US 2994415 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Allgl, 1951 R. J. HALLE 2,994,415
CONNECTING MEANS FOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Filed Sept. 50, 1958 25 2a '2:J 47 se* FIG. G FIG. 7 5 LUG.
H Hun/me q United States atet f 2,994,415 CGNNECTING MEANS FOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Roger J. Halle, Pound Ridge, N.Y. Filed Sept. 30, '1958, Ser. No. 764,316 Claims. (Cl. 189-36) This invention relates to means for connecting and supporting frame or structural elements in the art of building, and to assemblies of structural elements with such means. More specifically, the invention relates to an assembly of one or more horizontal beams with a column of so-called strap, lattice or similar type, the beam or beams being connected to and supported by the column through novel auxiliary structure as hereinbelow described. The auxiliary structure includes a novel hanger device for engagement with and support by the column structure and having means for supporting' the end portion of a beam.
As indicated, the invention is particularly designed for so-called strap, lattice or similar type columns, such as conventionally constituted by four upright angle members arranged to form corner portions of a column having square or rectangular shape in cross-section, such column further including means joining the corner elements so as to provide a column having vertical openings in its side faces or walls. In t-he strap type of column, the means joining the angle members comprise collars or other strap larrangements in welded, riveted or other connection to the anges of the angle members; in socalled lattice columns, some or all of the usual connecting members are disposed at an angle to the vertical and horizontal, e.g. crossing back and forth between the corners in slanting directions.
An important object of the invention is to provide novel and effective means for attaching beams to such a column in a convenient and secure manner, preferably with load transmitted to the column through bearing supports of considerable transverse dimension. Further objects are to4 provide a means for the connection of beams, whereby buildings may be erected in a relatively rapid and expedient way without requiring special skill and with adequate provision for erection tolerances.
A further specific object of the invention, in its presently preferred forms, is to provide novel and advantageous arrangements for connecting beams of the socalled open web, bar joist or I-type to columns of the strap or other open design as described, it being understood, however, that in more general aspects, the invention is applicable to the attachment of other kinds of beams, such `as box-section beams, channel beams and the like.
To these and other ends, the invention, in its presently preferred embodiments, includes the provision of transverse strap means in the column at a suitable locality for' attachment of one or more beams, such strap means having a transverse upper edge structure crossing the vertical space between the corner elements of the column. The invention further comprises a bracket or hanger device having Ia horizontal larm arranged to rest in bearing upon and across said edge means, and a vertical arm extending downwardly from the region of the horizontal arm, for abutment with the column structure, the hanger device also having outwardly projecting means for supporting the end portion of a beam, so as to transmit the load thereof to the column. There may also be such web means for bracing as may be desired, for example between the above-mentioned vertical arm and the outwardly-projecting beam-supporting means. A specic feature of the invention, e.g. in provision for supporting bar joints or the like, comprises the provision 'ice 2 of the beam-supporting means as a plate-likehorizontal arm, which preferably projects from the region of the.y
short horizontal arm, for example as a continuation ofthe latter, to receive in bearing an appropriate horizontalstructural part of the beam.
As will become further apparent below, this hanger arrangement including the outer arm, permits the trans--l fer of load from the beam to the column in bearing, rather than through bolts, rivets or the like in shear. It also provides for abundant tolerance in the mutual dimensioning and disposition of the parts, i.e. to takeaccount of reasonable dimensional variations in the manufacture of beams and columns and in the erection ofbuildings therewith.
The hanger device is susceptible of modification to suit various types of building elements, for example as in the case of I-beams where the hanger may, if desired, have.- its beam-supporting means constituted by a vertical, projecting flange to be bolted to the upright web of such. beam. In this instance, it is possible to forego some' features of the preferred embodiment described above, such as unusual provision for tolerances, and support in bearing rather than through bolts, rivets or the like in shear.
It will be understood that, unless otherwise stated, the, term beam is employed generically herein to include` horizontal building elements which may variously beV described by their functions as beams, girders or joists.`
Examples of the invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawing, wherein: i
FIG. l is a plan view of a column having three beams connected thereto in accordance with the invention, the connection at the left hand side being Aof somewhat different structure from the others;
FIG. 2 is a horizontal sectional view of the assemblyshown in FIG. 1, taken on line 2 of FIG. 4;
FIG. 3 is a horizontal section, taken on line 3 of FIG. 4;
FIG. 4 is a vertical section on the line 4 of FIG. 1,.
FIGS. 9, l() and l11 are respectively a plan, a front ele-"s vation and a side eleva-tion of a hanger device vsuch asshown at the left hand side of FIGS. 1, 2, 4 and 5.
FIGS. 1 to 5 inclusive show a column 20 having three' beams 21, 22 and 23 connected to its upper end portion,Y
for example so that the uppermost surfacesof the beams are flush with the top of the column. `The column 20v itself is of the so-called strap type, being composed of' four angle-section members 25 of steel or the like dis-` posed'respectively at the corners of the square cross-section of the column. These members are held in an assembled, unitary structure by strap means such as the internal collar 26 (FIGS. 3, 4 and 5), which can be made of steel or other suitable metal, having a square plan to; t the internal faces of the members 25 and welded, riveted or otherwise secured to the latter'. I-t-will-be, understood that other similar strap elements of steel plate or the like (not shown), or equivalent bracing and *con-: necting structure, may be disposed along the columny at appropriately spaced localities, the drawing showing, for simplicity, onlythe uppermost portion of the, column.- Also, it will be understood that such straps canY be corn-f posed of separate pieces for each side or face of the" In accordance with the presen-t invention, a, suitabej strap structure, made either in the form of a continous Patented Aug. l, 1961-,
square collar 28 as shown, or made of separate pieces for each side, is mounted within the column at a locality suitable for support of beams, for example near the top of the assembly. Although this collar -may be identical with elements such as the collar strap 26, and may in any event serve the function of connecting the column elements 25 at its locality, it may be advantageous to make the collar means 28 somewhat longer in the vertical .direction of the column than may ordinarily .be necessary for the simple tying function of other strap means, such as 26. This strap or collar structure 28, made of steel or other suitable metal, is normally welded or otherwise secured to the corner elements 25 in a permanent manner, it being thus understood that for use `in various building operations, columns can advantageously be prefabricated to include such strap structures 2S at localities intended ttor attachment of beams.
By way of example, the beams 22, 23-in FIGS. l to 4 are Ashown as of the open web type commonly called open web or bar joists, -being made to include a bearing plate 30 or similar element having a flat under .surface of considerable extent, adjacent the end of the beam. Such elements 30 may be disposed intermediate the upper and lower boundaries or flanges of the beam, for example as shown at -a locality spaced somewhat below the top ilange, the location of the strap or collar means 28 and of the coacting supporting structure (described below) being correspondingly governed by the position of the bearing means 30 or the like on the beams to be attached to the column. In case a hanger device of the type shown supports a beam by directly carrying a flange of the beam, no bearing plate would be used.
For support of the beams 22, 23 a pair of identical hanger devices 32, 33 are shown. Each of these hangers 32 and 33 consists of a unitary bracket-like structure of steel or other appropriate composition, having a short horizontal arm 34, a vertical arm or plate structure .generally designated 35, and a further horizontal ,arm or plate 36, the latter being essentially a continuation of the horizontal arm 34. The lvertical structure35extends integrally downward in a generally perpendicular direction from the region of juncture of the horizontal arms 34, 36.
As will be seen, the horizontal arm `34 is shaped to enter the space between two corner vmembers 25 of the column and to rest in bearing upon and along the upper horizontal edge of ythe strap structure 28, the horizontal arm 34 having at its extremity a shallow downward tliange 37 hooking over the strap part 2S. Although in some cases the depending vertical arm 35 can be otherwise shaped (eg. as either to abut only thestrap 28 or only the members 25), this portionis shaped with outer, vertically extending plate sections 38, 38 to engage datwise the faces of the adjacent column members 25, and with a central, vertically extending plate section 39` which is `offset relative to sections 38, iny a direction inwardly of the column, by a distance equal to the thickness of the members 25. The central portion39 has a width suitable `to enter the opening between they members 25, so that it may abut the vertically eirtendingface` ofthe strap 28.
' As shown, the outwardly projecting horizontal arm-36, having a considerable'length, and a width greater than thehorizontal arm 34, in particularequal to the total width of the depending vertical ,armA 3`5,has,a,l1atfupper surface to receive the bearing plate 30 Voithfegbeainlz. Preferably the hanger device lincludes braingvrneans, such as `the pair of plate parts40, .of triangular vshape extending from the sides of the horizontal arm 1Iitifto,thesides ofithe vertical arm 35. For .greaterstrength andfor provision of`a larger and Veasier fitted recessundeg the .horizontal arm 34, the upper portion of the verticalarm'sS rnayslope slightly, away from :the olurnniiraxdirection a'sgffshown, and for like improvement of strength and rigid- 4 y ity, may be somewhat thickened at the upper part of its central section 39, as indicated in FIGS. 5 and 8.
To retain the beam on the hanger 33, the plate 30 may be secured to the horizontal hanger arm 36 by a bolt 42, the corresponding hole in at least one of .these members, such as the hole 43 inthe arm 36 (FIG. 6), being slotted or otherwise enlargedV for adjustment of attachment. Similarly the vertical arm 35 may be attached to the collar or strap element V28 by a like bolt 44, with'similar possibility of adjustment of 4the bolt, Vas by appropriately dimensioning the bolt hole 45 in the arm section 39, FIG. 7. Since the load of the beam is transferred directly in bearing to the horizontal arm 36 of Ythe hanger, and since load and thrust from the hanger are transferred directly to the column structure in direct bearing at the upper edge of the strap 28, and by similar abutment tothe vertical face of the strap 28, there is no Substantial load transmitted through the bolts 42, 44. Hence the adjustment of t of the bolts can provide a substantial measure of tolerance in the mutual assembly of the elements, e.g. in erecting a building, the bolts being simply tightened to retain the parts against lateral displacement.
Although a hanger device can be arranged to support, in direct bearing, o-ne or both portions of the upper liange of an I-beam, in the general manner of the hangers 32, 33 supporting the beams 22, 23, the left hand side of FIGS. l, 2, 4 Iand 5, and FIGS. 9 through l1, show a modied hanger or bracket 47 for supporting the AvI- beam 21. This device has a short horizontal arm 48, witlra depending flange 49 functioning, like the horizon tal arm 34 and ange 37, to rest upon and hook over the upper edge of the strap 28. The device 47 also has a vertical arm Stb extending downward outside of the strap from a junction with the horizontal arm 48. Although thevertical arm 50 may -have outer portions to abut the adjacent column members 25, .as in the case of portions 38 of the hangers 32, 33, such vertical arm- 50 is shown as consist-ing of a single portion designed to enter the space between the members 25 and to abut the outer -ace of thestrap 28.
A wide verticalflange 52 extends outwardly lfrom the horizontal arm `48 and the vertical ange 56, and is reinlforced at its upperedge by a narrow horizontal flange 53, essentially coplanar with the horizontal arm 48. The vertical flange 52 is fastened to the vertical web 54 of the beam 21, as by appropriate bolts 55, while the vertical arm 50 is retained in place by a bolt 56 through the collar 28. For appropriate tolerance and convenience of assembly, the bolt '56 may have an adjustable tit as in the case of the bolt 44 of the hangers 32, 33, but in the instance of the bolts 55 a snug t is desired, since these bolts transfer load from the beam 21 to the vertical flange 52 of the hanger device. It will be noted that to accommodate the central location of the web 54 of the I- bea-rn 2l, the vertical flange 52 is laterally somewhat displaced from the center of the hanger device.47.and its arms 48 and 50.
lt will now be seen that the described arrangements afford an economical and rapid way of connecting any desired number of beams to corresponding sides of a strap or similar type column 20, 4by means of elements, such as the hangers 32, 33 and 47, which can be designed in various forms appropriate to the type of' beam *to be carried. Each of the hanger devices 32, 33 and .47 is dimcnsioned so that its total width is no greater than that of the adjacent face of the column, land so that its verticaly crosseection, parallel to the column fac`e,- 1ies within a rectangle which defines the cross-sectional dimensions of the supported beam. Although forkmany uses the hangers can be otherwise dirnensioned, the dimensional relationships justrdescribed are of specialimp'ortance for accommodating certain types of wall panels to the building `fra-me. f y v For use in constructing the frame of a desired building,
the columns 20 are fabricated to include straps or collars 28 at desired beam-receiving localities. As a result, in `actually erecting the building, the attachment of beams is a simple matter. The appropriate hanger device, such as one of the hangers 32, 33 and 47 is assembled to the column, by inserting the short horizontal arm 34 or 48 through the opening above the strap 28 and into resting engagement of such arm with the horizontal upper edge of the dened strap. Then, the beam to be supported is brought into place. As shown with the hangers 32 and 33, the open web joist type of beams 22, 23 are simply swung into resting position on the arms 36, the assembly being then completed so far as support of the load is concerned. For rigidity and permanence, bolts 42, 44 are applied. In this device, maximum realization of the benefits of ready assembly and full tolerance are achieved, and at the same time all load is transferred by direct bearing.
If hangers of the type shown at '47 are to be used, as in receiving an I-beam or the like, the construction operation for the building is quite similar. The horizontal arm '48 of the hanger 47 is inserted in the same manner, to rest in bearing along the upper edge of the strap 2S. With the hanger 47 thus in place, the beam 21 is brought up and its web 54 is bolted to the vertical ange 52 of the hanger. While this last attachment involves transfer of load in shear through the bolts to t-he hanger, the arrangement is rapid and convenient and has the advantage that between the hanger and the column, load is transferred -in bearing rather than in shear.
While two examples have been shown, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific forms herein shown and described, but may be carried out in other ways without departure from its spirit.
1. In a building structure, a column and beam assembly, comprising a column structure having a vertically extending opening along a wall thereof, Said column structure including transverse flat strap means in the wall, having a transverse upper edge accessible at and crossing said opening, a hanger device adapted to hang at one side only of said column structure in directly fitting relation thereto, said hanger device having a horizontal arm extending into said opening and resting in bearing, upon and along the length of said edge, a substantially planar vertical arm abutting an outwardly facing surface of the column structure below said edge and in the vicinity of both sides of said opening, and beam-supporting means projecting outwardly from the structure constituted by said horizontal and vertical arms, and a beam connected to and supported by said beam-supporting means, said horizontal arm having an extent in the direction inward of the column substantially less than the crosswise dimension of the column in said direction, and said horizontal arm being shaped, free of structure projecting downwardly at its line of crossing said transverse edge, so that it is disposed wholly above said edge at said line of crossing.
2. In a building structure, the combination deiined in claim 1, wherein the beam-supporting means comprises a horizontal arm extending outwardly from the region of the first-mentioned horizontal arm, said beam resting in bearing on said second horizontal arm.
3. In a building structure, a column and beam assembly, comprising a column rectangular in plan and comprising vertical members at the corners of the column, mutually spaced in horizontal directions to provide vertically extending openings in the walls of the column, said column including transverse at strap means mutually secured to and securing the upright members and traversing the vertically extending openings, said transverse means having horizontal edge means accessible at and crossingr said openings, a hanger device adapted to hang at one side only of said column in directly fitting relation thereto, said hanger device having a short horizontal arm resting in bearing upon and along lengthwise of one of said edge means, a substantially vertical arm extending below said horizontal arm and crosswise of the column and arranged to seat against outwardly facing vertical surface areas of the column below said last-mentioned edge means and at the vicinity of the opposed vertical members which adjoin said last-mentioned edge means, and beam-supporting means projecting outwardly from the structure constituted by said hanger arms, and a beam secured to and supported by said beam-supporting means, said horizontal arm having an extent in the direction inward of the column substantially less than the crosswise dimension of the column in said direction, and said horizontal arm being shaped free of structure projecting downwardly at its line of crossing said one of the edge means, so that it is disposed wholly above said edge at said line of crossing.
4. In a building structure, the combination defined in claim 3, wherein the beam-supporting means comprises a horizontal arm extending outwardly from the region of the first-mentioned horizontal arm, said beam resting in bearing on said second horizontal arm.
5. In a building structure, a column and beam assembly, comprising a column rectangular in plan and comprising vertical angle-section members at the corners of the column, mutually spaced in horizontal directions to provide vertically extending openings in the walls of the column, said column including a plurality of vertically spaced transverse means mutually secured to and securing the upright members, one of said transverse means comprising flat strap means traversing a vertically extending opening at a region within the column, said strap means being secured to inner faces of the adjacent corner members and having a horizontal edge accessible at and crossing said last-mentioned opening, a hanger device adapted to hang at one side only of said column in directly fitting relation thereto, said hanger device having a short horizontal arm resting in bearing, upon and along lengthwise of said horizontal edge, a substantially vertical arm extending below said horizontal arm and crosswise of the column and arranged to seat against outwardly facing vertical surface areas of the column below said edge and at the vicinity of the aforesaid corner members which are adjacent to the strap means, and beam-supporting means projecting outwardly from the structure constituted by said hanger arms and having its upper boundary substantially no higher than the upper boundary of said short horizontal arm, and a beam secured to and supported by said beam-supporting means, said horizontal arm having an extent in the direction inward of the column substantially less than the crosswise dimension of the column in said direction, and said horizontal arm being shaped free of structure projecting downwardly at its line of crossing said horizontal edge, so that it is disposed wholly above said edge at said line of crossing.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 225,060 Johnson Mar. 2, 1880 722,635 Schneider Mar. 10, 1903 1,024,761 Anderson Apr. 30, 1912 2,046,152 Dean June 30, 1936 2,790,524 Herrschaft Apr. 30, 1957