US 2999800 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 12, 1961 w. o. REESIDE 2,999,800
WELDMENT AND PROCESS FOR MAKING THE SAME Filed June 12, 1959 F kg. 5
W/LU/IM 0. fiEfS/DE BYMH'W ATTORNEY United States Patent 2,999,800 WEL'DMENT AND PROCESS FOR MAKING THE SAME William 0. Reeside, Malvern, Pin, assignor to A. V. Smith Engineering Company, Narbe'rth, Pa., aj corporation of Pennsylvania 1 1 Filed June 12, 1959, Ser.'No. 819,970
- 6'Claims. (Cl. 204-196) The present invention is directedito a weldment and process for making the same,=and more-particularly is directed to a weldment joining a copperconductor to a high silicon'iron anode, andtoa process-for making suchweldment.
The use of high silicon iron anodes'has gained wide acceptance in the field of corrosion control and associated cathodic protection installations.- However, a major failing of these high silioon iron anodes has been the difiiculty of securing copper conductors thereto. Thus, at the present time, substantially all connectio'ns between a copper conductor and 'a high silicon iron anode are effected by the mechanical deformation of the copper conductor against the high silicon iron anode. These connections suffer from the disadvantage ofnot being metallurgical joints, but being merely mechanical connections, and therefore lack the desired strength and electrical properties. 4
This. invention has as an object the provision of a weldment between a copper conductor and a high silicon iron anode which possesses excellent strength and electrical properties, and to .a process for forming such weldment. a,
This invention has as another object the provision 'of a weldment .between a high. silicon ironianode and copper which may be made by. relatively unskilled personnel using simple equipment, and to a process for effecting such weldment.
This invention has as still another object the provision of a weldment between a high silicon iron anode and copper which resists exposure to earth acids and to elemental forces.
Other objects will appear hereinafter.
For the purpose of illustrating the invention there is shown in the drawings a form which is presently preferred; it being understood, however, that this invention is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown.
Referring to the drawings wherein like reference characters refer to like parts:
FIGURE 1 is. a side elevational view of a high silicon iron anode to be used in the weldment of the present invention and the process of the present invention.
FIGURE 2 is an end elevational view of the high silicon iron anode of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a section taken on line 33 of FIG- URE 2.
FIGURE 4 is a view similar to that of FIGURE 3 but revealing the first stage of the process of the present invention, namely the insertion of the copper conductor within the axial opening in the high silicon iron anode.
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view revealing the finished weldment of the present invention.
The high silicon iron anode to be used to form the weldment of the present invention is designated generally as 10. Such high silicon iron anode is provided at its end 12 which is to receive the copper conductor 14 with a pair of blind intersecting openings, namely the axial opening 16 and the radial opening 18. Such openings 16 and 18 are preferably formed in the high silicon iron anode at the time the same is cast, but may be formed therein by drilling, if the high silicon iron anode is obtained as a completely solid member.
The axial opening 16 extends axially from the face of the end 12 for an appreciable distance. Preferably, as shown in the drawings, the axial opening 16 has a uniform inside diameter, except for its innermost end, which may be semispherical in configuration.
The radial opening 18 extends generally perpendicularly to the axial opening 16 from a side of the high silicon iron anode, preferably at a point closer to the semispherical blind innermost end of the axial opening 16 than to the face of the end 12. The axial opening 16 intersects the radial opening 18 closer to the blind innermost end of the radial opening 18 Since it is preferable to have the axial opening 16 concentrically positioned about the longitudinal axisof the high silicon iron anode 10, it will be seen that the intersection between the axial opening 16 and the radial opening 18 will be closer to the blind innermost end of the radial opening 18 than to the mouth thereof on the side surface of the high silicon iron anode 10.
In the first stage of the process of the present invention (FIGURE 4), the copper conductor 14 is inserted into the axial opening 16, with its exposed strands extending to at least the intersection between the axial opening 16 and theradial opening 18.
. As shown in FIGURE 4, the copper conductor 14 is provided with a water proof insulator-sheath 20 which surrounds the strands of copper 22. The insulator-sheath 20 is broken away from the strands of copper 22 well in advance of the intersection of the axial opening 16 and radial opening 18 for the reason set forth below.
When the copper conductor has been positioned, as aforesaid, thermite is introduced through the radial opening 18 in a sufficient amount to occupy the intersection between the openings 16 and 18, the blind portions of'such openings 16 and 18 beyond such intersection, and a small portion of such openings in advance of such intersection. However, the thermite should not extend to the mouth of radial opening 1 8, nor should it extend to the insulatorsheath 20. Thus, contact between the insulator-sheath 20 and the thermite must be avoided as the thermite would burn it. Thus, sufficient thermite should be added to produce a rough cross, the appearance of a suitable cross form being shown in the fusion weld nugget designated 24 in FIGURE 5. Thermite is a mixture of aluminum and ferric oxide which when ignited liberates intense heat. Thermite welding for steel rails, and steam ship shafts, and the like, is well known, and the means for igniting the thermite to effect the weldment need not be described herein.
When the thermite is ignited, an actual fusion of the strands of copper 22 into the high silicon iron anode material occurs, with the molten metal producing the generally cross-shaped fusion weld nugget 24 shown in FIG- URE 5.
After the aforementioned fusion weld nugget 24 has been produced, the slag is removed, and the axial opening 16 is partially filled, and the radial opening 18 is entirely filled with a suitable water-proofing material, such as an epoxy resin 26.
An elastomeric washer 28, such as a polyethylene Washer is inserted into the mouth of the axial opening 16, and serves both as a plug for the epoxy resin 26 and as a guide for the sheathed copper conductor 14.
A typical weldment formed by the process of the present invention utilizing an A.W.G. No. 6 copper wire withstood a 300 pound pull indirect tension. Failure occurred between 350 and 400 pounds of tension when the wire broke. The electrical resistance of the connection was but 0.0001815 ohm.
The weldments of the present invention are capable of withstanding prolonged contact with earth acids, and high silicon iron anodes comprising the weldments of the present invention may be used for extended periods of time without any noticeable adverse effects on the electrical resistance properties and the mechanical strength properties of the weldment.
' The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential at tributes thereof and, accordingly, reference should be made to the appended claims, rather than to the foregoing specification as indicating the scope of the invention.
- I claim:
. 1. A weldment comprising an insulator-sheathed copper conductor, a high silicon iron member having a pair of blind intersecting openings angularly disposed in respect to each other, one of said blind openings extending generally axially in respect to said member, the other of said blind openings extending angularly to said one blind opening, said insulator-sheathed copper conductor extending through one of said openings, with the insulatorsheath being broken away to present bare copper wire intermediate the mouth of said one opening and the intersection between the openings, a generally cross-shaped fusion Weld nugget occupying the region of intersection of both of said blind openings and extending into the portions of each opening on each side of the region of intersection between the openings, said weld nugget being spaced from the insulator-sheath on the copper conductor, said fusion weld nugget being formed from the fusion of thermite, copper from the copper conductor, and high silicon iron from the high silicon iron member, and a high-dielectric waterproofing material being disposed within each opening on the open side of said weld nugget.
2. A weldment in accordance With claim 1 in which the openings are generally perpendicularly disposed in respect to each other, and the high silicon iron member is a generally cylindrical member, with the generally axial opening of the member extending inwardly on the axis thereof.
3. A weldrnent in accordance with claim 1, an elastomeric washer disposed in the mouth of the one opening within which the copper conductor is received.
4. The process of joining a copper conductor to a high silicon iron member which comprises forming a pair of blind angularly disposed intersecting openings in the high silicon iron member, introducing an insulatorsheathed copper conductor through one of said openings, with the insulator-sheath of said copper being broken away for a distance from one end of said copper wire so as to present a free copper end, inserting said free copper end into the intersection between said openings and maintaining the insulator-sheath at a spaced distance from said intersection, introducing an incendiary through only the other of said openings in sufiicient amount to occupy the region of intersection of both of said blind openings but not in sufiicient amount to contact the insulatorsheath, and forming a generally cross-shaped fusion Weld nugget of the incendiary, copper from said copper conductor, and high silicon iron within the region of intersection of both blind openings, which fusion weld nugget extends into the portions of each opening on each side of the region of intersection between the openings.
5. A process in accordance'with claim 4 which comprises plugging the open' ends of each of the openings with a high dielectric waterproof material after the formation of the fusion weld nugget.
6. A process in accordance with claim 4 in which the incendiary is thermite.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,559,668 Brown et a1. Nov. 3, 1925 1,788,485 Gunderson Jan. 13, 1931 2,507,694 Cox May 16, 1950 2,803,602 Cowsky et a1 Aug. 20, 1957 2,808,373 Andrus Oct. 1, 1957 2,851,413 Hosford Sept. 9, 1958 2,870,420 Malek Jan. 20, 1959 2,870,498 Rejdak Jan. 27, 1959 2,926,128 Flower Feb. 23, 1960