US 3001484 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 26, 1961 s. H. BINGHAM MONORAIL CAR 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 18, 1958 IN VENTOR Sum/5y h E/A/G/ /AM NY v (X S. H. BINGHAM MONORAIL CAR Sept. 26, 1961 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 18, 1958 INVENTOR. S/DA/Ey hf 5/NGHHM BY QJT ,4 rraeufl s Sept. 26, 1961 s. H. BINGHAM MONORAIL CAR 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Sept. 18, 1958 M m m T6 N NW k W5 w J Lnw Sept. 26, 1961 s. H. BINGHAM 3,001,434
MONORAIL CAR Filed Sept. 18, 1958 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 ATTORNEYS S. H. BINGHAM MONORAIL CAR Sept. 26, 1961 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Sept. 18, 1958 INVEiVTOR. S/D/VEY h. fi/A/a/m z BY 95 KL Sept. 26, 1961 s. H. BINGHAM MONORAIL CAR 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed Sept. 18. 1958 M RM m m uw M WW 2 v5 0 W n 4 V/ G Aw Sept. 26, 1961 s. H. BINGHAM MONORAIL CAR 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed Sept. 18, 1958 STAT/C LEI/EL Z/FT DEFLECT/ON l TRAVEL l k- 6"S TAT DEFL EC l wa M MWCH E m5 m N r i w 5 3,001,484 MGNORAIL CAR Sidney H. Bingham, 109 E. 35th St., New York 16, N.Y. Filed Sept. 18, 1958, Ser. No. 761,710 25 Claims. (Cl. l14'5) This invention involves a novel assembly of a vehicle body and truck adapted for monorail operation, of the type in which the main wheels of the truck ride on tracks and guiding wheels operating in a plane above the mam wheels engage a raised centrally located guide rail.
The structural combination comprising the invention, the details of construction thereof, and the interplay of operational characteristics of these parts are such that they can best be described subsequent to the operating detail description of the parts comprising the large assembly.
Therefore, it is the general object of this invention to provide the construction and advantages to be hereinafter pointed out.
One embodiment of the invention has been selected for illustration in the accompanying drawings as representative of the substance of this invention with the understanding that this substance is capable of embodirnent in many physical forms of which that illustrated is but one example.
In the drawings,
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of the adjacent ends of two car bodies and their supporting monorail trucks and of a track structure therefor;
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. 1, which is substantially in the plane of the lower face of the body of the vehicle;
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 44 of FIG. 1, with some parts omitted for simplification;
FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 55 of FIG. 1;
FIGURE 6 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of FIG. 4;
FIGURE 7 is a vertical, central, cross-sectional'view through one of the main wheels on a plane at right angles to its plane;
FIGURES 8 and 9 are elevational views of linkage systerns forming part of the torsional spring suspension for supporting the intermediate frame to which the car body is attached;
FIGURES I0, 11 and 12 are charts illustrating the spring suspension characteristics of the mechanism herein disclosed, wherein the curves are representative of the loads versus the deflections of the spring suspension of the system.
The track system illustrated is of course capable of substantial variation and is, therefore, presented somewhat diagrammatically. It includes a suitable base frame 16, providing a pair of parallel spaced tracks 12 and 14- in a common horizontal plane and a raised central guide rail 16 in a higher plane. Although of no particular importance here, there is shown mounted on the tracks 12 and 14 a series of bus bars or conductors t1 and 13 by means of which the power for operation of the vehicle and for operational signal is supplied. Extending along the sides of the rail 16 are a pair of track or guide surface members 15.
At B has been diagrammatically illustrated a vehicle body such as a passenger car which is provided with a rigid form sustaining frame 18 around the periphery of the lower edge thereof in the region of the floor, see FIG. 5. There is well illustrated in FIG. 2 the internited States atent mediate frame 22 which is attached to the car body frame 18 by a series of fixture including the rubber or resilient mounts 24 and 26. As is clear from this figure, the adjacent end of the vehicle body B is supported via its base frame 18 and four pairs of these mounts at the respective corners of the rigid intermediate frame 22.
The mounts 24 and 26 are designed so as to oppose a very soft elastic reaction against the rolling motions of the vehicle body around a virtual secondary rolling axis Y, see FIG. 5, which is located above the center of gravity CG of the sustained load.
The vehicle truck has two main supporting truck wheels 38 and 4b which preferably include demountable pneumatic tires, as shown. As best shown in FIG. 7 with respect to the wheel 33, it is journaled on a tubular extension 32 of a housing 30 by suitable anti-friction bearings, illustrated as of the roller type. The tire drum 36 for the wheel is shaped to enclose these hearings. Detachably secured to the end of the central tubular portion of the wheel 36 is a short shaft 34 which has a bevel gear 116 on the inner end thereof, which projects into the housing 40. This bevel gear will be referred to later. As can be well seen in FIG. 5, the two housing or end cases 30 are connected by an arch member 28 of steel tubing to form with them the axle for the main wheels 38 and 40. This arch member 28 is shaped to go around the center track 16 without interference therewith.
As illustrated in FIGS. 4, 6 and 7, there is attached to form integral with the ends of the arch member 28, a pair of fore and aft extending arms forming the supports 42 on which are journaled the pairs of guiding Wheels 4-.- and 46 which are preferably also rubber tired. These Wheels cooperate with the track members 15 on opposite sides of the center rail 16. Also journaled on the supports 42, see FIGS. 2 and 6, are the pairs of safety Wheels t8 and 49 which are held out of contact with the tracks 15 for normal operation, but which can engage them in the event the tires for the wheels 44 and 46 become deflated. The safety wheels 48 and 49 have plain rubber tires.
As clearly illustrated in FIGS. 2 and. 6, there is provided at the transverse center of the arch member 28, a ball and joint pivotal connection 50 for the triangular shaped wishbone 52, which is pivotally connected to the frame 22 by hinge members 54. By this arrangement any transverse motion of the ball joint connection 50 is prevented. Therefore, the rolling axis X, FIG. 5, of the frame 22 is at the ball joint 5% This ball joint also provides the pivoting point for the yawing motion of the truck, i.e. side sway in a horizontal plane.
In order to absorb the reaction of the traction and braking torques there are provided a pair of rods 56 which are respectively pivotally connected at one end to the housings 30 at 53, see FIGS. 3, 4 and 6. The other ends of the rods 56 are connected to hell cranks 58 which are pivotally mounted on a support 62 mounted on the underside of the car body B, see FIG. 1. These bell cranks are interconnected 'by a pivoted connecting rod 64). With this arrangement yawing motions are made possible because of the equalizer action of this linkage system comprising the cranks 53 and the connecting rod 613. As illustrated in FIG. 6, the planes of the wishbone 52 and the rods 56 converge 'and meet on an imaginary line at Z. This line is the instantaneous center of rotation of the axles motion in relation to its suspension. The position of this line can be chosen to prevent any pitching motion of the car as the result of the application of inactive or breaking forces.
The above description makes it clear that the truck has but one rigid supporting axle providing bearings for the two main supporting wheels, and that an intermediate frame 22 is provided between the axle and the body frame 18. It is also clear that there is provided a cinematic linkage between said axle and intermediate frame, including the ball joint 50 which locates the primary rail axis as well as the yawing axis and a pair of drag rods reacting on an equalizer to permit free yawing motion.
As will now be explained, this linkage also includes an anti-roll torsion bar to insure the optimum rolling safeness around the primary rolling axis. It is designed to allow substantial rolling freedom of the suspended load and around a virtual secondary rolling axis located well above the center of gravity of the car body. This arrangement makes it possible for the body to lean inward instead of outward when negotiating curves.
The suspension system is a combination of two groups comprised of torsion bar springs and lever arrangements with two power levelling devices to adjust the suspension to load variations. As clearly shown in FIG. 5, a pair of vertical rods 64 and 66 transmit the lifting forces from the axle to the torsion bar spring suspension system through levers 68 and 7G and shafts 72 and '74. These shafts are journaled in bearings on the intermediate frame 22, as best seen in FIG. 2. In addition two vertical rods 76 and 82 are pivotally connected at their lower ends to the casings 30, seeFIGS. 2, 3 and 6, as indicated at 77 for the rods 76. The upper ends of these rods are pivotally connected by levers 78 and 85 which are secured at their other ends to a torsion bar spring stabilizer 23 which is rotatably mounted in hearings on the intermediate frame 22, see FIG. 2. The levers 78 and 85 are secured, of course, to the ends of the torsion bar spring 80.
' As appears in FIG. 2, lever 85 is pivotally connected by rods 87 and 83 to levers 91 and 92. Correspondingly the lever 86 is connected by the rods 89 and 90 to the levers 93 and 94. The levers 91 and 93 are connected at their ends to the torsion bar springs 96 and 98 respectively. The other ends of these springs are secured to the intermediate frame 22 at their other ends in the fixtures 95 and 97 formed thereon. The levers 92 and 94 are secured to the torsion bar springs 100 and 104 respectively through the universal joint connections 102 'and 106. Their other ends are connected through the universal joints 108 and 112 to the levelling devices 110 and 114 respectively which are electric motor driven reduction gear systems suited to the purpose. This torsion bar spring suspension assembly is designed to meet the requirements of optimum suspension. Characteristics of such optimum suspension are represented in FIG. 10 which shows loads versus deflection for empty car conditions in the solid line curve and for maximum loading conditions in the dotted line curve. For partial loading conditions similar intermediate curves can be drawn.
Tangents to these curves at static level, that is in the middle of the travel clearance of inches is shown by the lines OBL and OBE. The travel clearance of 5 inches is selected as the total for this structure. For better comfort in a suspended vehicle the spring characteristics must be calculated. Experience has shown that the periodic frequency of the suspended mass must preferably remain between 1.2 and 1.5 seconds. This frequency condition must not be seriously altered by static load conditions. In addition, for practical reasons the whole range of deflections due to variable loading conditions as well as dynamic stresses must be limited to a few inches, as for example 5 inches, as suggested above.
In a monorail project most emphasis is given to a light construction, it is assumed that the ratio of gross weight to empty weight will be relatively high and consequently the problem of adequate suspension is even more diflicult. In the structure herein disclosed advantage is taken of both variable rate suspension springs and levelling devices. This could be accomplished by means of air bellows system, incorporating a variable rate spring effectybut is preferably accomplished as disclosed herein -3,oo1,4s4
4 by using a torsion power spring suspension designed to meet the requirements of optimum suspension.
Returning to FIG. 10, it has been assumed that the empty car weight and the maximum loading car weight will be in the ratio of 1 to 2.5. To fulfill such optimum spring characteristics the following conditions are required:
The levers 84 and 92 on the shafts 72 and interconnected through red 88 are not parallels; the rod 88 is longer than the distance between the levers 84 and 92. FIGURE 8 shows this arrangement somewhat schematically. In the trapezoid represented between the points C, D, E, F, or C, D, E, F", the ratio of effective lever arms on both levers 84 and 92, is altered to such an extent that a constant rate spring, such as spring 100, will be transformed on the shaft 72 in variable rate spring effect or non-linear torque increment spring. FIG. 11 shows an example of load versus deflection for a similar arrangement. Curves A1, B1, C1 show the resultant spring torque on shaft 72 of the torsion bar spring 160 which, used without the lever arrangement shown in FIG. 8, will be a linear spring torque such as shown by line P, FIG. 11. Upon twisting the end of the spring 100 by the levelling power mechanism 110, an infinity of curves such as A1, B1, C1 will be obtained. If the tangent lines to all curves BM), Bet) meet on the zero load level as shown in FIG. 11, one of the main conditions of optimum suspension is achieved, viz constant natural frequency regardless of load variations.
The role of the second set of torsion bar springs 96 and 98 is to complete the optimum curve by adding the missing additive spring characteristic represented by the shaded areas in FiG. '12. FIG. 9 shows how this is achieved in practice by making levers 91 shorter than lever 84, and setting the spring rod 96 in neutral on unloaded position. The variations of the effective lever arms of lever 91 are therefore very high, while the variations of effective lever arms of lever 84 are almost negligible. As those skilled in the art will understand, hydraulic shock absorbers can be provided in order to suitably damp out all resilient motions.
From the above it will be seen that adequate suspension is obtained by taking advantage of both variable rate suspension springs and levelling devices. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the description of the spring suspension mechanism and its characteristics as applied to one side of the truck, see FIG. 2, applies with respect to the opposite side, where this mechanism previously detailed is duplicated.
Turning now to FIG. 7, it will be seen that the bevel gear 116 meshes with a driving bevel gear 118 secured on the end of shaft 120, which projects into the associated casing 30. As clearly shown in FIG. 3, shaft 120 is connected by a universal joint 122 to one end of the drive shaft 124, the other end of which is connected to the output shaft of the drive motor 128 through a similar universal joint connection 126. This drive is duplicated on the other side of the truck, and so the corresponding parts have been given the same reference numerals with the exception of the drive motor 130 which is a duplicate of the motor 128.
As clearly shown in FIGS. 3 and 6 the lower ends of the casings 30 are provided with fore and aft extensions providing rigid supports 138 on the outer ends of which are pivotally mounted the bell crank levers 140 and 142. These bell crank levers in associated pairs are interconnected by a pivotally connected link 148. Journaled on the outer ends of the bell crank levers 140 and 142 are the pairs of wheels 144 and 146. The wheels 144, as will be explained later, are used for switching purposes, and the wheels 1 46 which are normally just out of contact with the rails 12 and 14, are provided as safety wheels in the event of a blow-out of one or the other of the pairs of the main wheels 38 and 40. The connecting rods 148 perform the required equalizing action between the two sets of wheels associated with each main wheel.
When the switching wheels 144 are in operation, rolling on conventional steel rails, they are able to support the truck and to guide it as well. Consequently the crossing and switching problems may easily be solved by conventional means, that is the usual railway track apparatus which will supplement the track members 12 and 14. By raising the level of the steel rails above that of the tire supporting rails the rubber tires can be unloaded to a predetermined degree. Because a portion of the load is thus borne by the steel rails and wheels 144, skidding friction of the rubber tires on track members 12 and 14 is reduced during the switching operation. At these points, of course, the elevated guiding rails 15 and their support 16 will be removed.
Further considering the advantages of the truck construction disclosed, it is pointed out that from the viewpoint of lateral and rolling stability, this truck achieves the most favorable conditions. Due to the elevation of the guiding rail with respect to the running rails 12 and 14, which is one outstanding feature of this monorail concept, the center of gravity of the body has been lowered with respect to the guiding plane to an extent not heretofore thought possible. The leaning momentum due to a lateral impulse will therefore be very small and may even be satisfactorily compensated for by the rolling stiffness of the main suspension springs. In addition antiroll springs are used to insure an additional amount of rolling stifiness where it is desirable.
The degree of rolling freedom of the body around the virtual secondary rolling axis Y will have a favorable effect on the comfort of the passengers since the rolling motion induced around this axis at a lateral impulse is in a direction opposite from the rolling motion around axis X.
Such secondary rolling motion if axis Y is properly located and if the rubber mounts 24 and 26 have proper stiffness will not only compensate for the primary rolling motion but result in the car body leaning towards the direction from which the lateral impulse was received. This is an advantage over banking the tracks which expedient can only be used within narrow limits. By the arrangement herein disclosed it is possible to reconcile high speed modern radius curves and low side forces by allowing the body to lean inward with respect to the truck.
From the above description it will be apparent that the many improved structural and functional features of this invention can be incorporated in other specific forms of mechanism of this type. It is preferred, therefore, that the scope of protection afforded hereby be determined by the appended claims rather than by the single embodiment herein selected for illustrative purposes.
What is claimed is:
1. A vehicle assembly comprising a body, a rectangular frame, yielding members attaching said frame at its corners to said body, a pair of main wheels, an axle for said wheels, means providing a universal pivoted connection between said axle and frame, means providing a linkage connection between said axle and body permitting relatively pivotal motion therebetween on a vertical axis, and spring suspension means for supporting said frame and body on said axle.
2. In the combination of claim 1, said axle being U- shaped with its closed end closely adjacent the plane of said frame, and main wheel bearings at the ends of said axle.
3. In the combination of claim 1, said axle being U- shaped with its closed end closely adjacent the plane of said frame, main wheel bearings at the ends of said axle, fore and aft supports at each side of said axle, and guide wheels rotatably mounted thereon in horizontal planes.
4. In the combination of claim 1, said main wheels having pneumatic tires, fore and aft supports secured to the ends of said axle, arms pivotally mounted at the ends of said supports, guide wheels journaled on the ends of said arms, said wheels being inactive except when said tires are deflated, and connections between said arms to equalize the movements of said guide wheels.
5. In the combination of claim 1, said first and second means lying in planes which converge in a line.
6. In the combination of claim 1, said first means comprising a triangle pivotally interconnecting said axle and frame at three points.
7. In the combination of claim 1, said first means comprising a triangle pivoted at one apex to said axle and at the opposite apices to said frame.
8. In the combination of claim 1, said second means comprising rods pivotally connected at one end respectively to the ends of said axle, bell crank levers each pivotally connected at one end to said rods respectively, a rigid connection between the other ends of said bell crank levers, and means for pivotally supporting said bell crank levers on the inside of said body.
9. In the combination of claim 1, said axle comprising a downy ardly facing U-shaped structure terminating at its ends in bearings for said main wheels, said universal pivoted connection being attached to said structure substantially in the plane of said frame.
10. In the combination of claim 1, said axle being U- shaped and opening downwardly, vertically spaced supports on the ends of said axles extending fore and aft and guide wheels rotatably mounted on the respective ends of said supports, those on the lower supports rotating in vertical planes and those on the upper supports in horizontal planes.
11. In the combination of claim 1, a torsion spring journaled in said frame, and linkage connections between respective ends of said axle and said spring.
12. In the combination of ciaim 1, a torsion bar spring journaled in said frame on an axis parallel to said axle, levers attached to the respective ends of said spring, and links interconnecting the ends of said levers respectively with the ends of said axle.
13. In the combination of claim 1, said last means comprising a pair of torsion springs journaled in said frame at right angles to the axis of said axle, and a linkage system interconnecting one end of each spring with the adjacent end of said axle.
14. In the combination of claim 1, said last means comprising a pair of torsion springs journaled in said frame at right angles to the axis of said axle, a linkage system interconnecting one end of each spring with the adjacent end of said axle, and power levelling devices pivotally interconnected with said torsion springs.
15. In the combination of claim 1, said last means comprising a pair of torsion springs journaled in said frame at right angles to the axis of said axle, a linkage system interconnecting one end of each spring with the adjacent end of said axle, and power levelling devices pivotally interconnected with said torsion springs, said torsion springs being normally unstressed.
16. In the combination of claim 1, said last means comprising a pair of torsion springs journaled in said frame at right angles to the axis of said axle, a linkage system interconnecting one end of each spring with the adjacent end of said axle, and power levelling devices pivotally interconnected with said torsion springs, said power leveling devices including torsion springs preloaded by said levelling devices.
17. In the combination of claim 1, said spring suspension including means for maintaining the periodic frequency of the suspended mass substantially constant and independent of the static loading variations of said vehicle.
18. In the combination of claim 1, said last means including shafts journaled in said frame on opposite sides of its longitudinal center, linkage systems interconnecting said shafts with the respective ends of said axle, torsion bar springs journaled in said frame, and a linkage system inter-connecting said shafts respectively with said springsJ 19. In the combination of claim 1, said last means including shafts journaled in said frame on opposite sides of its longitudinal center, linkage systems interconnecting said shaftswith the respective ends of said axle, torsion bar springs journaled in said frame, a linkage system interconnecting said shafts respectively with said springs, a second set of torsion springs, pre-loading power devices connected to the respective ends of said last springs, and linkage systems interconnecting the other ends of said last springs with said shafts respectively.
20. In the combination of claim 1, said last means including a pair of torsion spring bars journaled in said frame on opposite sides of the longitudinal axis of said frame, a second pair of torsion springs aligned with said first pair, power preloading devices connected to the ends of said second pair of springs, and means interconnecting both sets of springs with the respective ends of said axle to impart thereto a variable spring rate.
21. In the combination of claim 1, said last means including a pair of torsion spring bars journaled in said frame on opposite sides of the longitudinal axis of said frame, a second pair of torsion springs aligned with said first pair, power preloading devices connected to the ends of said second pair of springs, and means interconnecting both sets of springs with the respective ends of said axle to impart thereto a variable spring rate, said first set of springs being normally unloaded and said second set being loaded in proportion to the loading of said vehicle.
22. In the combination of claim 1, said main wheels having pneumatic tires, fore and aft supports secured to the ends of said axle, arms pivotally mounted at the ends of said supports, switching wheels journaled on the ends of said arms, and connections between said arms to equalize the movements of said switching wheels, said switching wheels being adapted to run on steel rails mounted above the level of the lowermost periphery of said main wheels to guide said assembly during switching operations.
23. In the-combination of claim 1, said main wheels having pneumatic tires, fore and aft supports secured'to the ends of said axle, arms pivotallymounted at the ends of said supports, pairs of wheels journaled at the ends of said arms, one of the wheels of each pair being adapted to support said vehicle body when said tires are deflated, the other wheel of each pair being adapted to support said body from auxiliary steel rails when switching, the supporting steel rails being mounted at a level to reduce rubber skidding friction of said tires during such switching.
24. In the combination of claim 23, load equalizing connections between the arm pairs on each of said supports.
25. In the combination of claim 1, said yielding members being resilient.
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