US 2996908 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 22, 1961 P. ORTIZ DE ZARATE 2,996,908
WASHING MACHINES Filed Dec. 26, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Aug. 22, 1961 P. ORTlZ DE ZARATE 2,996,908
WASHING MACHINES Filed Dec. 26, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 V B X //i /8 7 a i\ 3 ovsolgzo ooooooo g. 5 PM 0 nfmozz.
Aug. 2, 1961 P. ORTlZ DE ZARATE 2,996,908
WASHING MACHINES 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Dec. 26, 1956 INVENTOR. k Z MD! 1 Aug. 2, 1961 ORTIZ DE ZARATE 2,996,908
WASHING MACHINES 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed. Dec. 26, 1956 Q Q 0 0 Q 0 o X 2,996,908 WASHING MACHINES Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, 1563 J. IS. Alberdi St, Olivos, Argentina Filed Dec. 26, 1956, Ser. No. 630,684 Claims. (Cl. 6823) This invention refers to improvements in washing machines and more particularly to a washing machine with an hydraulic coupling for the centrifugal process.
Within the many concepts of the centrifugal type of washing machines, it has become a common practice to employ mechanical transmissions for the process of Washing and drying.
In the machine of this invention, the mechanical transmission system has been replaced by a hydraulic one, which performs both the washing operation and, subsequently, the centrifugal drying step.
So as to be able to perform both operations, a device has been created which during the washing process functions as a recirculating pump and, during the centrifugal process of drying, acts as a coupling between the motor unit and the tub that contains the clothes.
Within the essential characteristics and advantages of the present invention, it is important to realize the fact that the machine, as a Whole, referring to its moving parts, acts as a unit when rotating, and due to the uniform distribution of the masses, said machine maintains dynamic and static equilibrium.
Other details of the invention reside in the fact that the motor unit is aligned with what may be defined as the vertical symmetry axis of the machine and that the motor acts also as the supporting element for the hydraulic unit.
As has been mentioned before and will be described in further detail, the coupling of the driving shaft of the motor with the tub for the centrifugal process of drying is hydraulically performed, and it is important to point out that the coupling medium is water. It may be understood that, therefore, if the necessary amount of water is not present in the interior of the machine, the above mentioned coupling cannot be produced and in consequence the centrifugal process of drying cannot be performed.
The washing process is performed by a pressurized water recirculation through the pump and stationary tub, which Washing process in consequence also contributes to form a perfect homogeneity between the soap or lye and the Water.
In order to facilitate the comprehension of the invention, a preferred embodiment has been illustrated in several drawings, by way of example, so as to be able to permit a correct interpretation of its functional and constructive features.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a general perspective view, which illustrates a washing machine, conceived in accordance with this invention, but without the cabinet.
FIG. 2 is also a perspective view showing the recirculating pump and part of the coupling on which the tub for washing is supported.
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal section of the same machine with the cabinet and showing the relative position of elements forming the machine.
FIG. 4 is a cross section along line AA of FIG. 3.
nited States atent asserts ice FIG. 5 is a cross section along line BB of FIG. 3.
FIG. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view, showing the constructive details and mounting of the recirculating pump and coupling.
FIG. 7 is a cross section along line CC of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a detail in elevation of a modified embodiment for discharging the water contained in the washing machine.
This machine comprises essentially the following parts which will be later described in detail:
a, a tub for washing (see FIGS. 1 and 3).
b, a pump or device for recirculating and coupling (see FIGS. 1 and 3).
c, an electric motor (see FIGS. 1 and 3).
d, a container in which the washing tub a is lodged (see FIG. 3).
e, an oscillatory suspension system in stable equilibrium, which supports the weight of elements a, b, c.
f, a valve which shuts off the recirculating and coupling device when said device acts as a hydraulic coupling (see FIG. 6).
The washing tub a (FIGS. 1 and 3) has a lateral surface 1 slightly frusto-conical in shape so that the bottom 2 is smaller in diameter than the top part 3. Tub a rests on the pump casing 13, 14.
The top part of the washing tub a is defined by a lateral frusto-conical surface 4. The edge 5 is joined with top part 3 while its opposite edge 6- of a tub a determines the inlet for the fabrics to be washed and supports a lid 7 the internal surface 8 of which has ridges 9 of rounded contex, as can be seen in FIG. 5. This lid 7 may have a handle 10 (FIG. 3) so as to facilitate its removal or it may be hinged (not shown) to the tub a by any well known hinge means.
This tub a must have perforations such as rows 11 and 12, so that the recirculation of the liquid, from tub a into container d and therefrom into the recirculation and coupling device b and back into tub a may take place.
The device b for recirculating and coupling consists of a pump casing 13 which includes a top 14 (FIGS. 3 and 6) to which is connected the bottom of tub a by means of screws 15. In the interior of casing 13, a disk like rotor 16 is placed (FIGS. 2, 4 and 6), which on one of its surfaces, which in this case due to the position of the machine is the bottom surface, carries a number of spaced apart vanes 17 which are pivoted on pivots 18 (see FIG. 4), in such a manner that the angle of displacement can be varied and in consequence also the pressure the pump delivers may be varied, as will be seen later on.
If the rotor 16 turns in the direction indicated by the arrow X, in FIG. 4, the vanes 17 turn in a direction opposite arrow X (dotted position) and their angular displacement rernains limited by butts 20 which form an integral part of the disc 16; but if the rotor 16 turns in the opposite direction such as it appears indicated by arrow X, the vanes 17 rotate in opposite direction until abutting against butts 19, which as well forms an integral part of disc 16.
It is easy to observe in the drawing of FIG. 4, that this angular displacement of the vanes 17 implies also a variation in the useful diameter of the rotor.
Reference numeral 21 identifies a partition separating the inlet from the outlet of pump b, the specific purpose of which will be understood when the operation of the pump b is described in its double purpose of a recirculating and hydraulic coupling device.
As may be seen in FIGS. 3 and 6 the casing 13 of the pump b has a neck 22 and an inwardly projecting ring 23 to which a supporting element 24 is joined. The upper end portion of said supporting element 24 consists of four or more evenly spaced apart columns 25 on which ring 23 is fixed by screws or bolts 26, see also FIG. 6.
The supporting element 24 is journalled within a tube 27 having to this effect ball-bearings 30, 30'. Tube 27 rests on cover 28, of the housing 29 of the motor 0. Upper ball-bearing 30 is spaced apart from lower ball bearing 30 by spacer tube 31.
Shaft 32 of motor c, is rotatably located in bore 33, which is defined by the lower portion of the supporting element 24 and which forms a journal hearing. The shaft 32 is telescopically fitted in a tubular shaft 34 by means of a cotter-pin 35, and which shaft 34 is integral with the rotor disc 16.
It can be seen that the free end of the tubular shaft 34 has an annular boss 36 which rests upon a stuflingbox 37 located in a recess in the supporting element 24.
The motor unit c rests with its base portion 28, on a suspended platform 38. Base portion 28 is joined to the platform 38 by means of screws or bolts 39 which are secured to the supports 40. The platform 38 is resiliently supported by the frame 47 with the platform being provided with radial arms 41 to which the ends 42 of connecting straps 43 are joined by means of washers 44 and nuts 45 that are attached onto the bolts 39. The opposite ends 42 of the straps 43 are joined by bolts 46 and washer and nut assemblies 44 and 45 to the frame 47.
Frame 47 is linked to lower and upper rings 48 and 49 which are integral with the cabinet.
The bottom of the container d is formed by an annular bottom plate 50 having an external rim 51 resting on the inner edge 53 of the wall 54, defining container d. A rubber seal 52 is interposed between rim 51 and edge 53. A tubular projection 55 is formed in the center portion of the bottom plate 50, and which encircles the neck 22 of the pump casing 13, as is shown in detail in FIG. 3. An annular band 56, preferably made of rubber, joins the said tubular projection 55 with the cover 28 of the motor 0, thus obtaining an hermetic, elastic seal with a freedom of movement for the suspended elements.
As can be seen in FIGS. 3 and 4, the bottom 50 is sloped towards the center and has a number of radial partitions 57 of which one forms part of a box 58, which can be seen more in detail in FIG. 2, and which is closed on the upper part by a lid 59, but has a lateral slot-inlet 60 In the bottom of the box 58 there is a discharge orifice 61, which by means of a coupling tube 62 connects a hose 63 to drain (see also FIG. 3).
The flexible annular band 56, as can be seen in FIG. 3, has a spout 64 and to which can be joined a small hose (not shown) for draining purposes. During operation of the machine the outlet of said spout 64 is closed.
Referring again to FIG. 6, it can be seen that the pump casing 13 comprises a discharge outlet 65 to which is applied a flange 66 of the valve casing 67 of valve 7. Valve casing 67 has a tubular projection 68 (see also FIG. 2) with a small bleeding orifice 69 carefully calibrated. A baffle plate 70 is mounted on the top of the valve casing 67 to direct the liquid passing through the orifice 69, as will be later better explained, when describing the operation of the machine.
Casing 67 has an aperture or conduit 71 which opens into the interior of tub a. A float or floating ball 72 is placed within casing 67 which operates as a shutter or valve member.
The operation of the machine is as follows:
Through the hose 63 which can be clearly seen in detail in FIG. 3, or through the aperture of access 73 in which lid 74 is fitted, a certain quantity of water is added which floods the tub a and container d up to a determined level, for example, level 100. The clothes are placed in the interior of the tub a.
When the water is at the level 100, it is quite evident that the pump b will be completely flooded and that the float 72, which can be clearly seen in detail in FIG. 6, is lodged in the topmost part of the tubular projection 68 of the valve case 67. When the float 72 is in this position, the aperture or conduit 71 remains open so as to permit the discharge of the water into the interior of the tub or for washing.
By starting the motor 0, by means of the handle 29' (see FIG. 3) of the inversion switch 29", in the direction indicated by arrow X of FIGURE 4, the pump b injects the liquid into the interior of the tub a and, owing to the pressure exercised, produces the recirculating movement of the clothes within the before mentioned tub a, for washing.
The clothes rub softly against the ridged surface 9 of the lid 8, facilitating also thereby the process of washmg.
It is obvious that the ridged surface 9 can be made of any suitable substance, such as synthetic rubber, natural rubber, glass or plastics.
Simultaneously with the recirculation of the clothes in the interior of the tub a, liquid is discharged through perforations 11 and 12 of same, as can be clearly seen in FIGS. 3 and 6, whereby the same liquid is recirculated to the pump b, consequently providing a continuous recirculation.
Since all the pump output is used for recirculating the liquid, which is free to move, there is none or but a small tendency for tub a to rotate in the direction of arrow X. This can be avoided by a pivoted wing such as Wing 78 mounted on the outside of valve casing f (see FIG. 1), due to the fact that the free end of wing 78 will butt against one of the radial partitions 57, but actually on the other side as that shown in the example of FIG. 1.
The liquid can be mixed with a soapy or detergent substance, which is recirculated by the pump together with the liquid, thereby achieving a perfect homogenization. Once the process of washing has been concluded, the liquid is discharged through the hose 63 until the level of the liquid descends to plane 10, clearly indicated in FIG. 3.
As the level of the liquid descends, the float 72 comes to rest on seat 75 of the valve case 67, as can be seen in FIG. 6.
Inverting the direction of rotation of the motor 0 by means of the inversion switch 29" so that rotor 16 will rotate in the direction indicated by arrow X in FIG. 4, the vanes 17 change position and because their working surface becomes larger, they produce more pressure.
In these conditions, pump b injects the liquid (water) through the discharge outlet 65 into valve casing 67, raising the ball 72 from seat 75, and firmly lodging same against conduit 71 due to the suction exerted by pump b through conduit 71.
Since pump b continues to operate, the liquid taken into its inlet is sent through discharge outlet 65 filling ball blocked valve casing 67. The greater pressure produced thereby, as has been previously explained by pump b acting in valve casing 67, maintains the ball 72 against conduit 71. During the centrifugal step, the float 72 is in contact with the conduit 71 because of the greater pressure exerted by the pump b produced by the larger working surfaces in the vane 17 of the rotor 16. In such position of adherence to the conduit 71, the float causes the circulation of water to be blocked from the tub a and the water then enters the valve casing 67 and presses co-axially arranged, the speed of this assembly is the same. Since only a very small amount of liquid can be ejected through bleeding orfice 69 (to which reference in detail will be made later on) in relationship to the volume of liquid transported by pump b, the pressure within casing 13 of pump b and also obviously within casing 67 of valve 1 will increase to such an extent that the rotor 16 will be hydraulically coupled to casing 13 having the lid 14 rigidly connected to tub a, whereby said tub a starts to rotate together with casing 13, thus providing the centrifuging and drying step of the process.
Furthermore, tub a may rotate in the direction of arrow X, since Wing 78 (which is actually located on the other side of easing f as previously mentioned) will rotate about its pivot 82 in counter-clockwise direction, raising thereby its free end above the upper edge of radial partitions 57.
The desired centrifugal speed is accurately graduated by the size of bleeding orifice 69 since it allows pump b to provide only a predetermined maximum pressure. The larger the bleeding orifice 69, the lower the speed, as the pressure in the pump b is consequently less and vice-versa.
Baffle plate 70 acts as a diffuser of the liquid jet from orifice 69 thus cleansing container d during the centrifuging process and avoiding possible obstruction of said orifice 69 due to foreign matter which may float within container d during the switch over to the centrifugal step when the liquid level is lowered from level 100 to level 10.
It may be added that box 59, with its groove 60, allows the outlet of excess liquid, down to level 10, so that the necessary liquid for the centrifugal process remains in the machine, whereby the dividing partitions 57 channel the liquid towards the center part of the bottom 50, so that the pump b remains permanently fed.
As the case of the valve 67 and associated parts have a determined weight, it is necessary and convenient to counterbalance the system by means of counterweights 76 and 76', clearly shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 4.
It is also advisable to provide the tub a with small radial vanes 77, which are placed on the external and bottom part of the tub a, and which are integral with the counter-weights 76 and 76', so that when the rotary inversion is made from the washing operation to the centrifugal process, the liquid contained in container d descends gradually, and these vanes equalize the pressure that the valve casing 67 exercises on the liquid mass.
In FIG. 8, a complementary detail is shown as a possible modified embodiment, consisting of a small discharge pump 79 connected to the lower end 32' of shaft 32 of motor c. The inlet 80 of pump 79 is to be connected to hose 63.
The outlet 81 may be provided with a hose (not shown) for conveying the liquid discharged when the machine switches from the washing step to the centrifuging step.
To completely empty the machine, once the centrifugal processes is finished, spout 64 is opened.
1. A washing machine having a container, a tub housed in said container and spaced apart therefrom, clutch and driving means coaxially arranged with said tub and below the latter for maintaining said tub stationary during the washing and rinsing steps and for rotatively driving said tub during the centrifuging and drying step, said clutch and driving means comprising a centrifugal pump defining the clutch means and a motor defining the driving means, said centrifugal pump having a pump casing including a top, said tub including a bottom mounted on said top, a rotor rotatably housed in said casing and having a shaft projecting out of said casing, said casing having an opening through which the shaft projects, said tub being provided with an opening adjacent the bottom, said motor being coupled to said shaft for driving the latter, said motor and shaft being coaxial with the axis of said tub, said casing having an inlet opening for the pump provided adjacent to said shaft and through which water in the opening at the bottom of the tub passes, said casing having a discharge outlet provided adjacent the periphery of said rotor, means connecting said discharge opening with the interior of said tub and responsive to the water level in said tub for blocking the fluid connection between said pump and tub and hydraulically coupling said rotor to said tub, said means including a fluid level control blocking valve, and said tub having at least one perforation connecting the interior thereof with the container to establish a fluid connection with said inlet opening.
2. In a washing machine having a cabinet provided with an upper and a lower portion, a tub housed in the upper portion of said cabinet, said tub having a vertical axis, clutch and driving means housed within said cabinet and co-axially arranged with said tub and below the latter, said clutch and driving means being adapted to maintain said tub stationary during the washing and rinsing steps and being further adapted to rotatably drive said tub during the centrifuging and drying step, said clutch and driving means comprising a centrifugal pump defining the clutch means and a motor defining the driving means, said centrifugal pump having a pump casing, said tub having a bottom and said bottom being rigidly connected to said casing, a rotor rotatably housed in said casing and having a shaft projecting out of said casing and being co-axial with said axis, said casing having an inlet opening surrounding the shaft and said opening being provided for the passage of the water from the tub, said casing having a discharge outlet adjacent the periphery of said rotor, a conduit connected to said tub adjacent said casing, a water level controlled float blocking valve connecting said discharge opening with said conduit, a float in said valve for blocking said conduit when the level of the water contained in said tub is below said conduit, at least one perforation in said tub above said conduit connecting the interior of said tub with said cabinet, said pump intaking water through its inlet opening from said cabinet and transporting it through said valve and conduit into said tub during the washing action whereby said float is out of contact with said conduit so that said tub will not rotate, and said float hydraulically coupling said rotor to said casing and to said tub upon blocking said conduit, when said water level is below said conduit, to thereby rotate said tub at a predetermined speed, said rotor being driven at the same speed of said motor.
3. A washing machine as claimed in claim 2, wherein said rotor consists of a disc having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart pivoted vanes, a pair of butts for each vane integral with said disc for establishing two end positions for each vane to obtain thereby a variation in the useful diameter of the rotor, and switch means for changing the direction of rotation of said rotor.
4. A washing machine as claimed in claim 3, wherein said vanes in one position lie on the radius of the rotor.
5. A washing machine as claimed in claim 2, wherein said cabinet comprises an annular bottom plate dividing said cabinet into an upper portion and a lower portion, said tub and centrifugal pump being housed in said upper portion, said bottom plate having a central opening through which said shaft passes and said bottom plate being sloped towards said central opening for supplying Water from said upper portion of said cabinet into said inlet opening of said casing.
6. A washing machine as claimed in claim 5, wherein said bottom plate has a discharge orifice for controlling the minimum water level within said upper portion of said cabinet, whereby said pump is always maintained in primed condition.
7. A washing machine as claimed in claim 2, wherein said water level controlled float blocking valve is mounted adjacent to the outside of said tub, two spaced apart coun- 7 ter-weights also mounted adjacent to the outside of said tub to dynamically counterbalance said valve, said valve and counter-weights being angularly spaced apart substantially 120.
8. A washing machine as claimed in claim 2, wherein said water level control float blocking valve includes a bleeding orifice.
9. A washing machine as claimed in claim 5, wherein said bottom plate is provided with spaced apart radial partitions arranged in said upper portion, said valve including a valve casing, a wing pivotally mounted on the outside of said casing for engaging in blocking contact with one of said radial partitions during the washing action and for rising above said partitions during the centrifuging action.
10. A washing machine as claimed in claim 5, wherein said tub has a top portion, an opening in said top portion, a lid mounted in said opening and having an inner ridged surface.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS