US 2992734 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 18, 1961 c. A. MAYNARD 2,992,734
GRATE SEPARATOR Filed Sept. ll, 1957 F C57.
Char/e5 A. Maf/mrc b @WJHHE 2,992,734 GRATE SEPARATOR Charles A. Maynard, Valparaiso, Ind., assigner to Indiana General Corporation, a corporation of Indiana i Filed sept. 11, 1957, ser. No. 683,286 Claims. ('Cl. 209-223) This invention relates generally to grate separators, and more specifically to an improved grate separator having a means for cleaning thereof incorporated therein.
Although the principles of the present invention may be included in various separators, a particularly useful application is made in separators of the grate type which are installed in ducts for removing magnetic material from a wet or dry mixture passing therethrough.
Such an arrangement may-typically `consist of a hopper below which is disposed a duct of any cross sectional configuration, and across which duct are disposed rows of magnets in such an arrangement that any material passing through the hopper also passes through the spaces between the magnets of the grate. Thus since the grate is magnetic, and the spaces between the elements thereof have a magnetic iield, any magnetic particles are attracted to the grate and retained there.
Devices having such an arrangement have been very eiiective in removing magnetic material, but are difficult to clean. The magnetic particles typically adhere very well to the grate, and where the grate comprises permanent magnets, the problem is particularly acute.
The present invention contemplates the utilization of a thin sleeve over each of the magnetic grate bars, which sleeve is axially removable from the influence of the permanent magnetic eld. In a preferred form of this invention, other features are also included which are described more fully herein.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide means which permit the easy removal of collected magnetic particles from the grate.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved magnetic separator for collecting magnetic particles from a material flowing therethrough.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a means for a magnetic grate separator, which means contacts the substance being cleaned, and which prevents transfer of magnetic particles to the magnetic grate.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a means for releasing the magnetic particles from a magnetic grate separator.
A further object of the present invention is to provide means for receiving magnetic particles released from a magnetic separator.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide an improved magnetic element for a grate separator.
Many other advantages, features and additional objects of the present invention will become manifest to those versed in the art upon making reference to the detailed description and the accompanying sheet of drawing in which a preferred structural embodiment incorporating the principles of the present invention is shown by way of illustrative example.
On the drawings:
FiGURE l is a fragmentary cross-sectional View of a magnetic grate separator, partly in elevation, and provided in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional View taken along line Ii-Il of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken along line III--III of FIGURE 2; and
FIGURE 4 illustrates another manner in which the magnetic elements shown in FIGURE 2 may be assembled.
Eaented iniy 1S, 1951 As shown on the drawings:
The principles of this invention are particularly useful when embodied in `a magnetic grate separator `assembly such as is illustrated in FIGURE 1, generally indicated by the numeral 10. The separator assembly 10 includes generally a housing 11, which supports a magnetic grate 12, surrounded by a means 13 for cleaning the grate 12, a removable tray 14, and a hopper 15 for holding and directing the substance to be cleaned by the separator. The discharge portion of the housing 11 may communicate with a duct 16.
It is to be understood that the environment with which the instant separator assembly has been illustrated herein is exemplary, and -that the magnetic separator may be constructed permanently installed or for portable use in a great number of ways.
Referring now to FIGURE 2, the grate assembly 12 is shown in detail. The assembly 12 may include one or more spaced magnetic bars or bar assemblies 17, each having a permanent magnet field extending transversely to the direction of iiow of material through adjacent spaces or grate openings 18, whereby magnetic particles in the material come under the inuence of such field and are attracted toward 4the bars 17.
Referring now to both FIGURES 2 and 3, each of the magnetic bars 17 includes a plurality of permanent magnets 19, here illustrated as being ceramic magnets of generally annular configuration. As shown, each magnet has a square central aperture and a circular perimeter. It is to be understood that the outer configuration may be of any desired shape, eg. round or square, and that the central opening may also be of any shape. In the instant embodiment, a non-circular opening has been provided in each magnet whereby when a bolt 2G having a square shank 21 is inserted through a plurality of magnets, the poles of each of the magnets 19 are properly 'mdexed with respect to the grate openings 18. The bolt 20 has a threaded end which engages with a non-magnetic end or end member 22. The eld from the various magnets eifectively terminates at a point deiined by the nonmagnetic member 22. Thus the grate 13 includes magnetic bars 17 which mutually have pole faces of opposite polarity directed toward each other, and each of the mag netic bars 17 has radially extending poles mutually aligned in a desired pattern. Thus also the bolt 20 can comprise any means extending through the various individual magnets 19, such means serving to maintain alignment of the magnets, to secure the magnets together as a bar, and to mount the bar 17 to one wall 11a of the housing 11.
IIn a second wall 11b of the housing 1=1 opposite to the wall 11a, there is a means 11c defining an opening 23 for each of the magnetic bars 17. The means 13 for cleaning the grate 12 comprises a tubular member 24 extending through the opening 23 and telescopically about each of the bars 17. The tubular member 24 extends outwardly and perferably substantially completely encloses the bar 17 The tubular member 24 may comprise non-magnetic material, but preferably `comprises thin highly permeable magnetic material through which the field may readily extend. The tubular member 24 thus may be axially or telescopically separated from the magnetic bar 17.
It is apparent that if the mount for the bar 117 were modified, the tube 24 could be removed from the other end of the bar 17. Further, it is also -apparent that the tubular member 24 could ybe made stationary and that the bar 17 could be relatively withdrawn from the tubular member 24. Such construction is less advantageous since access to the exterior of the tube :for thorough cleaning and for inspection thereof is preferable. In `any event, the tubular member 24 transmits the magnetic field from the bar 17, and is in contact vw'th the mixture being cleaned and shields the bar `17 from direct contact with magnetic particles which are attracted.
While each of the tubular members 24 may be individually withdrawn, the form shown in FIGURE 2 includes a plate 25 which joins the various tubular members 24 together. A handle 26 is provided for the plate 2S, whereby each oft' the tubular members 24 may be simultaneously withdrawn.
At the opposite end ot' each of the tubular members 24. there is a flange 27 which extends radially about each end :to prevent particle transfer about the inner end of the tubular member 24 to the magnetic bar 17. Thus the flange 27 comprises 1a radially extending dam which may be further contoured las shown in FIGURE l to blend with the housing 1&1 or hopper 15, thus shielding the bar 17 from the mixture being cleaned, and thereby further precluding the attraction of magnetic particles directly against the bar 17.
When it is desired to clean the separator, that is when it is desired to remove collected magnetic particles from the tubes 24. the flow of the mixture through the separator is interrupted, a door 31 is opened. and a ltray or pan 14 is installed on channels or ways 30 as shown in FIGURE l. The handle 26 is then grasped Iand the shielding assembly 13 is drawn outwardly. Magnetic particles adiacent to the magnets `are thus translated laterally and disposed over the non-magnetic member 22 and are thus moved to a position where there is no eld attracting the particles to :the shield. The particles thereupon fall downwardly into the tray 14. Tn the event that the particle mechanically adheres to the tube 24, the portion '11e of the housing wall 11b which defines the aperture 23 serves as a scraper for loosening any particle still adhering to the tube 24. The tube s drawn outwardly until the flange 2-7 is positioned in the non-magnetic zone. During this removal, the flange Z7 also serves to prevent the iumning of magnetic particles from a point on the outside of the tube 24 to a point remote therefrom of higher magnetic intensity. Thus the flange 27 prevents the umping of lmagnetic particles around the inner end of the tube 24 to any one `of the magnets disposed along the length of the bar 17. Usually a single reciprocation of the shield assembly, wherein the flange 27 is moved from a position 'adiacent to the secured end of the bar to a position adiacent to the non-magnetic end of the bar and eturned, is suicient to clean `all magnetic particles there- While the arrangement of the magnetic poles as shown in FIGURE 2 is advantageous, other arrangements may also be used to advantage` One alternate arrangement is shown in FIGURE 4 wherein some of the magnets 19 have been omitted, so that the remaining magnets are spaced from each other, and wherein the poles of the adiacent magnets have been oppositely aligned, not only with respect to the `adiacent magnet in the -adiacent bar, but also with respect to the adiacent magnet in the same bar. While the friction between the individual magnets 19 and the bolt 2d may be suicient to hold the desired axial spacing, a plurality of non-magnetic sleeves or annular members 41 may be used las spacers intermediate adiacent magnets 19 to insure that the relative axial disposition ot the magnets 19 will remain stationary.
Upon removal of the tray 14, land the mutual or telescopic interengagement of the magnetic grate and shield assembly, the separator 10 is ready for further operation.
Thus a novel structure hasbeen provided which contacts the substance and shields the magnetic elements therefrom, receives `and holds the magnetic particles, prevents particle transfer to the magnetic element, and selectively releases the materials therefrom. Means are also included for receiving the released particles and creating a magnetic field.
Although various minor modifications might be suggested by those versed in the art, it should be understood that l wish to embody within the scope of the patent warranted hereon, `all such embodiments as reasonably and properly come within the scope of my contribution to the I claim as my invention:
1. A magnetic separator yfor separating magnetic particles from a substance, comprising in combination: Ia housing; Iat least one tubular member disposed in said housing for contacting the substance; a magnetic bar telescopically received in said member, said bar comprising a series of axially-spaced axially-aligned `annular permanent magnets each having a radius somewhat in excess of its axial length, each having a non-circular `axial opening, and each annular magnet having radially extending poles with both north and south polarity at the outer periphery of each magnet, the poles of each magnet being angularly aligned with the poles of the adjacent magnets and of opposite polarity thereto, Aa non-magnetic annular member coaxially disposed in each space intermediate said magnets, and means having Ia non-circular sectional coniiguration of a size corresponding to said opening in said magnets, said means extending through said magnets for maintaining said angular alignment and securing said magnets and said non-magnetic members together and securing said bar to said housing.
2. A magnetic bar for a grate separator comprising in combination: a series of axially-aligned annular permanent magnets each having a radius somewhat in excess of its axial length, each having a non-circular axial opening, and each annular magnet having radially extending poles with both north and south polarities at the outer periphery of each magnet, said poles being angularly aligned with the poles of the axially adjacent magnets, and means having a non-circular sectional conguration of a size corresponding to said opening in said magnets, said means extending through said magnets for maintaining said angular alignment and securing said magnets together.
3. A magnetic bar for a grate separator comprising in combination: a series of axially-spaced axially-aligned annular permanent magnets each having a radius somewhat in excess of its axial length, each having a noncircular axial opening, and each annular magnet having radially extending poles with both north and south polarity at the outer periphery of each magnet, the poles of each magnet being angularly aligned with the poles of the adjacent magnets and of opposite polarity thereto a non- -magnetic annular member coaxially disposed in each space intermediate said magnets, and means having a non-circular sectional conguration of a size corresponding to said opening in said magnets, said means extending through said magnets for maintaining said angular alignment and securing said magnets and said non-magnetic members together.
y4. A magnetic separator for separating magnetic particles from a substance, comprising in combination: a housing having a portion dening an aperture; an imperforate tubular member axially reciprocably extending through said aperture with a close peripheral lit with said housing portion, and disposed to contact the substance; and a magnetic bar disposed closely directly within said tubular member and xedly secured with respect to said housing and telescopically received by one end of said member to be mechanically shielded thereby from the substance, the magnetic eld of said bar substantially terminating at all times interiorly of said housing in spaced relation to said aperture; whereby any magnetic particles adhering to said tubular member are magnetically released when said tubular member is withdrawn from said housing and said bar, and simultaneously therewith are scraped from said tubular member by said aperturedeiining portion.
5. A magnetic separator for separating magnetic particles from a flowing substance, comprising in combination: a housing having a portion defining an aperture; a plurality of magnetically permeable imperforate thin tubular members disposed in spaced parallel relation in said housing and axially reciprocably extending through said aperture with a close peripheral t with said housing portion and disposed for contacting the substance; and a plurality of magnetic bars each telescopic-ally received in closely and directly in one of said tubular members and each having a field strength greater than that needed to magnetically saturate the same and iixedly secured with respect to said housing; each of said bars comprising a series of axially-spaced axially-aligned annular ceramic permanent magnets each having a radius somewhat in excess of its axial length, each having a non-circular axial opening, and each annular magnet having radially extending poles with both north -and south polarity at the outer periphery of each magnet, said magnets having axes lying in a common plane normal to the main direction of ovv, said magnets having pole faces so arranged that lines directed from one pole face to the other pole face of the same magnet extend diametrically thereof, and are both perpendicular to the main direction of the substance ow, are coplanar and are aligned with a pole face of opposite polarity in the closest adjacent bar, the poles of each magnet Ialso being angularly aligned with the poles of the axially adjacent magnets, and of opposite polarity thereto, a non-magnetic annular member coaxially disposed in each space intermediate said magnets, and means having a non-circular sectional configuration of a size corresponding to said opening in said magnets, said means extending through said magnets for maintaining said angular alignment and securing said magnets and said non-magnetic members together and securing said bar to said housing;
said tubular members being axially reciprocable with respect to the bars, whereby any magnetic particles adhering to said tubular members are magnetically released when said tubular members are Withdrawn `from said housing and said bar, and simultaneously therewith `are scraped from said tubular members by said aperturedefining portion.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,340,303 Byrd Feb. 1, 1944 2,502,096 Ktilinek Mar. 28, 1950 2,646,883 Molins et val. July 28, 1953 2,733,812 Hoi Peb. 7, 1956 2,792,115 Medearis May 14, 1957 2,800,230 Thoma July 23, 1957 2,834,359 Kearney M-ay 13, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 509,747 Italy Ian. 17, 1955