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Publication numberUS2992645 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 18, 1961
Filing dateMar 26, 1959
Priority dateMay 6, 1958
Publication numberUS 2992645 A, US 2992645A, US-A-2992645, US2992645 A, US2992645A
InventorsFrank Fowler
Original AssigneeBenger Lab Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Disperser for powders
US 2992645 A
Images(4)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 18, 1961 Filed March 26, 1959 WEIGHT PERCENT Jol'- F. FOWLER DISPERSER FOR POWDERS I I 93% I i l I 4 Sheets-Sheet 1L WEIGHT PERCENT Jo 11.1215141515 .wjiqz'om zzeauz DISPERSER FOR POWDERS Filed March 26, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 July 18, 1961 F, FOWLER 2,992,645

DISPERSER FOR POWDERS Filed March 26, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 July 18, 1961 F, FOWLER 2,992,645

DISPERSER FOR POWDERS Filed March 26, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 l 6- M .JQ f L7/(7? l l* y l l I #y 1| J0 62 IL 6] 65 V il| @1f ,76 65 f J5 f 29 50 United States This invention is concerned with novel apparatus and methods of yadministering a medicament or drug in the form of a homogeneous ultra iine powder which can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung following inhala tion of air or a gas containing the said ultra ne powder in suspension.

For a full understanding of the invention which is described hereinafter in detail, it should be recalled that the human respiratory system commences with a single large diameter tube and after many bifurcations terminates in many thousands of very small diameter tubes (approximately 0.6 mm. bore). The large primary tubes also have appreciable length, whereas the terminal subdivisions are quite short in length. On the other hand, the larger tubes are few in number and have `a very small total surface area (of wall) compared to the very large total surface area of the thousands of small tubes. The Various types of tubes which occur Iare described by terms such as: main bronchi, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts yand alveolar sacs.

This invention is chiey concerned with apparatus for the application of some powders containing drugs to the surfaces of lthe tubes classed as bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles, which fare the smaller and more distal parts of the branched system, with a minimum proportion deposited in the trachea and main bronchi alveolar ducts and sa, either for the treatment of local disease, or for the purpose of obtaining rapid and complete absorption of the drug into the blood stream.

lt has been variously reported and is well accepted that particles of solid, or droplets of liquid, with a diameter exceeding microns cannot be carried by inspired air in any significant degree beyond the secondary or tertiary bronchi. This may be looked upon as a quite reliable natural defense mechanism against invasion of the deeper and eective parts of the `lung by foreign matter in the air such as dust, bacteria, etc. It is also fairly well established that particles of dust or smoke with a particle size diameter of less than l micron will very readily pass along the tubes to the most distant parts of the lung, namely the alveolar ducts `and sacs, but the smaller particles in this range are probably not deposited at all, but return with the exhaled air.

This invention advisably uses a homogeneous ultra tine powder in which the particles are mutually non-adherent in which at least a major proportion, and advisably about two thirds of the powder, by weight is composed of particles having a diameter between 2 and 6 microns. Approximately 80% by weight should preferably be between these limits with the peak of the weight distribution curve approximating the 3 micron size. The powder should contain substantially no particles larger than 10 microns, or preferably no larger than 9 microns, and any event only a very minute proportion by weight of the particles should be over 10 microns in size, and only a negligible proportion by weight of the particles should be smaller than l micron. In any case, the proportion by Weight below 2 microns should be less than 20%, Or preferably less than 10% by weight, so that the product is substantially free from particles appreciably smaller than 2 microns.

The advantage of employing a homogeneous powder arent l" ice of this type may be demonstrated quantitatively in several ways. For example, it can readily be shown that when the powder of this invention is inhaled as on a gas or air supported stream, the dosage required to produce a given `desired result may be reduced by as much as -95 with the fine homogeneous particles as compared with, for example, a powder of the soca1led 300 mesh size, i.e., as obtained by grinding `and sieving through a 300 mesh per inch sieve administered in the same way.

The following table shows quantitatively the theoretical distribution of an insuiiiation powder through the various areas of the bronchial system when the particles are of various sizes. It will be noted that with particles of 3 micron diameter the bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles may be expected to receive and retain 46% by weight of the material as compared to only 11% in the case of a 1 micron powder and only 10% for a powder composed of l0 micron particles.

Table showing percentage by weight of a powder of speced particle size which would be expected to be deposited in the different regions of the lung In the accompanying drawings FIGURE 1 shows the panticle size distribution by weight of a typical known powder classed as passing a 300 mesh sieve, while FIG- URE Z shows the corresponding distribution of a preferred powder in accordance with the invention.

Although the tine powders of mutually nonadherent particles of 2 to 6 microns can be administered by the use of `known procedures and with existing devices, it is considered that all of the prior art methods and apparatuses have serious deiiciencies. For proper administration of these powders they should be thoroughly dispersed so that each particle is separately suspended in the inspired air or gas (oxygen) in order to obtain the desired effect. Not only must the powders `be properly suspended, but they must be administered only during inhalation, and not during exhalation or when a person is momentarily holding his breath, for the particles to be drawn in suiiiciently to reach the desired respiratory areas.

There are, accordingly, provided novel dispersers for administering these powders, as well as novel replaceable cartridges containing the powders which can be used, if desired, in conjunction with the. dispersers.

The disperser broadly is comprised of a reservoir for a mass of iinely divided particles, gas pressure means for supplying a gas under pressure to the reservoir and valve means for maintaining the gas under pressure, said valve means being responsive to external differential reduced gas pressure, such as caused by the inhalation of a person, to open the valve so that the particles are propelled from the reservoir as a gas supported stream. The said valve may be located between the gas pressure means and the reservoir but advisably is located in an egress conduit leading from the reservoir so that said gas pressure means applies pressure inside the reservoir before 3 the valve is opened-in this way immediate expellation of powder from the reservoir is accomplished upon opening of the valve. In a further embodiment of the invention gas under pressure is not only supplied to the reservoir, but is also supplied to one or more ducts which direct a jet of this pressurized gas across the stream of particles emerging from the reservoir.

The reservoir may comprise any suitable container for the powders of a size and shape such that gas applied under pressure thereto can be exhausted from an egress hole in the container and transport the powder particles as a gas-supported stream. The container can be an 'mtegral part of the disperser but, advisably, is a replaceable cartridge which can be readily positioned in a cartridgereceiving receptacle provided in the disperser.

Embodiments of the disperser will nowI be described in conjunction with the attached drawings in which:

tFIG. 3 is a cross-sectional View in elevation of a cartridge;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the cartridge shown in section in FIG. 3;

lFIG. 5 is an enlarged View of the lower portion of the cartridge shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 is an elevational View partly in section of one embodiment of the disperser;

FIG. 7 is an elevational view of another embodiment o-f the disperser;

FIG. 8 is a view of the disperser of FIG. 7 taken partly in section at the line 8 8 thereof;

FIG. 9 is a View of a cartridge for use in conjunction with the disperser of FIGS. 7 and 8; and

FIG. l() is an enlarged sectional View, ten times scale, of the cartridge receiving area of the disperser of FIG. 6 containing a cartridge.

Referring rst to the disperser of FIG. 6, which is the preferred device, it will be seen that it comprises a squeeze bulb 10 with valve 11 which lets in air but prevents its escape, and that the bulb is attached to cylindrical mouthpiece 12. The mouthpiece -12 is composed of three main portions which are threaded together into a unitary structure which can be disassembled readily. Forming part of the mouthpiece 12 is the base 13v to which the bulb 10 is attached. Body 14 is threadably engaged at 15 to the base 13, and at the other end is threadably engaged to the nozzle portion 2S.

The base section 13 contains axial hole 16 and cartridge receiving recess 17 into which approximately the lower half of a powder-containing cartridge fits. The dotted lines I18 signify that grooves are provided :in the bottom and sides of the recess 17 so that air may pass around the cartridge as well as go through it. To provide a tight seal between the base section y13 and the body 14, flexible washer 19, as of rubber, is placed in the top of the body portion as shown. Shroud 20 is added to protect the bulb throat 21 and bar its being removed inadvertently from the nipple 22 containing hole 16; the shroud also gives the device a more elegant appearance.

Body portion 14 is generally shaped like a cylindrical shell with internal thread means 15 at the lower end and internal thread means 26 at the upper end. Body 14, however, contains an inverted cup 27 integrally formed -therewith by shoulder 28. The cup 27 is flared 29 at its mouth to facilitate entry of the upper part of a cartridge into the cup. It will be readily seen that cup 27 and recess 17 are coaxially positioned and of a size so that together they comprise a cartridge receiving receptacle. The cup 27 contains grooves 18 in the walls and bottom `thereof which actas passages for air to pass around the cartridge. The cup 27 has orice 30 axially located therein and so located as to be in line with and adjacent the egress hole of the cartridge so that the air or gas transported fine particles can be expelled therethrough. The body 14 has side ports 31 which permit air to enter therein.

Nozzle 25 is threadably attached 26 to the body 14 and contains an internal downwardly projecting cylindrical sleeve 40 having` throat 32 spaced apart 33 from the outer Wall of the nozzle.

Located in `the body 14 is a piston 34 comprised of a disc 35, from which cylindrical skirt 36 depends, and also from which cylindrical sleeve 37 projects upwardly 'm line with sleeve 40. The top of sleeve 37 is castellated so that when it abuts the bottom of sleeve 40 it will not prevent the application of suctionin areas 33 and 41. The disc 35 has a flange 42 which extends outwardly beyond the skirt 36 so that when suction is applied through throat 32 and in varea 41, yair will enter ports 31 and apply pressure against the flange 42 and thus force the piston upwardly. As the piston moves upwardly the bottom edge of skirt 36 is raised permitting air to ilow therebeneath and into area '43 where it combines with the yair-transported particles coming out orifice 30 and facilitates dispersing the particles and transporting them through holes 44 in the `disc portion 35 of the piston and through throat 32 into the respiratory system of an inhaling person. Pad 45 is located in the bottom of the disc 35 to provide a good seal of orifice 30` when the piston is at rest. Spring means 46 extends around sleeves 37 and 40 and urges the piston away from the nozzle portion. The tension of the spring is carefully selected so that it will maintain the piston down until a person creates a suction, as by inhaling with the mouthpiece lin his mouth, in the area 41 after wh-ich atmospheric pressure forces the piston upwardly by air entering ports 31.

The disperser is advisably made of nylon except for the bulb, washer and pad which can be rubber, while the spring may be steel.

Shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5 `are views of a cartridge 50 which can be used in the disperser of FIG. 6 and which tits in the receptacle formed of recess 17 and cup 27. The cartridge has `a cylindrical body portion 51 having a tightly fitted cap 52. The cartridge has an internal cylindrical cavity tapered `at both ends into conical areas with the end portions of the cones adjacent the top and bottom ends of the cartridge. The tapered areas `assist `in the ejection of all of lthe contents in the cartridge and thereby assure utilization of the entire dosage. The bottom of the body portion is provided with a small opening 53, preferably about 1&4 of an inch in diameter. Cavity 56 is provided as part of the `ingress hole to facllitate molding. This opening 53 (the ingress opening) is for the linjection of air into the cartridge. The cap 52 is provided with opening 54, preferably about 1/32 of an inch in diameter for ejection of the powder from the cartridge by means of the yair injected at the bottom. Ring 63 on the cap and ring 64 on the body portion 51 frictionaly fit in corresponding grooves to aid in holding the parts together. Adhesive sealing discs 55, as of polyethylene, are -applied to the ends of the cartridge to bar access of moisture to the powder in the cartridge. These discs are removed before the cartridge is placed in the disperser.

A typical cylindrical cartridge may be about 13 mm. long and labout: 8 mm. in diameter with an air ingress hole of 0.20 to 0.25 mm. anda combination particle and air egress =hole of 0.8 to`1.0 mm. The ends of the cylinder in which the holes are located `are conically shaped internally with the cone tops directed to the cartridge ends. The lair ingress hole can have a wall length of about 0.25 mm. Iand the egress hole a wall length of about l mm.

The powder is packed lightly in these cartridges in such a manner `as to be free-flowing in the air which is used to remove it, and yet is loosely aggregated so that the holes at either end of the cartridge are small eno-ugh to ensure that the powder does not flow out under ordinary handling conditions. Such cartridges are prefl erably moulded from a plastic material, such as polyethylene, which amongst other properties has that of preventing the passage of moisture vapor to a remarkable degree and yas these very ne powders may be damaged in the case of certain drugs by moisture, this can be a marked advantage.

This apparatus serves at least ltwo functions, it disperses the powder completely into the inspired air and, secondly, it only releases the powder when the patient is making a sutiiciently strong inspiratory effort.

Although lthe powders are composed of mutually nonadherent particles, they 'are of such `a smal-1 particle size that there is a considerable degree of loose physical aggregation which may be due, in part, to electrostatic forces. In order for each individual particle to be separately suspended in the inspired air it is advisable that the stream of powder smoke removed from the cartridge be vigorously acted upon mechanically to break -up the loose physical aggregates. With this end in view, and yas shown in greatest `detail in FIG. 10, the rubber bulb, of approximately 60 `cc. capacity, delivers about 5G cc. of pressurized air to duct 16. About of the pressurized air passes through the cartridge and transfers some ofthe powder into a small turbulent mixing chamber 61 just above the cartridge egress hole 54. About 90% of the pressurized air is permitted to by-pass the cartridge by means of grooves 18 which divide the air into two streams of `about 22 cc. each which feed it to opposed jet ducts 62 and 63 from. which the air is propelled with a violent turbulent -action upon the powder emenging :from the cartridge. The small mixing chamber yel is only about 11/2 mm. (1/16") diameter and 2 mm. long `and forms the lower part of the duct 30. 'llhe air propelled completely dispersed particles are then propelled 'from `chamber `6l through duct 30 as `a 50 oc. quantity of a very concentrated powder smoke. The 50 cc. quantity of smoke is diluted with l to 25 Iliters of air which enters port 31 and passes through holes 44 with the smoke.

When the patient commences to breathe in through the mouthpiece he finds that only a very small quantity of `air can be obtained and hence he can very quickly build up a strong suction in lthe apparatus. When the degree of suction reaches a certain value the valve is triggered and Aair flows into his lungs lat a rate of 2 or more liters per second. The patient is `able to maintain this rate of flow from between 0.5 and 1.0 second `during which time he has inspired between l to 2.5 liters of air. It is `during the iirst 0.3 second that the 50 cc. of concentrated powder smoke is injected into the air ilowing during that period of timei.e., into approximately 0.8 liter of air. It will be seen, therefore, that even in the case of -a severely disabled patient having a small inspiration there will still be an appreciable amount of further air inspired after the end 4of the powder addition. 'l'his further helps to ensure `that the 0.8 liter of air containing the powder is transferred into the deeper parts of the lung.

This device was found to be very satisfactory in practice. The eifect produced is to cause the patient to make a strong inspiratory effort without at the same time filling his lungs prematurely with air and only when he is making a suiiiciently strong effort can he get both the air and the dose of powder.

The disperser of FIG. 6 is preferred to that of FIGS. 7 and 8 since the former requires less air intake to open the valve and is easier to clean since the spring 46 is protected and out of the path of the air-transported particles. Furthermore, by having the atmosphere apply pressure initially only against the lange 42 instead of the entire area of the disc, it requires more suction to open the valve compared to the suction necessary to maintain it open than in the device of FLGS. 7 and 8 which, as a result, causes the powder to be inhaled more deeply.

The disperser as shown in FIG. 6 is about 2 times scale so that it will be readily appreciated that the device is suitable for carrying by a person in a coat pocket in order that the insulation powder can be self-administered at any location convenient to the patient, such as at home or his place of business.

A second embodiment of a disperser is shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 and a capsule for use in conjunction with the `disperser is shown in FIG. 9.

The disperser of FIGS. 7 and 8 has a mouthpiece 70 connected to bulb 71. The mouthpiece 70 has a cylindrical end section 72 through which an axial duct 77 passes to the discharge oriiice. An intermediate section of said end section 72 is formed with two opposed parallel faces 73, the disposition of which is chordal with respect to the cylindrical projection of the end section 72. Between the faces 73 a socket recess 79 for receiving cartridge 74 extends transversely so that the duct 77 QG at lower part and 1/32" at top) opens into it. Beyond the socket recess a nozzle 76 having hole 75 (1/s) is engaged with the mouth 78 of the bulb. The bore of hole 75 is on the same axial alignment as duct 77 so as to open into the recess 79.

The socket recess 79 is generally cylindrical with one end fully open and sunk into one of said faces 73 with the other end partially narrowed or closed so as to leave a slot in the other face. The socket recess 79 is stepped down in diameter 81 on the far side of the duct 77 and hole 75.

The cartridge 74 for mounting in the recess is formed externally as the socket recess except that the area 8S of the cartridge is smaller than the the near side 89 (biggest diameter in the socket) of said duct 77 and hole 75 to thereby create an annular passage 83, of general ring shape, between the two steps 81 and 90 and around the cartridge. The orifices S5 and 86 in the cartridge are positioned to register with the hole 75 and duct 77 respectively and to be located in the annular passage 83. By making the depth of the steps and the distance between them such that the resulting cross-sectional area is about four and one-half times as large as orifice 85 (%4) or 86 (1/32) whichever is bigger, roughly nine times as much air will be diverted around the capsule as can pass through it in a certain period.

In order to ensure a tight t of the cartridge within the socket recess, the mating surfaces ot both, outside the passage zone between the steps, may be tapered slightly towards their far or inner ends. The near or outer end of the cartridge is flanged S7 for engagement within the sunk face opening of the recess. The lling mouth of the cartridge is provided with a suitable stopper plug 91 externally yformed with a button by which the capsule can be readily pressed home into the recess. The far or inner end of the cartridge is formed with a projecting key adapted to fit and project through the slot in the far end of the recess to properly align the orifices with hole 7S and duct 77.

The cartridges can be supplied for use in the disperser, each removably mounted, in individual tubular sheaths which may also be of plastic and, can, if desired, be combined to any required number into a plate with the sheaths projecting as sockets from its face. The orifices of each cartridge are thus kept sealed, by the wall of such sheath or socket, and the contents protected from deterioration and, what is particularly important with very iine powders, from dampness such as might cause caking.

The mouthpiece is provided with a tubular sleeve 91 axially projecting around the discharge duct, the inner end of which sleeve may be detachably secured to a shouldered seating 99 on said end section. Immediately adjacent the end of the latter, the sleeve has air intake openings 92. Loosely fitting within the sleeve is a disc 93 serving both as a piston hafiie and as a valve member, for which last mentioned purpose said disc is provided with a central sealing pad 94 which normally seats against and closes the discharge duct 77. By disposing this duct at the tip of the axial conical projection 95 of the body, said disc is maintained clear of said zone of sleeve openings on the upper or suction side of the intake openings. The disc is urged downwardly into seating engagement with the duct by a coil compression spring 96 of about the same diameter as the disc itself, which spring may be anchored just within the open end of the sleeve 91 and said spring and disc can, if desired, be formed integrally with the sleeve as a single moulding. The strength of the spring is such that it allows the disc to be lifted from the discharge duct by an air current drawn, by appropriate suction at the nozzle 97 end of the sleeve as by placing the mouthpiece in the mouth and inhaling in through the zone of openings and around the edge of the disc, but on the other hand prevents the latter from being raised without, or unassisted by, such suction, merely by pressure obtainable by means of the collapsible bulb acting over the small cross-sectional area of the orifice. The sleeve is suitably nished olif as a mouthpiece by iitting its open end with a supplementary domed annulus or nozzle 97.

Valve 11 is the same as in FIG. 6.

The valve means of the disperser of FIGS. 7 and 8 prevents emission of air-supported powder through duct 77, even though the bulb 71 is squeezed, until a suicient air current is simultaneously drawn in through the mouthpiece, thus ensuring against waste of powder as would take place if exhalation, or no inhalation, was taking place. The valve means does this by being diierentially operated in the sense that it presents an area to the lifting influence of the inhaled air current which is large in comparison with the very small area it presents for lifting by the air pressure at said orifice. The disc functions as a loosely fitted piston within the mouthpiece and is adapted normally to bear against the orice through the sealing pad under the influence of gravity and/or the spring, with a force which the opposed air pressure is unable to overcome by itself. Conscious synchronism between inhalation and discharge of the powder-bearing air is thus not required. The valve cannot be opened under the sole influence of pressure in the bulb but can be opened by a predetermined degree of suction caused by the drawing in of air through the mouthpiece.

Various changes and modifications of the invention can be made and, to the extent that such variations incorporate the spirit of this invention, they are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A hand-transportable disperser for administering fine powdered materials to a human comprising a mouthpiece, a reservoir for nely divided particles communicating with the mouthpiece and having ingress and egress holes therein, a exible squeeze bulb for applying air under pressure to the reservoir interior via the ingress hole, a valve comprising a piston, a first side of which has means to seal exit feed means communicating from the bulb for maintaining a superatmospheric air pressure in the bulb, the second and opposing side of said piston communicating with a nozzle in the mouthpiece, said rst side of the piston being partially open to atmospheric pressure so that when the mouthpiece is placed in a humans mouth who inhales, sub-atmospheric pressure is created in the nozzle and the piston is raised by atmospheric pressure applied against the first side thereby opening the valve so that the air under pressure in the bulb blows through the ingress hole and out the egress hole to form an air-supported stream of particles propelled out the nozzle and into the respiratory system.

2. A disperser for administering ne powdered materials to a human comprising a mouthpiece portion essentially hollow internally and having a closed lower end portion and an open upper nozzle portion, a duct in the closed end portion leading at the upper end from the hollow portion of the mouthpiece to air pressure means at the lower end for supplying air at supra-atmospheric pressure to the duct, a reservoir for finely divided particles located between the ends of the duct and communicating therewith by ingress and egress holes, a valve comprising a piston slidably mounted inside the mouthpiece urged by spring means into sealing relationship with the upper end of the duct, port hole means in the mouthpiece leading to an open area beneath the piston so as to apply atmospheric pressure ag-ainst the bottom of the piston, said spring exerting pressure adequate to maintain the piston in duct-sealing relationship when air pressure is applied in the duct with said spring exerting substantially less than atmospheric pressure against the piston so that a human, upon inhaling with the mouthpiece nozzle in his mouth, lowers the air pressure above the piston sufficiently for atmospheric pressure applied on the lower side of the piston to overcome the spring pressure and displace the piston out of sealing relationship with the duct thereby letting the air pressure means blow air through the reservoir and create a stream of air-supported particles which is exhausted through the nozzle and inhaled into the respiratory system.

3. A disperser for administering fine powdered materials to a human comprising a mouthpiece portion essentially hollow internally and having a closed lower end portion and an open upper nozzle portion, a duct in the closed end portion leading at the upper end from the hollow portion of the mouthpiece to air pressure means for supplying air at supra-atmospheric pressure to the lower end of the duct, a reservoir for finely divided particles located between the ends of the duct and communieating therewith by ingress and egress holes, a valve comprising a piston slidably mounted inside the mouthpiece urged by spring means into sealing relationship with the upper end of the duct, said piston having a downwardly projecting skirt spaced away from the mouthpiece internal wall and extending into substantially sealing position with the inside of the closed end portion of the mouthpiece thereby forming an open area between the mouthpiece wall and the skirt wall, port hole means in the mouthpiece leading from the atmosphere to the open area so as to apply atmospheric pressure against a minor portion of the lower side of the piston when the piston is in sealing relationship with the duct, said piston having conduit means therethrough leading from the area surrounded by the skirt walls to the mouthpiece nozzle portion, the spring exerting pressure adequate to maintain the piston in duct-sealing relationship when supra-atmospheric pressure is applied in the duct to a predetermined pressure, said spring exerting substantially less than atmospheric pressure against the piston so that a human, upon inhaling with the mouthpiece nozzle in his mouth, lowers the air pressure above the piston suiciently for atmospheric pressure applied on the said minor portion of the lower side of the piston to overcome the spring pressure, displace the piston out of sealing relationship with the duct and displace the skirt from sealing contact with the closed portion of the mouthpiece thereby permitting air to pass from the open area to the area surrounded by the skirt walls so that atmospheric pressure is applied to substantially the entire bottom of the piston, and the air which goes through the conduit means in the piston further disperses the stream of air-supported particles which is created when air under pressure blows through the powder reservoir and out the duct upper end when the valve is released.

4. The disperser of claim 2 in which the air pressure means is a exible bulb.

5. The disperser of claim 3 in which the air pressure means is a flexible bulb.

6. The `disperser of claim 3 in which the upper side of the piston and the inside of the nozzle mouth each have sleeves coaxially positioned to each other in spaced apart relationship and the spring means is a coil spring positioned externally of each of said sleeves.

7. A hand-transportable disperser for self-administering fine powdered materia-ls to the respiratory system cornprising a mouthpiece portion essentially hollow internally and having a closed lower end portion and an open upper nozzle portion, a duct in the closed end portion leading at the upper end from the hollow portion of the mouthpiece to air pressure means at the lower end for supplying air at supra-atmospheric pressure to the duct, means for holding a replaceable cartridge having ingress and egress holes and containing finely divided particles with the said holes communicating with the duct, a valve comprising a piston slidably mounted -inside the mouthpiece urged by spring means into sealing relationship `with the upper end of the duct, port hole means in the mouthpiece leading to an open area 'beneath the piston so as to apply atmospheric pressure against the bottom of the piston, said spring exerting pressure adequate to maintain the piston in ductsealing relationship when air pressure is applied in the duct by the air pressure means, said spring exerting substantially less than atmospheric pressure against the piston so that a human, upon inhaling with the mouthpiece nozzle in his mouth, lowers the air pressure above the piston sufliciently for atmospheric pressure applied on the lower side of the piston to overcome the spring pressure and displace the piston out of sealing relationship with the duct thereby letting the air pressure means blow air through the cartridge and create a stream of air-supported particles which is exhausted through the nozzle and inhaled into the respiratory system.

8. A hand-transportable disperser for self-administering line powdered materials to a human comprising a mouthpiece portion essentially hollow internally and having a closed lower end portion and an open upper nozzle portion, a duct in the closed end portion leading at the upper end fnom the hollow portion of the mouthpiece to air pressure means at the lower end for supplying air at supra-atmospheric pressure to the duct, means for holding -a replaceable cartridge having ingress and egress holes and containing iinely divi-ded particles with the said holes communicating with the duct, passage means for diverting air from the lower portion ci the duct to the upper portion of the duct ywithout passing through the cartridge, a valve comprising a piston slidably mounted inside the mouthpiece urged by spring means into sealing relationship with the upper end of the duct, port hole means in the mouthpiece leading to lan open area beneath the piston so as to apply atmospheric pressure against the bottom of the piston, said spring exerting pressure adequate to maintain the piston in duct-sealing relationship when air pressure is applied in the duct by the air pressure means, said spring exerting substantially less than atmospheric pressure against the piston so that a human, upon inhaling with the mouthpiece nozzle in his mouth, lowers the air pressure above the piston sufficiently for atmospheric pressure applied on the lower side of the piston to overcome the spring pressure and displace the piston out of sealing relationship with the duct thereby letting the air pressure means blow part of the air through the cartridge thereby creating a stream of air-supported particles which is exhausted through the egress hole of the cartridge to the upper part of the `duct where it is dispersed by the diverted air and propelled out the duct for further dispersion by air entering the port hole after which the air-supported particles are propelled out the nozzle portion and into the respiratory system of an inhaling person.

9. A disperser according to claim 8 in which the means for holding a cartridge is for a cylindrical cartridge having the ingress and egress holes at the bottom and top respectively.

lO. A ydisperser for administering line powdered materials to a human comprising a mouthpiece portion essentially hollow internally and having a closed lower end portion and an open upper nozzle portion, a duct in the closed end portion leading at the upper end rom the hollow portion of the mouthpiece to air pressure means for supplying air at supra-atmospheric pressure to the lower end of the duct, means for holding a replaceable cartridge having ingress and egress holes and containing finely `divided particles with the said holes. communicating with the duct, a valve comprising a piston slidably mounted inside the mouthpiece urged by sp1ing means into sealing relationship with the upper end of the duct, said pistonhaving a downwardly projecting skirt spaced away from the mouthpiece internal wall and extending into substantially sealing position with the inside of the closed end portion of the mouthpiece thereby form-ing an open area between the mouthpiece wall and the skirt wall, port hole means in the mouthpiece leading from the atmosphere to the `open area so as to apply atmospheric pressure against a minor portion of the lower side of the piston when the piston is in sealing relationship with the duct, said piston having conduit means therethrough leading from the area surrounded by the skirt walls to the mouthpiece nozzle portion, the spring exerting pressure adequate to maintain the piston in duct-sealing rel-ationship when supra-atmospheric pressure is applied in the duct by the air pressure means, to a predetermined pressure, said spring exerting substantially less than atmospheric pressure against the piston so that a human, upon inhaling with the mouthpiece nozzle in his mouth, lowers the air pressure above the piston sufficiently for atmospheric pressure applied on the said minor portion of the lower side of the piston to overcome the spring pressure, displace the piston out of sealing relationship with the duct and displace the skirt from sealing contact with the closed portion of the mouthpiece thereby permitting air to pass from the open area to the area surrounded by the ski-rt walls so that atmospheric pressure is applied to substantially the enti-re bottom of the piston, and the air which goes through the conduit means in the piston further disperses the stream of air-supported particles which is created when air under pressure blows through the cartridge and out the duct upper end when the valve is released.

1l. `A hand-transportable disperser for self-administering fine powdered materials to a human comprising a mouthpiece portion essentially hollow internally and having a closed lower end portion and an open upper nozzle portion, a duct in the closed end portion leading at the upper end from the hollow portion of the mouthpiece to air pressure means for supplying air at superatmospheric pressure to the lower end of the duct, means for holding a replaceable cartridge having ingress and egress holes and containing 'finely divided particles with the said holes communicating with the duct, passage means for diverting air from the lower portion of the duct to the upper portion of the duct Without passing through the cartridge, a valve comprising a piston slidably mounted inside the mouthpiece urged by spring means into sealing relationship with the upper end of the duct, said piston having a downwardly projecting skirt spaced away from the mouthpiece internal wall and extending into substantially sealing position with the inside of the closed end portion of the mouthpiece thereby forming an open area between the mouthpiece wall and the skirt Wall, port hole means in the mouthpiece leading from the 'atmosphere to the open area so as to apply atmospheric pressure against a minor portion of the lower side of the piston when the piston is in sealing relationship with the duct, said piston having conduit means therethrough leading from the area surrounded by the skirt walls to the mouthpiece nozzle porti-on, the spring exerting pressure adequate to maintain the piston in ductsealing relationship when supra-atmospheric pressure is applied in the duct by the air pressure means, to a predetermined pressure, said spring exerting substantially less than atmospheric pressure against the piston so that a human, upon inhaling with the mouthpiece nozzle in his mouth, lowers the air pressure above the piston Suthciently for atmospheric pressure applied on the said minor portion of the lower side of the piston to overcome the where it partially disperses the air-supported stream of 10 2,642,063

particles being exhausted from the cartridges, and said stream of dispersed particles is further dispersed as it blows through the conduit means in the piston due to mixing with air entering through the port.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 464,969 Ives Dec. 15, 1891 2,307,986 Bolte Jan. 1-2, 1943 Brown June 16, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent Nb..L 2,992Y'645 i July 18 1961 Frank Fowler It ie hereby Certified that errer appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below Signed and sealed this 28th day of November*` 1961.

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST W. SWIDER DAVID L. LADD Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer U SCOM M DC

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Classifications
U.S. Classification128/203.15, 222/209, D24/110
International ClassificationA61M15/00, A61M15/02, B05B11/06
Cooperative ClassificationA61M2202/064, A61M15/02, A61M2205/075, A61M15/0028, B05B11/062
European ClassificationB05B11/06B, A61M15/00C