" are biased very negatively to operate these sections. Then the negative bias on the control electrodes CG and CG is reduced to a normal negative bias of about ---1.70 volts, leaving the second and fourth sections S and S operated. The grounded control electrodes CG and CG are then ungrounded and the bias on these electrodes is raised to a normal negative basis of about l.70 volts, leaving the first and third sections S and S restored. The unit 17 pulse current applied to the input 12 of the first stage 10 is then terminated. At the completion of this process, the first and third sections S' and S' of the counter are restored, the second and fourth sections S" and S" are operating, the two glow lamps GL and GL'" are dark, and the counter is prepared to count pulses.

At the time that the unit pulse is applied to the input 12 of the first stage 10, the first core M changes from condition 4 to condtion 6, operating the first section S. The first section S, in operating, causes the second section S" to restore, as previously described, and the magnetization of the second core M changes from condition 3 to condition 2. When the second section S restores the magnetization of the first core M changes from condition 6 to condition 1 and the magnetization of the third core M changes from condition 1 to condition 3 and that of the fourth core M" from condition 2 to condition 4. Thereafter, when the control electrodes CG and CG'" in the first and third sections S and S' are grounded, restoring the pentodes P and P'" in these sections, the first core M remains in condition 1 but the magnetization of the second core M" changes from condition 2 to condition 1, the third core M remains in condition 3, and the magnetization of the fourth core M" changes from condition 4 to condition 5. Then at the time that very negative bias is applied to the control electrodes CG" and C of the second and fourth pentodes P and P"" resulting in operation of these tubes, the magnetization of the first operating core M changes from condition 1 to condition 2 while the second operating core M" remains in condition 1, that of the third operating core M" changes from condition 3 to condition 2 and that of the fourth operating core M"' from condition to condition 1. When the biases on all the control electrodes CG are returned to their normal values, no change occurs in the magnetization of the cores M. However, when the current pulse is terminated, the magnetization of the first core M' changes from condition 2 to condition 4 and that of the second core M" from condition 1 to condition 3.

It is to be noted that at this time, only the first operating core M is positively magnetized, being in condition 4, while the second, third and fourth cores are negatively magnetized, being in conditions 3, 2, and 1 respectively. With the pentodes in the conditions mentioned and the cores so polarized, the counter is ready to count pulses. If any other stages are cascaded in the counter and are similarly treated, the first sections of these stages are likewise restored and the last or output sections operated after the completion of the zeroing process and the operating cores in the first sections and those in the output sections of all stages following the first will be in conditions 2 and 1 respectively. While the zeroing process has been described with particular reference to zeroing the counter when a count of 2 is indicated, it is to be understood that the various sections of the counter are in the same final condition and the counter is prepared for counting pulses, at the completion of the zeroing procedure described irrespective of the initial conditions of the various sections of the counter, the only difference being in the specific history of the cores during the procedure.

Auxiliary circuits As illustrated in FIG. 2 certain auxiliary circuits are provided to ensure reliable operation of the counter. These circuits include a pulse standardizer 30 for applying pulses to be counted to the input 12 of the first stage of the counter, a zeroing circuit 32 for zeroing the counter, a control circuit 34 for automatically energizing and de-energizing the various electrodes of the counter and the pulse standardizer 30 in the desired sequence in order to remember and recall a count, and a pulsing circuit 36 for applying a series of recalling pulses to the counter.

18 Pulse standardizer The pulse standardizer 30 is in the form of a direct coupled D.C. amplifier comprising first, second, and third pentodes P P and P-; connected in tandem amplifying relation between the input 38 and the output 40. The potentials for the various electrodes of these three pentodes are obtained from a voltage dividing circuit 42 in cluding resistors R R R R R and R one end of which is connected to ground and the other end of which is connected to the negative voltage conductor NVC.

Negative pulses to be counted are applied to the first pentode P through a coupling condenser C and a potentiometer 44. This pentode P is normally conducting and is driven beyond cut off by negative pulses exceeding a predetermined value determined by resistor R The anode 46 of the first pentode P is directly connected to the control grid 48 of the second pentode P and the two connected to the potential dividing network 42 through a first plate resistor R This resistor R cooperates with the voltage of the voltage dividing network 42 to bias the second pentode P beyond cut oil as long as the first pentode P is conducting and to render the second pentode P conducting in a predetermined amount when the first pentode P is driven beyond cut off.

The anode 50 of the second pentode P is directly connected to the control electrode 52 of the third pentode P and the two pentodes are connected to the potential dividing network 4 2 through a second plate resistor R The third pentode P is connected as a negative transconductance device in a manner similar to the pentodes P of the counter circuit. The second plate resistor R and the potential dividing network 42 cooperate to maintain the third pentode P non-conductive while the second pentode P is not conducting, but maintains the third pentode P conducting when the second pentode P is conducting.

With this pulse standardizer 30, whenever a negative pulse having an amplitude exceeding a predetermined value is impressed upon the input 38, a unit pulse of the same magnitude of those generated in various sections of the counter is produced at the output 40.

The screen grid 53, the suppressor grid 54, and the anode 55 of the third pentode P are energized through a voltage dividing circuit comprising resistors R R and R similarly to the pen-todes P of the counter circuits and a glow tube GL is connected to the screen grid 53 of this pentode also in a similar manner. This glow tube GL serves to indicate when pulses are being generated in the output of the pulse standardizer 30, and is particularly useful in connection with the adjustment of the potentiometer 44 at the input 38 to a suitable setting for picking up all the pulses of interest in the source of the pulses to be counted. During any such adjustments the third pentode P is connected directly to the anode voltage conductor PVC by means of single pole doublethrow switch 56. However, when pulse counting is desired the pentode is connected through output 40 directly to the input "12 of the first stage 10 of the counter by means of this switch.

The plate resistors R and R are preferably very large compared to the resistors R to R in the voltage divider 42 so that changes in plate current will not substantially affect the distribution of voltage on the voltage divider.

In de-energizing of the entire arrangement, the control grid 52 of the third pentode P is grounded before the control grids CG in the counter, in order to be certain that any unit current generated by the pulse standardizer and impressed upon the first stage 10 of the counter is terminated before the biasing conductors BC and BC are grounded. Also, in re-energizing the pulse standardizer, the control electrode 52 remains grounded until after the other electrodes of this pentode P have been 19 energized to prevent applying a spurious pulse to the counter.

Suitable values of the circuit constants in the pulse standardizer 30 are as follows:

R M 150 R ohms 300 R M R10 ohms R M 4.7 R ohrns 350 R M 25 R M 25 The pentodes used in this circuit are 6SJ7s.

Pulsing circuit meg 1 M 180 The switching means referred to includes a normally open push-button switch 60 which may be depressed momentarily to complete the circuit between the voltage divider 58 and the suppressor grid 57 once to produce a single pulse at the output of the pulse standardizer. The switching means also include a rotary switch 62 adapted to complete the circuit between the voltage divider 58 and the suppressor grid 57 a predetermined number of times in a single operation, so as to apply to the counter the proper number of pulses, in this case four, necessary to recall a prior count.

The rotary switch 62 comprises a metallic wheel 63 connected to the intermediate point of voltage divider 58, carrying an insulated lever 64 which is normally held against a first stop 65 by means of an insulated spring 66, and which may be moved to a second position against a second stop 67 by manually applying pressure to the lever 64 against the force of the spring 66. The wheel 63 carries a pluralityof metallic teeth 68, in this case two, which contact a resilient switch element 69 once each in the movement of the wheel 63 from the first position to the second position and once each again with the movement of the wheel from the second position to the first. Upon making each contact, the circuit to the suppressor grid 57 is completed to produce the desired pulse. A condenser 0; connected across the rotary switch 62 and across the push-button switch 60 serves to prevent sparking when either of the switches referred to is operated. A suitable value of the condenser is:

lllf Zeroing circuit The zeroing circuit 32 serves to restore the first and third sections S and 8" and to operate the second and fourth sections S and S"" so as to prepare the counter properly for counting pulses hereinabove explained. In order to bring about the zeroing of the counter automatically, the zeroing circuit is provided with three switches, namely, a pulsing switch 74, a grounding switch 75, and a biasing switch 76, which are ganged to close in the order named and then to open in the reverse order to bring about the desired results.

The pulsing switch 74 is arranged in parallel with the push-button switch 60 of the pulsing circuit 36 so that when this switch 74 is closed, it serves to generate a pulse in the output of the pulse standardizer 30.

The grounding switch 75 is arranged to ground the control grids CG and CG' of the first and third pentodes P and P' through two mutually insulated grounding conductors BC and B0,. The first grounding conductor BC is connected to the junction between the two condensers C and C in the grid circuit 6c of the first pentode P, and the second grounding conductor BC; is similarly connected to the junction between the condensers C and C2, in the grid circuit GC of the third pentode P.

The biasing switch 76 cooperates with a voltage divider 78 and two coupling circuits 80, to maintain a normal bias of about 1.7 volts on the two biasing conductors BC and BC while this switch is open and to raise the bias above about 2.0 volts when this switch is closed. The voltage divider 78 includes two resistors R and R connected between the negative voltage conductor NVC and ground. The junction between these two resistors R and R is connected to the respective biasing conductors BC and BC through two resistors R in the respective coupling networks 80. The two condensers C in the respective coupling networks 80 are connected directly across the respective biasing conductors BC and BC and ground so as to prevent an electrostatic pickup in the two grounding conductors BC and BC from actuating any section of the counter. Preferably these two condensers C are located adjacent the grid circuits GC. The two coupling networks 80 serve to isolate the two bias conductors -BC and BC from each'other electrically and the constants of these circuits are so chosen that the grounding of the first biasing conductor BC does not produce any substantial voltage change on the second biasing conductor BC An auxiliary resistor R is included in series with switch 76 so as to shunt the high voltage resistor R of the voltage divider 78 when the switch 76 is closed.

The shunting of this resistor R raises the voltage of the V junction between the resistors R and R so as to bias the control grids CG" and CG" in the second and fourth sections S" and S" to the desired point.

Suitable values of the circuit elements referred to are as follows:

When these tree switches 74, 75 and'76 are closed the first and third operating cores M and M are magnetized in condition 2 and the second and fourth operating cores M" and M" are magnetized in condition 1. Thereafter opening of the pulsing switch 74 terminates the current through the primary windings W and W of the first and second operating transformers T and T causing the magnetization of the first core M to change from condition 2 to condition 4 and that of the second core M" to change from condition 1 to condition 3, as described above under Zeroing procedure. Opening of the grounding switch 75 and the biasing switch 76 have no effect on the magnetization of the cores.

While the opening and closing of the three switches 74, 75, and 76 have been described with reference to a particular sequence, it will be clear, in view of the foregoing explanation of the invention, that these switches may be opened and closed in other sequences to zero the counter, it only being important that the input sections S and S'" are restored and the output sections S" and 8" be operating at the time that the current pulse applied by the pulse standardizer 30 to the counter is terminated.

Power supply The power supply 81 for energizing the counter and the associated circuits is of the type which converts alternating current power into direct current power. This power supply 81 comprises a pair of input terminals 82 to which alternating current voltage is applied through a power switch 84 and two output terminals 85 and 86 at which the respective B+ and B- voltages of suitable values appear, and also two output terminals 87 at which low voltage cathode heater voltage appears. The power supply 81 is also provided with a terminal 88 which is grounded at a voltage between that of the B+ and the B- terminal. This power supply may be of any conventional type in which precautions are taken to prevent the appearance of voltages at the B+ and B- terminals, until the cathodes K of the various pentodes P energized from the heater terminals 87 have reached their normal operating temperature.

The heaters H of the various pentodes in the circuits described are energized directly from the heater terminals 87 so that the cathodes may be rendered thermally emissive or not according to whether the power switch 84 is closed or open. The voltages from the B+ and the B- terminals 85 and 86 are applied to the various portions of the circuits described and removed therefrom in the required sequence by means of the control circuit 34 which includes three relays, L L and L and on switch 95, and 01T switch 91.

Control circuit The first relay L is of the slow-to-restore type and has first and second pairs of contacts X and X the two pairs being arranged to act in the order named when the relay operates and in the inverse order when it restores. The first pair of contacts X is normally open and in a line between the B terminal 86 and the negative voltage conductor NVC. The second pair of contacts X is normally closed and when closed completes a grounding circuit between the connected ends of the solenoids Y and Y of the first and second relays L and L the connection to the latter relay only being made through a resistor R connected between these solenoids.

The second relay L is also of the slow-to-restore type but restores more rapidly than the first relay L and.

is provided with first, second, and third pairs of contacts, X X and X the three pairs acting in the order named when the relay operates and in the inverse order when it restores. The first pair of contacts X is normally closed to complete a circuit including a grounded resistor R on one side thereof and a filter network 89 including a resistor R and a condenser C on the other side thereof. This resistance-capacitance network 89 is connected between that side of this pair of contacts X and a voltage divider 89' including two resistors R and R which supplies suitable voltages to the anode voltage conductor PVC and to the reference voltage conductor RVC. The second pair of contacts X is normally opened and is included in a circuit between this resistance capacitance network 89 and the 13+ terminal 85 of power supply 81. The third pair of contacts X is normally open and is included in a line 90 which includes the solenoid Y of the third relay L and a normally closed off switch 91. This line 90 is connected on the load side of the main power switch 84.

The third relay L is of the fast-to-restore type and is provided with four pairs of contacts X X X and X the first and second and third pairs being normally closed and the fourth normally open, and the four pairs being arranged to act in the order named when the third relay operates and in the inverse order when restored. The first and second pairs of contacts X and X, are arranged between ground and the second and first biasing conductors BC and B0 respectively. The third pair of contacts X is arranged in a line including a small current limiting resistor r between ground and an intermediate point on the potential divider 42 at the cathode 93 of the first pentode P of the pulse standardizer 30. -A large condenser C connected between the cathode 93 and ground serves to prevent shock to the voltage divider 42 when the contacts X are opened and closed. Suitable values for the last two circuit elements mentioned are:

ohms 100 8.0

The fourth pair of contacts X is arranged in parallel with a normally open on switch 95 Which is connected in series with a resistor R between the B+ terminal and one end of the solenoid Y of the first relay L The upper end of the voltage divider 89' is connected directly to the anode voltage conductor PVC and an intermediate point between the resistors R and R is connected to the reference voltage conductor RVC. The resistor R at the lower end of the voltage divider 89 is shunted by a condenser C which serves to ground the reference voltage conductor RVC so far as pulse frequencies are concerned and thus isolates the glow lamps GL from each other so that a pulse applied to one will not inadvertently ignite another. In the preferred form of the invention, the time constant of the resistance-capacitance network 89 through which the potential divider 89 is supplied is longer than the timeconstant of the resistance-capacitance networks including the resistors R and C connected between the screen grids and the suppressor grids of the respective pentodes P in the counter and the output pentode P in the pulse standardizer. With this time constant so selected, as the anode voltage rises to its ultimate value during the energization of the variou circuits, the voltage at the suppressor grids does not rise so fast as to cause anode conduction. This facilitates maintaining all tubes in a restored condition during circuit energization.

Suitable values of the circuit elements associated with the two voltage conductors PVC and RVC are:

Energization of circuit To energize the circuit, first the main switch 84 is closed causing the heaters H associated with the various cathodes of the pentodes P to be energized. Subsequently, after the voltages at the B+ and the B-- terminals 85 and 86 have attained their normal operating values, the energization of the remaining electrodes of the various circuits is initiated by temporarily depressing the on button 95, operating the first relay L and holding it closed until the sticking contacts X of the third relay L close to seal in the control circuit 34. Upon operation of the first relay L as its first pair of contacts X closes, thereby energizing the negative voltage conductor NVC and impressing negative voltages upon the screen grids and the suppressor grids of all the negative trans-conductance pentodes P, P", P, P"" and P and at the same time placing a suitable negative voltage across the potential divider 42 in the pulse standardizer 30. It is to be noted that this voltage divider 42 does not come into full operation because the intermediate point thereon is still grounded through resistor r and the third pair of contacts X of the third relay L Also at the time that the negative voltage conductor NVC is energized, the voltage dividers 58 and 78 in the pulsing and zeroing circuits 36 and 32 are energized. However, the energization of the latter voltage dividers 58 and 78 does not have any effect upon the counter at this time, since the biasing conductors BC and BC are still grounded through the first and second pairs of the contacts X and X of the third relay L After the negative voltage conductor NVC is energized, the second pair of contacts X of the first relay L opens, thereby connecting the solenoid Y of the second relay L to the B+ terminal 85 through the resistor R the solenoid Y of the first relay L the on button 95 and the resistor R thereby operating the second relay. When the second relay L operates, its first pair of contacts X opens and its second pair of contacts X closes, thereby ungrounding the resistance capacitor network 89 and connecting this network to the B-I- terminal 85. When this occurs, the full voltage from the B+ terminal 85 is applied gradually through the resistance-capacitance network 89 to the anode voltage conductor PVC and the potential divider 89. The time constant of this network 89 is made suificiently long compared to that of the circuits including the condensers C connected between the respective screen and suppressor grids that accidental operation of the negative trans-conductance pentodes P, P", P, P" and P is prevented. The voltage on the reference voltage conductor RVC rises to its normal value concurrently but more slowly. Preferably the time constants of the circuits associated with these two conductors PVC and RVC are so selected with reference to the constants of the voltage divider network 89 that the glow lamps GL do not flash even momentarily during the energization process. In any event, accidental operation of the pentodes P, P", P', P and P is prevented so long as the following relationship holds:

After the main voltage divider 89' has been energized, the third pair of contacts X of the second relay L closes, thereby completing the power circuit to the solenoid Y of the third relay L and operating this relay.

When relay L operates, the first two pairs of contacts X and X open, thereby ungrounding the biasing conductors BC and BC and permitting their voltages to attain their normal values as established by the voltage divider 78 in the zeroing circuit 32. Subsequently the third pair of contacts X open, ungrounding the intermediate point of the potential divider 42 in the pulse standardizer 30 and permitting this voltage divider to attain its normal voltage distribution, rendering the first pentode P therein conducting and leaving the second and third pentodes P and P therein non-conducting. Subsequently, the fourth pair of contacts X close, scaling in the first relay L and hence the entire control circuit 34 so that all three relays L L and L remain operated even though the on button 95 is subsequently released.

After all three relays L L and L have operated in the manner described and the control circuit 34 is sealed in, the pulse standardizer 30 is ready to operate and the counter circuit is prepared to receive pulses therefrom, whether it be for the initial operation of the counter or whether it be to recall a prior condition thereof, or whether it be to zero the counter as above described, or for some other purpose.

De-energization of circuits In order to de-energize the counter and the pulse standardizer automatically, the normally closed off button 91 is depressed, thereby de-energizing the solenoid Y of the third relay L causing this relay to restore. When this relay L restores, the fourth pair X; of contacts opens, thereby de-energizing the first and second relays L and L The third pair of contacts X thereupon close, grounding the intermediate point of the voltage divider 42, of the pulse standardizer 30. This grounding procedure impresses a positive pulse in the control grid 52 of the output pentode P thereby rendering it non-conducting in the event that it is already conducting and terminating any unit current that might then be flowing in its output 40, for the reasons hereinabove explained. Thereupon the second pair of contacts X7 close, grounding the first biasing conductor RC and restoring any section S or S" of the first stage 10 of the counter which is operating at the time. Subsequently, the first pair of contacts X closes, grounding the second biasing conductor BC and restoring any section 5" or 5" of the second stage 11 of the counter which is operating at the time.

The time required for the first and second relays L and L to restore exceeds the time required for the four pairs of contacts X X7, X and X of the third relay L to restore. Accordingly, after the restoration of the third relay L is complete, the second relay L restores, its third pair of contacts X opening first, thereby breaking the circuit to the solenoid Y of the third relay L so that the subsequent release of the off button 91 has no effect thereon. Then the second pair of contacts X open and the first pair of contacts X close in the sequence named, removing the B+ voltage from the voltage divider 89 and grounding the positive end thereof through the resistor R This resistor R is included in the circuit of the first pair of contacts X of the second relay L to retard the decay of voltage on the anode voltage conductor PVC. It is to be noted that the anode voltage decreases gradually as a result of the combined action of this resistor and the resistance capacitance network 89. By so limiting the rate of change of anode voltage negative voltage pulses electrostatically induced on the control electrodes are prevented from exceeding the value required to operate any of the previously restored negative trans-conductance pentodes P, P", P', P and P After the second relay L is completely restored, the first relay L restores, thereby closing the second pair of contacts X thereof to ground one end of the solenoid Y of the first relay and to short out the solenoid Y of the second relay L Thereafter the first pair of contacts X opens thereby de-energizing the negative voltage conductor NVC. Thereafter the cathode heaters may be de-energized if desired by opening the power switch 84.

In order to cause the electrodes of the various circuits to become de-energized in the proper sequence in the event of a power failure or in the event the control circuit 34 is de-energized by opening the main power switch 84 before depressing the off switch 91, suitable time delay circuits 97 and 98 are incorporated in the power supply 81 in association with the B+ and B terminals 85 and 86. Thus, in the event that the power fails, the solenoid Y of the third relay L becomes de-energized just as if the off switch 91 were depressed, causing the three relays L L and L to restore in the manner hereinbefore explained. In this case, in view of the fact that the voltages are maintained at the B-land the B terminals 85 and 86 by means of the time delay circuits 97 and 98 until after the three relays L L and L have been restored, the counter circuit memory function is preserved. It is to be noted that the cathodes of the various pentodes present remain thermally emissive until after the other electrodes of the pentodes have been de-energized because of the thermal lag of the cathodes even after the filament voltage is removed from the heaters.

Thus it is seen that I have provided a system for automatically de-energizing and re-energizing the elements of the counter circuit and standardizer circuit in the proper timed relation required to remember and recall the last indicated count. While I have illustrated my invention as applied to a counter, it will be apparent that in fact I have discovered principles for remembering and recalling a condition of any type of circuit. Clearly therefore many modifications may be made in this circuit, and many other applications of the general principles illustrated therein may be made without departing from the scope of my invention.

Summary In view of the foregoing description of various applications of my inventionto electronic counters, it will be apparent that I have provided a transformer which permits remembering the last prior condition of an electric discharge device for an indefinite period after the device is tie-energized, and that is also useful for relaying pulses from one circuit to another. Tho-ugh my invention has been described with particular reference to relay means of the electric discharge type, which may be changed from an operated condition to a restored condition, and vice versa, while it is energized, it will be clear to those skilled in the art that my invention is equally applicable to other types of relay means which may be so changed while energized.

Also it is to be understood that while my invention has been described with reference to particular circuits. utilizing elements having specific electrical constants, my invention is also applicable to circuits including elements having other electrical constants, the constants recited being presented for illustrative purposes only.

It is to be understood that where reference is made in the above description to positive and negative values of different quantities, these terms are to be considered in their mutual relationship only, there being nothing absolute in them. This is particularly applicable in connection with the discussion of the magnetization of a core and the illustration thereof in FIG. 5.

Accordingly, it is to be understood that the apparatus herein described is susceptible of wide modification with in the scope and spirit of my invention, the apparatus disclosed in detail being presented only for the purpose of illustrating one important type of application of my invention. It is therefore to be understood that my invention is not to be limited to the specific details and applications illustrated but only by the appended claim.

I claim:

A pluggable transformer memory device comprising; a first core of magnetic material; a second core of magnetic material; each of said cores fabricated of a soft ferromagnetic material having a residual flux density which is a large fraction of its saturation flux density; each of said cores having a diameter of about one quarter inch, an annular width which is about one tenth its diameter, and a thickness of about two tenths of an inch; an input winding having a predetermined number of turns wound on said first core; an auxiliary winding having one half said predetermined number of turns wound on said first core, an output winding having a number of turns greater than said auxiliary winding and less than said input winding wound on said first core; a primary winding having a number of turns less than said auxiliary winding wound on said second core; a secondary winding having the same number of turns as said output winding on said first core Wound on said second core; a base member; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth conductive prongs aflixed to said base member, said first and second cores being mounted on said base member; means connecting one end of said input winding on said first core to said first conductive prong and the other end of said input winding to said second conductive prong; means. connecting one end of said auxiliary winding on said first core to said third conductive prong and the other end of said auxiliary winding to one end of said primary winding on said second core; means connecting the other end of said primary winding on said second core to said fourth conductive prong; means connecting one end of said output winding on said first core to said fifth conductive prong and the other end of said output winding to said sixth conductive prong; and means connecting one end of said secondary winding on said second core to said seventh conductive prong and the other end of said secondary winding to said eighth conductive prong.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,375,609 Zulke May 8, 1945 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No; 2,992,414 July 11 1961 Frederick W0 Viehe It is hereby certified that error appears in ,-the above numbered patentrequiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column .5, line 71 for "recommended" read reeommeneed column 22 line 533 for "do" read ohm Signed and sealed this 20th day of March 1962.

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST W. SWIDER DAVID L. LADD Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE fiERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTIGN Patent No 2 992 4l4 v July 11 1961 Frederick W; Viehe It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patentrequiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as "corrected below.

Column 5,, line 71 for "recommended" read recommenced column 22 line 52L for "do" read ohm Signed and sealed this 20th day of March 1962,

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST W. SWIDER DAVID L. LADD Attesting Officer I Commissioner of Patents

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2375609 *Jul 10, 1941May 8, 1945Marcel ZuhlkeArrangement for protecting circuit breakers
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US7832391 *Mar 10, 2006Nov 16, 2010Kellogg, Bruns & Smeija, LLCRange exhaust cleaning system
US8316839Nov 11, 2010Nov 27, 2012Kbs Automist, LlcRange exhaust cleaning system and method
US8746231Nov 26, 2012Jun 10, 2014Kbs Automist, LlcRange exhaust cleaning system and method
Classifications
U.S. Classification377/101, 336/155
International ClassificationH03K23/00, H03K23/76
Cooperative ClassificationH03K23/76
European ClassificationH03K23/76