US 2999297 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P 1961 H. A. SCHWARTZ 2,999,297
BACKINGS FOR TUFTED FABRICS Filed Dec. 19, 1955 IN VEN TOR. #42010 A. Sam M72 BY Patented Sept. 12, 1961 2,999,297 BACKINGS FOR TUFTED FABRICS Harold A. Schwartz, Norwalk, Conn., assignor to Patchogue-Plymouth Corporation, a corporation of New York Filed Dec. 19, 19 55, Ser. No. 553,763 5 Claims. (Cl. 28-80) The present invention relates generally to tufted fabrics and more particularly to improved backings for such fabrics.
Tufted fabrics, such as rugs, carpets, draperies and the like are manufactured by threading pile yarns through a cloth base or backing to form pile loops, the backing thereafter being coated with an adhesive to bind the pile yarns in place. Backings commonly employed in tufted fabrics are made of woven material such as cotton duck or woven jute fibres.
In the manufacturing process, the woven backing is fed through a multiple-needle tufting machine. A row of needles carrying the pile yarns pass through the spaces in the backing and as the needles are withdrawn from the backing, looper members serve to hold the inserted yarns, thereby forming pile loops which project beyond the face of the backing. In the completed fabric the crests of the loops may remain connected or be severed, depending on whether a short loop pile or a cut pile fabric is desired.
The nature of the backing incorporated in the tufted fabric is a significant factor in determining the wearing and handling qualities of the finished product. Cotton duck, for example, is lacking in body and stiffness. As a consequence, rugs fabricated with a cotton duck backing have a tendency to curl and are structurally unstable.
These disadvantages also to some extent characterize rugs made with jute backings, the finished fabric having an excessively soft feel or handle. For the rug to lie flat on the floor it is essential that it possess a degree of stiffness so as to resist kick-up and curling. With conventional backings, insufficient body is imparted to the rug and the rug has low resistance to buckling. Moreover, existing backing materials are highly absorbent and act to take on undue amounts of latex or other water insoluble adhesives used to bond the pile yarn to the backing, thereby adding materially to production costs.
Another drawback experienced with jute backings arises in the weaving process. The coarse textured jute yarns in the warp tend to chafe the jute filler yarns during the weaving operation. This chafing produces a jute fluff or powder which settles on the floor below the weaving loom, and since the fluff is highly inflammable and readily ignited by sparks, fires often occur in the mills.
Also to be taken into account in evaluating the qualities of a woven backing is the ease with which the warp and filler yarns are displaced by the thrust of the looping needles through the pores or interstices of the material. With conventional backings there is poor slippage between the warp and filler fibres and substantial resistance is offered to the rapid reciprocal movement of the needles. Such friction produces excessive heating of the needl with an attendant loss of temper. As a result, the needles require frequent replacement.
In view of the foregoing, it is the principal object of the invention to provide an improved backing for a tufted 2 rug, which backing facilitates the tufting operation and results in a finished product having improved stability and handle.
More particularly it is an object of the invention to provide a woven fabric in which at least the filer threads are formed by lubricated paper fibres. These lubricated threads are readily displaced by tufting needles with a minimum of friction, thereby improving the efliciency of the tufting operation.
Still another object of the invention is'to provide a backing having lubricated warp and filler yarns which may be woven together without chafing whereby fire hazard is avoided.
Also an object of the invention is to provide a woven backing formed of treated paper yarns of reduced crosssection and of increased tensile strength. Briefly stated in a backing in accordance with the invention, there is provided loosely interwoven warp and filler threads, at least one of the threads being constituted by twisted paper ribbon coated with a lubricant to enhance the slippage thereof, whereby in fabrication tufting needles may penetrate the backing without excessive friction.
For a better understanding of the invention as well as other objects and further features thereof, reference is had to the following detailed description to be read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, wherein like components in the various views are identified by like reference numerals.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a first embodiment of a. tufted fabric according to the invention.
FIG. 2 is a plan view of a second embodiment of a. backing in accordance with the invention.
Referring now to FIG. 1, a tufted fabric in accordance with the invention includes a preformed backing constituted by longitudinally extending warp threads 1i) and transversely extending weft or filler threads 11. The Warp and weft threads are loosely interwoven in any known manner on a loom. Tufted into the backing is a pile yarn 12 which may be of cotton, wool or any suitable natural material or synthetic fibre. The yarn is introduced in the usual manner by feeding the backing web through a tufting machine wherein rows of needles carrying the yarns pass them through the interstices of the backing to form chains of pile loops 13 projecting above the face of the backing, the pile loops being linked by connecting loops 14 closely drawn against the under surface of the backing.
The under surface of the backing is covered with a relatively thin anchoring coating of a Water insoluble adhesive 15, such as latex. The adhesive is applied in a fluid state and flows freely into the spaces between the warp and weft threads to define a film-like coating which bonds the connecting loops to the backing threads. This latex coating is then cured, or if other forms of adhesive are employed, the coating is allowed to harden and set as required.
The invention primarily is concerned with the nature of the backing threads so as to produce a backing of enhanced tensile strength, greater body and handle and of improved structural stability. The warp and weft threads" in a backing in accordance with the invention are made of lubricated paper threads conductive to slippage and yielding readily to the penetration of the tufting needles.
. 3 More specifically'the threads in the backing are made of Wet strength paper, the stock preferably beingtreated:
by adding thereto an ingredient such as melamine or urea formaldehyde. The wet strength paper may also be treated with a water repellant solution. The wet strength paper is cut or otherwise sectioned into narrow ribbons in the order of one-quarter of an inch wide. The ribbons are then tightly twisted to form a fine gauge thread not exceeding .045 of an inch in diameter. To this end the twist of the paper is made in excess of three turns per inch.
In order to enhance the slippage characteristics of the paper, the paper. thread is coated with a thin layer of wax. This wax may. be of the natural, petroleum or of the synthetic type. The wax may be applied in any known manner in a molten or emulsive state before or after the paper is twisted into thread form.
Thus the wax may beadded in the course of twisting the paper, or subseqently during the winding operation thereof by spraying the wax on the thread surface. The porosity of the paper and the temperature at the time of application will determine whether the surface. will be coated or whether the waxwill be absorbed in the paper. For purposes of the present invention it is desirable that the paper he wet-waxed, that is to say, the wax is coated on the surface of'the paper rather than driven into the body thereof.
The presence of the Wax coating on the surface of the woven paper fibres acts as -a lubricant therefor. Thus when the tufting needles in entering the backing engage the lubricated warp. and filler threads, the needles act to displace the threads, thereby permitting the ready penetration of the needles into the backing substantially without friction. In this way overheating of the needles is obviated, and rupture of the threads which would result should displacement or slip be resisted is minimized.
The chemical nature of the adhesive applied to the backing after the tufting operation must take into account the fact that the backing contains a waxlubricant, unless of course the adhesive coating is appiied at a stage in the process at which the wax is absent. For example, ifthe tufted fabric is first dyed before the adhesive coating is. applied, which dyeing process. acts to remove or dissolve the wax coating, then thereis. no need for the adhesive to be compatible with the wax coating. Otherwise an adhesive must be. selected. which can be coated on. a waxed paper, the adhesive. being compatible with the particular wax employed.
The use of a fine gauge, tightly twisted paper thread as above described is of. distinct advantage, for on one hand thethread. is of increased tensile strength and yet it is possible to weave a backing having a greater number of. warp threads. to the inch than has hitherto been feasible. As a consequence, the backing for the tufted fabric is of much finer. texture without an appreciable loss in tensile strength. On the other hand, because the yarns are composed of. twisted paper. ribbons, the backing isrelatively stiff as compared, for example, to a woven jute or cotton duck backing or one made partially of paper, so that the backing imparts body to the finished rug and prevents curl or kick-up.
Where the tufted fabric takes. the form of carpeting which is to be laid in a wall-towall manner on. a floor, it'is desirable that the carpet possess a degree of elasticity so that when the carpet istensioned, it will stretch, but.
when the tension is releaced, the carpet will. revert. to
itsinitial dimensions. With conventional rug and carpet.
paper, preferably paper of the. type ,hereinabove. dc
In accordance with another aspect'of' scribed, whereas the other thread is formed of a synthetic filament having elastic characteristics.
As shown in FIG. 2, the backing of the rug is constituted by a warp formed of twisted paper fibre and a weft formed of synthetic linear condensation polyamide filaments or nylon 16, such as is disclosed in US. Patents 2,071,250, 2,071,251 and 2,071,253. Alternatively the weft may be of paper and the warp of nylon. Tufted into this backing are loops of wool or other yarn which forms the pile of the rug. The pile is bonded to the backing by means of latex or any other elastic adhesive. Thus it is possible when laying a rug of this construction to stretch the rug before tacking the ends thereof to the floor. The. nature of the backing is such that tension will be maintained under all atmospheric conditions. andv the rug will. lie flat even at high relative humidities.
The combination of a lubricated paper warp and a nylon filler will provide a woven backing of high slippage characteristics and thereby facilitate the tufting operation, as previously described.
While there hasbeen'shown what are considered to be preferred embodiments of the invention, it will be mani fest that many changes and modifications may be madetherein without departing from the essential spirit of the invention. It is intended, therefore, in the annexedclaims to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within thetrue scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a tufted pile rug, a woven backing comprising warp threads constituted by twisted ribbons of paper and filier threads also constituted by twisted ribbons ofpaper,
' said filler and warp threads'being interwoven to worm a loose open Weave having well-defined interstices, at least the tiller threads being coated with a lubricant to enhance the slippage thereof whereby in lubrication looping needles may pass through said interstices without excessive friction, yarns tufted through said backing to form pile loops above said backing and connecting loops beneath. said backing, and a film-like coating of adhesive material formed on the undersurface of said backing to bond saidconnecting loops thereto, said adhesive material being.
compatible with said lubricant.
2. in a tufted pile rug, a woven backing comprising warp threads constituted byv twisted ribbons of paper and filler threads constituted by twisted ribbons of paper, said filler and warp'threads being interwoven to form a loose open weave having well-defined interstices, at
least the filler threads being coated with a' wax to enhance said ribbons are tightly twisted to form a fine gaugethread ont exceeding .045 of an inch in. diameter.
4. In a tufted pile rug as set forth in claim 1, wherein said ribbons. are tightly twisted to form a fine gauge thread not exceeding .045 of an inch in diameter, said ribbons having a twist in excess of three turns per inch.
5. In a tufted pile rug, a. backing for a tufted fabric comprising loosely interwoven warp and weft threads,
one of said threads being constituted by twisted paper ribbons having a lubricant coated thereon to increase. the slippage of said threads and thereby facilitate the, tufting process, and yarns tufted through said backing to form pile loops above said backing and connecting loops beneath said backing, the other of said threads being.
formed'of an elastic fiber to impart stretchability to the fabric, said elastic thread being formed of synthetic linear condensation polyamide filaments.
' (References.- on. following page) References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Watson et al. Apr. 22, 1947 Staple Cotton Fabrics, by John Hoyle, McGraw-Hill 6 Cowie et a1. Oct. 27, 1953 Schnell et al. Apr. 12, 1955 Light Feb. 14, 1956 Mason June 5, 1956 Keen et a1. Oct. 13, 1959 OTHER REFERENCES Book Company, 1110., first edition, 1942, page 12. (Copy 10 in Division 21.)