US 2996749 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 22, 1961 D. H. HESTER LIQUID APPLICATOR 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 18, 1959 //V 1 E N 70/2 Dwz'g/zz" )iesier 5y W Aug- 22, 19 1 D. H. HESTER 2,996,749
LIQUID APPLICATOR Filed March 18, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 2,996,749 LIQUID APPLICATOR Dwight H. Hester, 315 N. Lorel Ave., Chicago, Ill.
Filed Mar. 18, 1959, Ser. No. 800,328
4 Claims. (Cl. 15-537) My invention relates to a portable liquid applicator or, more narrowly, a combination portable container and applicator for liquids such as nail enamel, liquid lip coloring, mascara, water and oil paints, lacquers, medications, etc. a refillable liquid receptacle having an applicator contained therein which is movable within the container so that the liquid applying portion thereof is contained within the container for transport, may be moved into contact with the contents of the container to pick up a charge of liquid thereon and may be extended from the container for purposes of liquid application. The devices embodying my invention as herein described are convenient both for carrying in a purse or pocket and for manipulation in use, and, in reference to their use with cosmetics, are attractive in appearance and are well adapted and entirely suitable for placement on a dressing table.
One object of my invention, therefore, may be regarded as the provision of a combination liquid container and applicator which may be safely employed to carry liquids and which contains integral provision for the use and application of the liquid contents.
Another object of my invention lies in the novel construction embodied in my described devices whereby the applicator of the devices may be charged with the contents of the container and extended from the container for the application of the liquid, in the course of which extension the quantity of liquid or the degree of charging of the applicator is limited so as to avoid drips, uneven application, etc.
. Yet another object of my invention may be regarded as the interrelation between the applicator and the container whereby the applicator may be charged with the liquid and extended for use and, in the extended position, prevents loss of contents from the container so as to make possible the use of the applicator in any position without leakage from the container.
Still another object of my invention resides in the novel provision whereby all portions of the applicator, excepting the applicator part itself, are kept clean and free of the liquid contents on all surfaces thereof exterior of the container.
A still further object of my invention resides in that embodiment thereof wherein the applicator incorporates a brush and may be regarded as the provision therein whereby the bristles of the brush are maintained in alignment and closely bunched and derangement thereof avoided.
Other objects and advantages of my invention will be apparent from the following description. and drawings, of which:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal central sectional view of a nail polish applicator embodying my invention shown in closed condition or in that condition my device assumes when not in use;
FIG. 2 is a similar longitudinal view of the device of FIG. 1, showing the device with closure members at the ends removed, the device inverted and the brush in position to receive a charge of polish;
FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2, but with the brush projecting for cosmetic application;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line 4 -4 of FIG. 1;
tes Pa e 10 2 FIG. 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line 5-5 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is a central sectional view of a modified form of nail polish applicator;
FIG. 7 is a longitudinal section view of the modifi cation of FIG. 6, in inverted position, with the end My invention contemplates generally closure members removed and the brush drawn fully into the container;
FIG. '8 is a view similar to FIG. 7 but with the brush projecting for nail polish application;
FIG. 9 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line 99 of FIG. 6; and
FIG. 10 is a central sectional view of a third embodiment of my invention, illustrating my invention as applied to a mascara applicator.
Referring in detail to the drawings, attention is directed first to the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 5, inclusive.
The device may be made of any suitable material such as metal or plastic, with the exception of the sealing gaskets which are necessarily a plastic material, such as polyethylene, nylon, rubber, etc. and the brush which may be natural or synthetic. The device includes a container indicated in its entirety at 10 and is made up of a cylindrical tubular section 12, end fittings +14 and 16, an inner tube 18, a stem 20, a rear closure cap 22 and a front closure member 24. The tubular section 12 may be merely a section of a cylindrical tube of uniform construction and of suitable dimension such, for example, as in the neighborhood of in diameter and about 4" in length.
The rear end fitting 14 includes a tubular or cylindrical portion 26 telescoped into the rear end of the tubular section 12 and suitably retained therein, such as by a press fit. Preferably, a small fiange 28 is provided on the end fitting which overlies and engages the end of the tubular section. The end fitting is provided with a central aperture 30 which receives the rear end of the inner tube 18, the latter being retained therein as by a press fit. The end fitting 14 also is provided with a rear tubular portion 32 exteriorly threaded for threadedly receiving the front end of the rear closure cap 22.
The tubular portion 32 has an inner diameter, indicated at 33, slightly larger than the bore 30 so as to define a shoulder 34 at the juncture of the inner diameter 33 and the bore 30. A tubular washer 35 is seated against shoulder 34 and retained in place by a tubular plug 36 inserted into the inner'diameter 33. The washer 35 is formed of polyethylene, nylon or some such material having the properties of inertness and some compressibility and stretch. The inside diameter thereof should be slightly less than the diameter of stem 20. The stem 20, extending through the washer 35, is tightly engaged by the washer, the washer thus constituting a liquid-tight seal against the stem 20 and likewise a wiper for the stem as it is moved back and forth within the washer to remove adhering liquids therefrom.
The front end fitting 16 is somewhat similar to the rear end fitting in that it has a tubular portion 38 telescoped within thetubular section 12. The fit between the portion 38 and tubular section is a snug friction fit to enable the user to withdraw the front end fitting from the tubular section for injecting the nail polish into the casing, in the normal use of the device. The front end fitting 16 has a flange 40 engaging the front end of the tubular section 12. The fitting also has a forwardly extending annular or tubular portion 42 of substantial length and having a bore 44 of forwardly converging or tapering shape terminating in an opening indicated at 46. Leading forwardly from the opening 46 is a further tubular portion 48 which is so dimensioned in radial direction Patented Aug. 22, 1961 3 as to provide a substantial internal shoulder 50' surrounding the opening 46 and an external shoulder 52 surrounding the tubular portion 48. Preferably, these shoulders are in a common plane and they face forwardly for engagement by certain surfaces of the end closure member 24. The tubular portion 48 is externally threaded for threadedly mounting the end closure member 24 thereon.
The front closure member 24 includes an annular portion 54 internally threaded for engaging the threads on the tubular portion 48, and a central boss 56 which extends into the tubular portion 48 when the end fitting is applied as illustrated. When the fitting is so applied and turned up to home position, the annular portion 54 engages the shoulder 52, while the boss 56 engages the shoulder 50, thus sealingly closing the opening 46 against the escape of nail polish from the interior of the casing. The boss 56 is dimensioned for snugly fitting the inner surface of the tubular portion 48.
v The tubular portion 48 with its enlarged inside diameter terminating at shoulder 50 constitutes a drip cup or liquid trap when my applicator is being used in the approximate condition illustrated in FIG. 3, in that it will receive and hold any backwardly flowing liquid from the brush in use and prevent the dripping thereof down the outside of the applicator. The boss 56, fitting closely the entire inside cavity of the drip cup, serves the purpose of forcing such liquid as may be caught in the cup in use from the cup and back into the container when the applicator is sealed, in addition to sealing or seating against shoulder 50 so as to contain the liquid within the container 10 or constitute a stopper for the liquid container, as will be described later. The front closure member 24 includes a base portion 58 of substantial diameter, which in the illustration of FIG. 1 is of greater diameter than the casing 10, constituting a pedestal for resting the device on a table top and holding it in an upright position with its front end down.
The inner tube 18 is provided with a relatively small diameter bore 60 in its rear portion for snugly receiving the corresponding portion of the stem 20. Forwardly of the bore 60 is a counterbore 62, forming a forwardly facing shoulder 64 which forms a limit means for engagement by a relatively large portion of the stem 20. An aperture 66 is provided adjacent the shoulder 64 communicating between the counterbore 62 and the exterior of the inner tube. The counterbore 62 continues to and through the forward end of the inner tube. A cup 68 having a rear flange portion 70 surrounds and is mounted on the forward end of the inner tube by portion 70, as by a press fit. The cup 68 is spaced from the wall of the tubular section 12 to enable the passage of nail polish thereby. The cup is positioned adjacent the front end of the casing and faces forwardly so as to contain a quantity of nail polish therein when the device is turned to position in which the open end of the cup faces upwardly as in FIGS. 2 and 3. A quantity of nail polish is indicated at 72.
The stem 20 includes a rear relatively small diameter portion 74 which extends through the rear end of the casing and is sealed by the gasket 35 as mentioned above. The rear end portion which projects beyond the casing is provided with a knob 76 for moving the stem, the stem being, of course, mounted for reciprocation in fore-andaft directions. The stem at its front end includes a relatively large diameter portion 78 which is dimensioned for guiding engagement with the inner surface of the counterbore 62 of the tube 18, but for relatively easy sliding movement. This relatively large portion forms a rearwardly facing shoulder 80 between the two portions which engages the internal shoulder 64 for limiting the rearward movement of the stem. The large portion 78 of the stem extends into and through the cup 68 and its forward end is provided with a brush 82 of conventional character and preferably of the bristle type. This brush may be mounted in the front end of the stem in any suitable manner, such as by a gripping or crimping arrangenail polish through the opening when the large portion is disposed therein, as shown in FIG. 3.
Assuming an intended use of the device for the first time, i.e., in a situation in which the container is empty, to introduce a quantity of nail polish into the container, the user turns the device to front-end-up position, as illustrated in FIG. 2. The rear end cap 22 is removed, the front end closure member 24 is removed, and the front end fitting 16 is also removed, by grasping it and merely pulling forwardly on it. Then the user grasps the rear end of the stem 20, as by the knob 76, and withdraws it rearwardly and preferably to the extreme position illustrated in FIG. 2. The user then pours the nail polish into the device through the open end of the tubular section 12 which is then directed upwardly, and replaces the front end fitting 16. The device is in condition for use.
The nail polish, having been poured into the front upper end of the tubular section 12, flows into the cup 68 and overflows into the tubular section or container, which defines a reservoir for containing the quantity of polish. The user then grasps the rear lower end of the stem 20 and moves it forwardly to the position of FIG. 3 in which the brush 82 is projected beyond the front end of the container. The brush will take on its maximum load or dose in moving it through the cup as is necessary to get from the position of FIG. 2 to the position of FIG. 3. In the position of FIG. 3, the relatively large diameter portion 78 of the stem extends through the opening 46, and as explained above, the dimensions of these two portions of the device are such as to provide an effective closure to the opening and wipe the outwardly extending part of portion 78 substantially clean. The device is then ready for use and the user may grasp the tubular section 12 and poise it in the desired position for applying the brush to the nails. In such position, the brush will be many times in a lowermost position, i.e., with the lower end of the device inclined downwardly. However, because of the closing effect between the relatively large diameter portion 78 and the wall of the opening 46, the escape of nail polish from the interior of the casing to the exterior is prevented.
After a certain period of use, the load of polish on the brush will have been consumed. In order to pick up more polish by the brush, the operator first reverses the container 10 so as to insure that the cup 68 is filled and then grasps the stem and pulls rearwardly on it until the brush is withdrawn into the container and into the cup 68, with, of course, the front end of the container in uppermost position. The stem should be retracted to its maximum limit where the shoulder 80 engages the shoulder 64 so as to provide an indication that the brush actually has been drawn through the cup and into the tube 18. Thereafter, the charged brush is extended again to the position of FIG. 3 and may again be applied to the nail as previously.
The purpose underlying my provision for retracting the brush all the way through the cup and into tube 18 rather than just into the cup is that, in use, the bristles of the brush will become disordered and the brush tend to lose its shape. By drawing the bristles back into the closely confining tube during the time at which the brush is receiving its charge, the bristles will be re-oriented and restored again to proper alignment and closeness and prepared again for proper extension through the conical bore 44 and subsequently for precise application of the polish.
The aperture 66 at the rear end of the counterbore 62 is provided to enable any polish that may have found its way into the counterbore to escape into the reservoir defined by the tubular section 12 upon retracting'movement of the stem.
The forwardly tapering bore 44 in the front end fittin 16 is of relatively long taper and thus serves as a means for gradually confining the bristles of the brush in the forward movement therethrough of the brush. The bristles are thus prevented from becoming deranged such as by being spread outwardly. The relatively greater diameter of the tubular portion 48, as stated before, constitutes a drip cup or trap for polish that may drain downwardly from the brush.
When application of the polish has been completed and it is desired to close the container for storage, the stem 20 is fully retracted to the position in FIG. 2 so as to eifect a final realignment and restoration of the brush 82. The rear closure cap 22 is inserted over the knob 76 of stem 20. The closure cap will be moved upward to meet the exterior threads on tubular portion 32 and turned home thereon. The movement of the rear closure cap carries the stem upward to position the brush properly in storage position as illustrated in FIG. 1 with the brush contained in the tapering bore 44 and the ends of the bristles nearly meeting opening 46. Thereafter, the front closure member is secured to the extension 48, the boss 56 moving downwardly throughthe enlarged bore of portion 48 to return any polish contained therein to the body of the container and to seal against the shoulder 50. The device may then be set on the front end fitting 24, in rear-end-upv position as indicated in FIG. 1. The base portion 58 thereof provides a relatively stable supporting means for supporting the device in such upright position. The device takes up very little room in such position and it presents a pleasing appearance. An advantage of the positioning of the device in such position resides in the fact that the brush 82 remains submerged in the nail polish and the brush then is instantly ready for use when the user wishes to apply the polish. The latter result is effectively accomplished by dimensioning the various parts so that when the stem is positioned by the rear end cap 22, the brush is disposed at the extreme front end of the interior of the container, whereby regardless of the amount of polish in the container, it will engage the brush.
The embodiment of the invention contained in the device illustrated in FIGS. 6 to 9, inclusive, is I generally similar to that of FIGS. 110 with the addition of a protective sleeve indicated generally at 84. The elements of the present device may be identified by the same reference numerals applied to the corresponding elements of the first embodiment, but with prime indications. In the present instance, the sleeve 84 is interposed between the inner tube-18' and the stem 20' and is utilized for the purpose of encasing the brush 82 so as to protect the brush in its movements through the opening at the frontend of the casin which may be of cylindrical shape.
The inner tube 18', in addition to the elements of construction referred to in connection with the first embodiment, includes a second counterbore 85 which forms a forwardly facing shoulder 88 at the front end of the counterbore 62'. r
The sleeve 84 has a front end portion 90 which is of slightly less outer diameter than the main portion thereof, forming a forwardly facing shoulder 92.
The front end fitting 16 has a bore 44' of substantially uniform diameter and dimensioned for receiving the portion 90 of the sleeve in a free sliding fit. Rearwardly of the bore 44' is a counterbore 94 which forms a shoulder for engagement by the shoulder 92 on the sleeve.
The sleeve 84 is dimensioned relative to the other parts so as to establish greater friction with the stern than with the tube 18 so as to move with the stem relative to the tube in the reciprocating movements of the stern, betwe n the limit positions of the sleeve.
Assuming a starting position as illustrated in FIG. 6, first the user removes the closure members 22 and 24. The brush having been charged upon previous closure shoulders prevents movement of the sleeve and as the stem is moved forwardly, the brush is extended or projected beyond the forward end of the sleeve, as well as of the container, and is thus exposed, ready for use.
After the brush has been used for a period of time, and it is desired to pick up a new load or dose, the stem is withdrawn rearwardly, and in so doing the sleeve moves with the stem. The brush in the latter movement remains forwardly of the sleeve and thus exposed to the quantity of nail polish retained in the cup and charged thereby in the movement of the stem to the rearmost position. The sleeve is limited in its rearward movement to a position short of the rearmost position of the stem, and continued movement of the stern withdraws the brush into the sleeve. Then when the stem is again moved forwardly, the brush remains encased or enclosed in the sleeve as explained above. The brush is prevented from moving into the bore 44', in unprotected position, the sleeve confining the brush to prevent derangement of the bristles thereof.
In the present embodiment, the cup 68' is provided with a plurality of radial ears 96 Which engage the inner surface of the tubular section 12' to aid in centering the forward end of the sleeve 18' and the cup.
In the case of each of the embodiments, the cup 68' (or 68') is always filled with a quantity of polish whenever the stem is withdrawn for picking up a new load; or dose on the brush. The stemis so withdrawn with the device in front-end-up' position (FIGS. 2 or 7) and in moving the device to such position from a previous position in which the front end was lowermost, the polish within the reservoir in the tubular section and at the front end of the latter fiows into the cup.
The device illustrated in FIG. 10 represents an embodiment of my invention as applied to a mascara applicator. It includes a tubular body section 100 of relatively large diameter and front and rear end fittings 102, 104. The front fitting is a tubular plug having an outside diameter equal to the diameter of the tubular secbetween. The fitting likewise includes a rearwardly extending, sleeve 114 proportioned to fit telescopically and tightly .Within the end of section in liquid tight relation. The fit, however, should be such as to permit manual removal of the fitting from the end of the tubular section 100. The sleeve 114 terminates at its forward end in .a shoulder 116 which limits the insertion of the fitting 102 into the tubular section 100. r
The rear fitting 104 is somewhat similarly constructed and proportioned, having an outside diameter equal to that of the tubular section 100 and having a forwardly extending sleeve 118 thereon telescopically and tightly fitting inside the tubular section 100. The sleeve 118 may be permanently mounted to the rear end of the tubular section 100 as by a press fit, the fit being tight enough to forbid subsequent removal of the fitting. The rear fitting likewise includes a central aperture there through having an outer portion 120 of larger diameter and an inner portion 122 of less diameter defining a shoulder 124 between the portions 120 and 122. The inner portion 122 of the rear fitting is internally threaded.
My device likewise includes a stern indicated generally by 126. The stem includes a shaft portion 128 of less diameter and an applicator portion 130 of somewhat greater diameter. The shaft portion 128 is a simple rod having a knob 132 on the free end thereof. The knob may have a relatively large diameter and be flat on its upper surface 134 to constitute a pedestal for the device as described in conjunction with the nail polish applicator.
The applicator portion 130, as stated, is a cylindrical rod of somewhat greater diameter than the shaft 128 and is threaded at its upper or rear end 136 to engage with the threaded portion 122 of the bore 120122 in the rear fitting 104. The upper or rear part 138 of the applicator portion is smooth. The lower or front part 140 thereof has a plurality of circumferential grooves thereabout closely spaced so as to provide a saw-toothed contour to that part, the groove edges (or saw teeth) lying approximately on the cylindrical surface defined by the smooth part 138. The front or lower extremity 142 of the applicator portion is ungrooved and smooth.
The stem 126 is mounted in the bores 106 of the front fitting end 120122' of the stop fitting. The rear fitting contains a plastic annular washer 14'4 seated against shoulder 124 and has a bore therethrough slightly smaller than the diameter of the shaft 128 of the stem 126. The material of which the washer is made should be nylon, polyethylene or some similar inert but compressible and resilient plastic. The washer is retained in the bore 120 and against shoulder 124 by a tubular plug 146 press fitted into bore 120 on top of the washer 144. As will be evident, the shaft passes through the plug 146 and washer 144 so that the shaft thereof is contained in the washer and plug. The shaft stretches or compresses the bore through the washer and the interengagement between the shaft and washer creates a liquid tight seal as between the stem 126 and the rear fitting 104 while, at the same time, permitting sliding movement of the shaft 128 thereof.
The bottom or front fitting is similarly furnished with an analogous plastic washer 148 seated against shoulder 112 and retained therein by tubular plug 150 press fitted into bore 110. Washer 148 is proportioned to be slightly smaller than the diameter of the applicator portion 138' of stem 126 so as to create a liquid tight joint between the front fitting 102 and the stern 126.
From the foregoing description, theuse and operation of this embodiment of my invention will be readily understood. FIG. illustrates, in full lines, the device in storage or position of non-use. The knob 134 and the stem have been drawn to their limit out of the container and the stem turned so that the threads 136 at the rear end of the applicator portion 138 are engaging the threads in the bore 122 in the rear fitting to lock the stem in its illustrated position. In this condition, the opposite ungrooved extremity 142 of the applicator portion 138 lies within the plastic washer of the front fitting 102 in liquid tight relation therewith.
To fill the container with liquid mascara, the front fitting is simply pulled oif the tubular section 100, the mascara poured into the tubular section and the front fitting replaced.
To use the applicator, the stern 126 is turned to release the threaded engagement between the threaded part of the applicator portion and the rear fitting 104 so as to permit the stem to slide in the fittings. After release of the threaded engagement, the knob 134 is moved to the rear fitting 104 and the applicator portion 138 will be extended out through the front fitting 102 as shown by the dotted lines of FIG. 10. The applicator portion of the stem is, of course, immersed in the mascara contained within the tubular portion 100. As it is moved out through the washer 148, mascara is carried past the washer in the grooves of the grooved portion 140 and made available for application. Since the grooves are circumferential, however, there can be no flow of mascara past the washer other than that carried in the grooves, the passage of the consecutive grooves through the washer constituting a continuing and overlapping series of closures against the washer. In the specific instance of mascara which is viscous, the grooving may be helical; i.e., a screw thread since the viscosity of the material would prevent liquid escape through the very small spaced passage defined by such threading. The grooved part of the applicator portion is of such a length that upon full extension of the applicator portion, the entire grooved portion is extended beyond the washer 148 and the washer seals against the ungrooved rear part 138 of the applicator portion. Since eye lashes are relatively short, stiflf and spaced hairs, the utility of the circumferentially grooved rod for application purposes will be readily appreciated.
If the mascara on the applicator should be exhausted the applicator is easily recharged by simply drawing the grooved portion back into the tubular section to be immersed again in the mascara contained therein and reextended to its position of use.
The described mascara applicator may also be used for the storage and application of perfume. In such case, however, the grooved applicator may withdraw too much perfume. To meet this difficulty, the grooving may be shallower and more spaced, or, desirably, the surface of the applicator may be dimpled.
It will be appreciated from the foregoing description that the applicator incorporating my invention is a device which may be conveniently carried about or stored on a dressing table top without danger of spillage or leaking of the contents thereof and appear as an attractive piece of cosmetic equipment in either situation. More generally, it will be appreciated that it is a device which, while maintaining a closed and sealed container at all times, nevertheless provides for moving a predetermined quantity of the contained liquid to the exterior of the container in a form conveniently adapted for application or use of the liquid without, during that time, providing any direct opening of the container to the exterior through which leakage might occur.
It will further be appreciated that my invention, as incorporated in the embodiments described above, is capable of many variations and structure alternatives and I, therefore, desire that it be regarded as being limited only as set forth in the following claims.
l. A device of the character described comprising a container defining a reservoir for containing a quantity of liquid and having a front end with an opening therethrough, an inner tube mounted in the container and opening through the rear end of the container, a cup mounted to the inner end of said inner tube in radially spaced relation to the wall of the container and facing forwardly, a stem reciprocably mounted in said inner tube and having an applicator at its front end and a rear end portion projecting rearwardly to the exterior of the container for manual grasping, the stem being reciprocable between an advanced position in which the applicator is projected forwardly of the container through said opening and a retracted position in which the applicator is withdrawn into said cup.
2. A device of the character disclosed comprising a container having a front end and a rear end, the container defining a reservoir for a material to be applied and having an opening through its front end, a stem mounted in the container with an actuating portion pro jecting through the rear end of the container and having an applicator at its front end, the stern being reciprocable for moving the applicator into and out of the opening in the front end of the container, a closure element detachably secured to the front end of the container for closing said opening and having an enlarged front end forming a base for resting on a supporting surface and retaining the device in upright position resting on its front end, a cap removably secured to the rear end of the casing in enclosing relation to said actuating portion of the stem, and the parts of said device being so dimensioned that when the stem is in such position forwardly as to enable the rear end cap to be secured in place, the applicator is at the extreme front of the reservoir, whereby when the device is standing on its front end, the material in the reservoir, regardless of its amount, will engage the applicator.
3. The invention set out in claim 1 in which the inner tube and stem are each of unitary construction and the stem when extended forwardly of the inner tube is exposed relative to the inner tube throughout that portion so disposed forwardly of the inner tube.
4. The invention set out in claim 1 in which a sleeve is interposed between the stem and inner tube and dimensioned for establishing greater friction with the stem than with the inner tube and thereby moving with the stern in the reciprocating movements of the stem, the inner tube and container having shoulders engaged by the rear and front ends respectively of the sleeve whereby to stop movement of the sleeve at the latter portion of rearward movement of the stem so that the applicator is exposed to the contents of the container and thereafter withdrawn into the sleeve, and to stop movement of the sleeve at the latter portion of the forward movement of the stem so that the applicator is encased in the sleeve until the front end of the sleeve is exposed to the exterior at the front end of the container and further forward movement of the stem projects the applicator forwardly beyond the sleeve and the container.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 230,120 French July 20, 1880 692,237 Carpenter Feb. 4, 1902 1,876,152 Sheaffer Sept. 6, 1932 2,611,915 Prokop et a1. Sept. 30, 1952 2,867,829 Aversa Jan. 13, 1959