US 3000354 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
p 1961 w. GERMANN 3, 0 ,354
REFILL OF A BALL POINT WRITING MEANS Filed Jan. 26, 1959 .fm enton' ZN Germ United States Patent 3,000,354 REFILL OF A BALL POINT WRITlNG MEANS Werner Germann, Lugano-Viganello, Switzerland, as-
signor to Doleo S.A., Lugano, Switzerland Filed Jan. 26, 1959, Ser. No. 788,946 Claims priority, application Switzerland Feb. 4, 1958 7 Claims. (Cl. 12042.4)
The present invention relates to a refill of a ball point writing means, the writing composition of which, in particular ink, is supplied to the ball by means of a pressure created by a chemical reaction within a closed tubular member.
In order to obtain a uniform flow of ink in these ball point writing means, it has been an object to maintain the inner pressure within the refill constant until the writing composition has been used up. This ball point writing means, still showed the disadvantage that the writing became broader with the increasing consumption of the writing composition, and that the ball point writing means finally tended to blot.
The invention is based on the recognition that this disadvantage is caused by the rapid wear between ball and ball seat. In order to create uniform flow of ink in spite of this Wear, pressure forming materials are employed according to the invention in the tubular member, which by chemical and physical interaction react in such a manner that a pre-determined pressure is kept in said tubular member. This pre-determined pressure is in the beginning somewhat higher than the surrounding atmospheric pressure and decreases with progressive consumption of the ink. This pressure decrease within the tubular member may be arranged in such a manner that the flow of ink is being kept constant until the writing composition has been completely used up, in spite of the wear between ball and ball seat.
Further essential features of the invention will be disclosed in the following description.
f In the drawing, the invention is shown in an exemplified orm.
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a refill of a ball point writing means according to the invention and FIGURE 2 is a longitudindal sectional view of a refill of a ball point writing means of another embodiment according to the invention.
In both embodiments the refill comprises a tubular .member 1 containing a certain amount of ink 2. The
lower end of the member 1 is connected with a ball point writing means 3 of known construction. The upper end of the member 1 is closed by a plug 4 which may be made from rubber or any similar material. The space 5 above the ink level will contain a pressurized gas. In the embodiment according to FIGURE 1 this gas will be formed by the chemical reaction of two compounds. One of the compounds is contained in the pasty plug 7, whereas the other compound is contained in the liquid 8 which is in contact with the pasty plug 7. The pasty plug 7 has the property to follow the decreasing ink level of the ink supply tube. The reaction between the compounds will occur at the interface between the plug 7 and the liquid 8, and will form a frangible barrier layer between the plug and the liquid.
As active materials those find use which react with each other under liberation of a gas without higher temperatures or pressures being required. Of this group of materials only those find application which can be worked into the carrier, i.e. the pasty plug 7 made of fats and/ or Waxes, or into the liquid 8, i.e. water. As examples for suitable active materials there may be disclosed:
(1) Compositions which react with each other at the interface between the two materials to form a frangible barrier layer under the liberation of carbon dioxide, e.g.
In both reactions sodium acetate is formed under liberation of carbon dioxide. In the above reactions sodium bicarbonate resp. sodium carbonate and acetic acid have been used as starting materials (active materials).
(2) If hydrogen is desired as gas, it is suitable to employ as active material a metal powder and a base or an acid.
A similar barrier layer is formed by these substances.
(3) In order to complete the possibilities a further example may be given in which ammonia is liberated:
Again a frangible barrier layer is formed at the interface.
(4) There also may be employed organic compounds as active materials, particularly if it is considered to produce nitrogen. As suitable active materials there may be used diazonium compounds and an organic or inorganic acid.
The function of a refill according to Example 1 will now be explained with reference to the drawing.
By the reaction between the acetic acid contained in liquid 8 and the adjacent layer of the pasty plug 7 containing sodium bicarbonate, a gas is liberated causing a certain pressure in the space 5 of the tubular member 1. The liquid acetic acid solution is selected in such a manner that the pressure created in space 5 by the gas formation is only slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure. Under the effect of this pressure the ink supply 2 is pressed towards the ball point 3 in order to supply the ball with ink. After the upper layer of the sodium bicarbonate in the plug 7 has reacted with the acetic acid forming the liquid 8, a neutralizing layer 6 is formed betweeen the two active compositions, interrupting the reaction and thus also the formation of the gas. The neutralizing layer 6 consists of the salt formed during the reaction of the two active compositions and of a certain solidification of the fatty material surrounding the spent sodium bicarbonate.
After a certain time of use of the ball point writing means, the ink supply 2 in the tubular member 1 has been lowered to such an extent that the neutral layer 6 of the plug 7 moving down, breaks up.
By this a new reaction between the two active compounds will be caused in a fractional manner. Thus by this reaction between sodium bicarbonate and the acetic acid solution again gas is formed which compensates for the increase of volume of space 5. Because the acid contained within the liquid 8 is more and more diluted and the amount of sodium bicarbonate which may participate in the reaction is progressively becoming smaller, the pressure created by the gas formation in space 5 decreases.
This increasing lowering of the pressure in tubular member 1 with the use of the ball type writing means is of part-icular advantage, because the wear between the ball and the ball seat in the tip of the writing means 3 causes an increase of the ink passage slot between ball and ball seat. The concentration of the acid and the amount of sodium bicarbonate are to be arranged in such a manner that the pressure decrease in the tubular member 1 corresponding to the useful life of the writing means will effect an essentially uniform ink flow between the ball and the ball seat, in spite of the wear between these parts and thus resulting increase of the ink passage slot. Thus blotting of the ink supply is completely avoided until the ink has been completely used up.
7 The pasty plug 7 has the essential advantage of preventing the passage of the active materials through the ball after the ink has been completely used up.
Thesecond embodiment given in FIGURE 2 discloses a neutral piston between the ink 2 and the chemically active compounds 7 and 8. This neutral piston can be made rigid or plastic, i.e. made of metal or an elastic material (rubber), or maybe made of Wax or any other suitable material. The piston has the advantage of preventing a more rapid ink flow in the center of the ink column than in the vicinity of the wall on the tubular member 1. Therefore the piston 10 has a regulating efiect and further :prevents mixing-of the chemicallyactive compounds 7 and 8 with the ink 2. Piston 10 further prevents flow of the chemically active compounds through the ball after the ink 2 .has been completely used up.
In both embodiments according to the invention introduction of the closing plug 4 in the tubular member after filling the same with ink or any other writing composition and with the chemically active compounds 7 and 8 will cause an initial positive pressure in space 5.
The refills of a ball point writing means disclosed are particularly suitable for use with inks of higher viscosity, and also for inks which are at the ambient temperature in a semi-plastic or plastic state. The refills can, however, not only be used with a ball point writing means but also as makeup pencils to apply any make-up products like lip paste, eyelash black etc. which are also at the ambient temperature in a semi-plastic or plastic state.
The refills according to the invention may also be used to apply other materials, e.g, to apply cosmetic or pharmaceutical products which are applied by means of a ball in the form of lines.
'1. A refill for a ball point Writing means comprising a tubular member provided at one .end with a ballpoint for writing, a Writing composition in said tubular mernber adjacent said ball point, a pasty plug forming a retaining and follower means for said writing composition, and a closure for said tubular member remote from said ball point, said pasty plug being spaced from said closure to provide a compartment, a liquid in said compartment, at least one chemical compound incorporated in said pasty plug and at least one chemical compound in solution in said liquid, said chemical compounds being inert to the writing composition but reactive with .each other to generate a gas in said compartment.
2. A refill for a ballpoint writing means comprising a tubular member being closed at its rear end and provided on its other end with a ball point, said tubular member defining a pressure compartment at said closed end, and a writing composition compartment at said ball point end, a Writing composition in said writing composition compartment, and at least twormaterials in said pressure compartment neutral with respect to the writing composition but capable of reacting with each other ,to produce gas so that a predetermined pressure is created in said pressure compartment when said pressure compartment is initially filled, one said material being incorporated in a movable, substantially self-sustaining plug separating said compartments, the other said material being contained in a solution in the space between said movable plug and said closed rear end, said reactable materials beingcapable'of forming upon reaction a frangible barrier layer on the interface between said two materials, whereby said barrier layer interrupts gas formation which will be broken up by movement .of said plug upon lowering of the writing composition caused by .ink consumption.
3. A refill for a ball pointwriting means having a tubular member closed at its rear .end and provided on its other end with a ballpoint, said tubular member defining a pressure compartment at said closed end and ,a writing composition compartment at said ball point end containing a Writing composition, and at least two materials in said pressure compartment reacting with each other to produce a gas in said pressure compartment, said two materials being separated from the Writing composition by means of a neutral piston, .one said material being in the form of a pasty mass positioned against said neutral position for motion therewith and the other said material being in liquid solution.
4. The refill of claim 1, in which the chemical incorporated in said pasty plug is aluminum, and the chemical compound in solution in said liquid is sodium hydroxide.
5. The refill of claim 1, in which the chemical incorporated in said pasty plug is sodium bicarbonate and the compound in solution ;in said liquid-is acetic acid.
6. The refill of claim 3, in which the two materials are ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide.
7. The refill of claim ,3, inwhich'the two materials are aluminum and H 80 References Cited in the file of this patent FOREIGN PATENTS 517,217 Belgium Feb. .14, 1953 1,053,515 France Sept. 30,1953 76,802 Netherlands Dec. 15, 1954 723,425 Great Britain Feb. 9, 1955 1,104,868 France June 22, 19